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Critical stress management

Eugene Hong, Anteneh Mesfin Yeneneh, Tushar Kanti Sen, Ha Ming Ang, Ahmet Kayaalp
Large quantities of sludge is generated from different sections of a wastewater treatment plant operation. Sludge can be a solid, semisolid or liquid muddy residual material. Understanding the flow behaviour and rheological properties of sewage sludge at different sections of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is important for the design of pumping system, mixing, hydrodynamics and mass transfer rates of various sludge treatment units, optimization of conditioning dose and for sustainable sludge management...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Chelsea McQueen
Four out of five Black women in the US, over the age of 20 years meet criteria for obesity. A critical determinant of pervasive health disparities, such as obesity, may be the Black woman's sociocultural experience. One part of this experience is the stress that results from daily encounters with microaggressions. Research has been limited on the association of race-related stress with maladaptive health behaviors among Black women and at what age this association is visible. The aim of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived race-related stress was associated with an obesity risk behavior, emotional eating...
June 19, 2018: Women & Health
Tamas Csipo, Gabor A Fulop, Agnes Lipecz, Stefano Tarantini, Tamas Kiss, Priya Balasubramanian, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence is increasing in all age groups, with the biggest impact observed in middle-aged and older adults. A critical mechanism by which obesity promotes vascular pathologies in these patients involves impairment of endothelial function. While endothelial dysfunction in large vessels promotes atherogenesis, obesity-induced microvascular endothelial dysfunction impairs organ perfusion and thereby is causally related to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, intermittent claudication, exercise intolerance, and exacerbates cognitive decline in aging...
June 18, 2018: GeroScience
Maximilian Scharonow, Christian Weilbach
BACKGROUND: In the prehospital situation, the diagnostic armamentarium available to the rescue physician is limited. Emergency ultrasound has proven to be a useful diagnostic tool, providing crucial information for the management of critically ill and injured patients. The proportion of performed ultrasound scans in all patients attended to by the rescue service team, the quality of the findings and the ultrasound-related changes in management approach and patient transport were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Shuai Ma, Roger G Evans, Naoya Iguchi, Marianne Tare, Helena C Parkington, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May, Yugeesh R Lankadeva
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and is significantly associated with mortality. Sepsis accounts for more than 50% of the cases of AKI, with a mortality rate of up to 40%. The pathogenesis of septic AKI is complex, but there is emerging evidence that, at least in the first 48 hours, the defects may be functional rather than structural in nature. For example, septic AKI is associated with an absence of histopathological changes, but with microvascular abnormalities and tubular stress...
June 16, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Baruch Levi, Amos Zehavi, David Chinitz
Systematic measurement of healthcare services enables evaluation of health professionals' quality of work. Whereas policy makers find measurement a useful mechanism for quality improvement, a public choice perspective implies that physicians would resent such an initiative, which undermines their professional autonomy. In this article, we compare two healthcare systems of economically developed countries - Israel and the UK. Both systems share common features such as universal coverage, strong state intervention, and enthusiasm for New Public Management...
June 8, 2018: Health Policy
Young-Su Kim, Soo-Kyoung Lee
This study established a network related to nurses' job stress by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. NetMiner 4.0 visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in nurses' job stress measures used in studies conducted over 55 years (1960-2015). Text Rank Analyzer examined a collection of 9,218 keywords from 2,662 studies. The analysis revealed four groups of newly emerging keywords in the research...
June 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Ning Jin, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Liang He, Qingfu Ren, Shiqing Li, Qiang Yu
The Loess Plateau, the largest arid and semi-arid zone in China, has been confronted with more severe water resource pressure and a growing demand for food production under global changes. For developing sustainable agriculture in this region, it is critical to learn spatiotemporal variations in water use efficiency (WUE) of main crops (e.g. winter wheat in this region) under various water management practices. In this study, we classified irrigated and rainfed wheat areas based on MODIS data, and calculated the winter wheat yield by using an improved light use efficiency model...
June 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sharon R Lewis, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Critically ill people are at increased risk of malnutrition. Acute and chronic illness, trauma and inflammation induce stress-related catabolism, and drug-induced adverse effects may reduce appetite or increase nausea and vomiting. In addition, patient management in the intensive care unit (ICU) may also interrupt feeding routines. Methods to deliver nutritional requirements include provision of enteral nutrition (EN), or parenteral nutrition (PN), or a combination of both (EN and PN)...
June 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amr Morsi, Donald DeFranco, Selma Witchel
Glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol in humans, influence multiple essential maturational events during gestation. In the human fetus, fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, fetal adrenal steroidogenesis, placental 11β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity, maternal cortisol concentrations, and environmental factors impact fetal cortisol exposure. The beneficial effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs), such as dexamethasone and betamethasone, on fetal lung maturation have significantly shifted the management of preterm labor and threatened preterm birth...
June 6, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Shuhong Dai, Yu Qi, Jie Fu, Na Li, Xu Zhang, Juan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Haijun Xu, Hai Zhou, Zhengliang Ma
Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) could have an analgesic effect on pain transmission through the modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, KCC2-induced shift in neuronal Cl- homeostasis is crucial for postsynaptic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors. Accumulating evidence shows that nerve injury, peripheral inflammation and stress activate the spinal BDNF/TrkB signal, which results in the downregulation of KCC2 transport and expression, eventually leads to GAGAergic disinhibition and hyperalgesia...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Ingrid Toews, Aneesh Thomas George, John V Peter, Richard Kirubakaran, Luís Eduardo S Fontes, Jabez Paul Barnabas Ezekiel, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to stress ulcers contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in people admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Stress ulceration refers to GI mucosal injury related to the stress of being critically ill. ICU patients with major bleeding as a result of stress ulceration might have mortality rates approaching 48.5% to 65%. However, the incidence of stress-induced GI bleeding in ICUs has decreased, and not all critically ill patients need prophylaxis...
June 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Larissa Pernomian, Jôsimar Dornelas Moreira, Mayara Santos Gomes
Acute or chronic exposure to diabetes-related stressors triggers a specific psychological and behavior stress syndrome called diabetes distress, which underlies depressive symptoms in most diabetic patients. Distressed and/or depressive diabetic adults exhibit higher rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, which have been correlated to macrovascular complications evoked by diabetic behavior stress. Recent experimental findings clearly point out that oxidative stress accounts for the vascular dysfunction initiated by the exposure to life stressors in diabetic conditions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Fahad Dakheel Alosaimi, Hossam Saleh Alawad, Ayedh Khalaf Alamri, Abdullah Ibrahim Saeed, Khalid Ayidh Aljuaydi, Alwaleed Sami Alotaibi, Khalid Munawir Alotaibi, Eiad Abdelmohsen Alfaris
BACKGROUND: Exposure to stressful working conditions without adequate stress-coping strategies may lead to stress and even psychiatric morbidity. There are a dearth of studies on stress-coping strategies among consultant physicians in the Arabian Gulf. OBJECTIVES: Determine stress-coping strategies among consultants in Saudi Arabia and the relationship of strategies to level of stress. DESIGN: Analytical cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 among physician consultants registered at the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties...
May 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Jordi Alonso, Philippe Mortier, Randy P Auerbach, Ronny Bruffaerts, Gemma Vilagut, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, David D Ebert, Edel Ennis, Raul A Gutiérrez-García, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Christine Lochner, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: College entrance is a stressful period with a high prevalence of mental disorders. AIMS: To assess the role impairment associated with 12-month mental disorders among incoming first-year college students within a large cross-national sample. METHODS: Web-based self-report surveys assessing the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders and health-related role impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale) were obtained and analyzed from 13,984 incoming first-year college students (Response = 45...
May 30, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Rachael Hagen, Erica Ghareeb, Omid Jalali, Zachary Zinn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infantile hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumor of infancy. Treatment of infantile hemangiomas was revolutionized when propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, was reported to be effective therapy. In this review, we highlight the lessons learned using propranolol to treat infantile hemangiomas. We also describe the ongoing effort to understand the mechanism of action of propranolol. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas is not fully understood, maternal hypoxic stress and embolization of placental tissue are suggested to be critical components in their development...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jeannette Weber, Ken Catchpole, Armin J Becker, Boris Schlenker, Matthias Weigl
BACKGROUND: Robotic systems introduced new surgical and technical demands. Surgical flow disruptions are critical for maintaining operating room (OR) teamwork and patient safety. Specifically for robotic surgery, effects of intra-operative disruptive events for OR professionals' workload, stress, and performance have not been investigated yet. This study aimed to identify flow disruptions and assess their association with mental workload and performance during robotic-assisted surgery...
May 29, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Yehui Gang, Eun-Ji Won, Kongtae Ra, Jin Young Choi, Kyun-Woo Lee, Kyoungrean Kim
Treatment of dredged materials is a critical issue, since management and disposal of these products requires considerable investment of monetary resources, time, and space. The high concentration of pollutants in dredged materials, along with high water content and many fine particles make recycling these materials particularly difficult. In order to solve this problem, solidification/stabilization has been considered as a potentially viable solution for recycling dredged marine sediments. However, there are currently no guidelines that address potential biological and environmental impacts...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
S Zullino, T Simoncini
SSRIs are the first choice for the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Despite the known side effects, the benefits/risks balance suggests their use. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are the main vascular effects of these drugs, with mechanisms that involves endothelial dysfunction in feto-placental system. These data are supported by animal models, even if preliminary findings are not yet adequately supported by molecular and clinical data...
May 24, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Belén Gallego, José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo
Insects can use thermoregulation to keep their body temperatures within a certain range in response to thermal stress situations. The mechanisms to regulate internal temperature depend on whether species are endothermic or ectothermic species, i.e., if the heat source is internal and/or external. In this study, the thermal stress response due to excess heat was examined in individuals belonging to different species of the Geotrupinae subfamily by using a standardized protocol based on infrared thermography...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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