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Disaster law

Makoto Fujiu, Yuma Morisaki, Junichi Takayama, Kiyoko Yanagihara, Tatsuya Nishino, Masahiko Sagae, Kohei Hirako
The 2013 Partial Amendment of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law mandated that a roster of vulnerable persons during disasters be created, and further development of evacuation support is expected. In this study, the number of vulnerable people living in target analytical areas are identified in terms of neighborhood units by using the National Health Insurance Database to create a realistic and efficient evacuation support plan. Later, after considering the "vulnerability" of an area to earthquake disaster damage, a quantitative evaluation of the state of the disaster is performed using a principle component analysis that further divided the analytical target areas into neighborhood units to make a detailed determination of the number of disaster-vulnerable persons, the severity of the disaster, etc...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paul Quinn
Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media...
February 6, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
M Ohtani, T Oshima, S Mimasaka
BACKGROUND: Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Tory V Whitten, Maureen M Sullivan, Stefan Saravia, Jayne Griffith, Joni M Scheftel, Richard N Danila
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. This month's column features a submission from a state health department that describes their experience in investigating white powder incidents. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
November 2017: Health Security
Daniel P Scarnecchia, Nathaniel A Raymond, Faine Greenwood, Caitlin Howarth, Danielle N Poole
Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Currents
Su Yin, Guan Dongjie, Su Weici, Gao Weijun
The demand for global freshwater is growing, while global freshwater available for human use is limited within a certain time and space. Its security has significant impacts on both the socio-economic system and ecological system. Recently, studies have focused on the urban water security system (UWSS) in terms of either water quantity or water quality. In this study, water resources, water environment, and water disaster issues in the UWSS were combined to establish an evaluation index system with system dynamics (SD) and geographic information systems (GIS)...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Musa N Shongwe
Since 1999, the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Swaziland has been declared a national disaster, and today HIV and AIDS still pose a great threat to the survival and development of Swaziland and its people. The impact of the pandemic necessitated a multi-faceted response from the government. This paper critically evaluates the Swaziland legal response to HIV and AIDS. The objective is to assess whether and to what extent Swazi law addresses human rights issues related to HIV and AIDS. Through the application of a human rights based theory, the paper analyses the domestication of Swaziland's treaty commitments, and the constitutional and the statutory frameworks...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Rebecca Katz, Aurelia Attal-Juncqua, Julie E Fischer
The historical precedents that support state and local leadership in preparedness for and response to disasters are in many ways at odds with the technical demands of preparedness and response for incidents affecting public health. New and revised laws and regulations, executive orders, policies, strategies, and plans developed in response to biological threats since 2001 address the role of the federal government in the response to public health emergencies. However, financial mechanisms for disaster response-especially those that wait for gubernatorial request before federal assistance can be provided-do not align with the need to prevent the spread of infectious agents or efficiently reduce the impact on public health...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Stephen Cordner, Morris Tidball-Binz
Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
Rex P K Lam, Satchit Balsari, Kevin K C Hung, Kai-Hsun Hsiao, L P Leung, Jennifer Leaning
OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of all-hazards disaster preparedness and training needs of emergency department (ED) doctors and nurses in Hong Kong from their perspective, and identify factors associated with high perceived personal preparedness. DESIGN: This study was a cross-sectional territory-wide online survey conducted from 9 September to 26 October, 2015. Participants The participants were doctors from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine and nurses from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Nursing...
August 22, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Peng Tao, Chunliang Chen
China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system...
August 9, 2017: Disasters
Xin Lin, Alaa Moussawi, Gyorgy Korniss, Jonathan Z Bakdash, Boleslaw K Szymanski
Most risk analysis models systematically underestimate the probability and impact of catastrophic events (e.g., economic crises, natural disasters, and terrorism) by not taking into account interconnectivity and interdependence of risks. To address this weakness, we propose the Cascading Alternating Renewal Process (CARP) to forecast interconnected global risks. However, assessments of the model's prediction precision are limited by lack of sufficient ground truth data. Here, we establish prediction precision as a function of input data size by using alternative long ground truth data generated by simulations of the CARP model with known parameters...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ken Obenson, George Enow Orock
A properly operated death investigation system (DIS) serves multiple stakeholders. Law enforcement, public health departments and members of the public, benefit in various ways from the information that it provides. This information must be collected systematically and efficiently. The system must also be flexible enough to respond to pressures on its resources such as occurs during mass disasters. These obligations on a DIS require an investment of public money. However even in affluent Western countries the recent world economic crisis has led to a cut in spending on public services that affect both the healthcare system and services associated with death investigation...
August 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Myeong-Il Cha, Minhong Choa, Seunghwan Kim, Jinseong Cho, Dai Hai Choi, Minsu Cho, Won Kim, Chu Hyun Kim, Daehyun Kang, Yun Jung Heo, Jung Eon Kim, Han Deok Yoon, Soon Joo Wang
OBJECTIVE: A number of multiple-casualty incidents during 2014 and 2015 brought changes to Korea's disaster medical assistance system. We report these changes here. METHODS: Reports about these incidents, revisions to laws, and the government's revised medical disaster response guidelines were reviewed. RESULTS: The number of DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) staff members was reduced to 4 from 8, and the mobilization method changed...
June 29, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Amy Schnall, Royal Law, Amy Heinzerling, Kanta Sircar, Scott Damon, Fuyuen Yip, Josh Schier, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Amy Wolkin
OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. METHODS: We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures...
October 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Tadashi Okamoto
Of the free legal counselling conducted by lawyers following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the results of analysis of approx. 40,000 cases have been disclosed by the Japan Federation of Bar Associations. These analysis results have been used as evidence serving as the basis for system revision and new legislation following the disaster, and have been of value to public policy, to a certain extent. In order to identify methods for realizing policy targets as know-how for public policy through the integration and analysis of legal needs in disaster areas, in FY2012 and thereafter, lectures on the "Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law" were initiated by the Graduate School of Public Policy, Chuo University; Keio University Law School; and other institutions...
September 2016: Japan Medical Association Journal: JMAJ
Erika Löfqvist, Åsa Oskarsson, Helge Brändström, Alpo Vuorio, Michael Haney
Introduction Hospitals, including intensive care units (ICUs), can be subject to threat from fire and require urgent evacuation. Hypothesis The hypothesis was that the current preparedness for ICU evacuation for fire in the national public hospital system in a wealthy country was very good, using Sweden as model. METHODS: An already validated questionnaire for this purpose was adapted to national/local circumstances and translated into Swedish. It aimed to elicit information concerning fire response planning, personnel education, training, and exercises...
March 10, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Bryan Wexler, Avram Flamm
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this exercise was to conduct a full-scale functional exercise utilizing an active-shooter-based scenario to test and evaluate hospital response and coordination with local law enforcement. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group, including community partners, formulated objectives in accordance with the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program and defined a scenario. A date to conduct the exercise was chosen on the basis of the expected completion of a large section of the new emergency department but prior to its opening for patient care...
March 6, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Miguel Antonio Salazar, Ronald Law, Arturo Pesigan, Volker Winkler
INTRODUCTION: Typhoon Haiyan was the strongest storm recorded in Philippine history. Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED) was activated during the typhoon response. This study analyzes the health impact of different diseases during different timeframes post-disaster during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 using a syndromic surveillance database. METHODS: SPEED reports medical consultations based on 21 syndromes covering a range of conditions from three syndrome groups: communicable diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs)...
February 6, 2017: PLoS Currents
Chad M Stiles, Christopher Cook, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
Introduction Based upon military experience, law enforcement has developed guidelines for medical care during high-threat conditions. The purpose of the current study was to provide a descriptive analysis of reported outcomes of law enforcement medical interventions. METHODS: This was a descriptive analysis of a convenience sample of cases submitted to the Wisconsin Tactical Medicine Initiative (Wisconsin USA), after the provision of successful patient care, between January 2010 and December 2015...
June 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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