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Pediatric endoscopy

Mery Munoz-Persy, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration that commonly causes dysphagia and food impaction in children and adolescents. Assessing the efficacy of dietary restrictions or drug therapies to achieve clinical and histologic resolution of EoE through randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has resulted in new evidence-based guidelines. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Mary Allyson Lowry, Michael F Vaezi, Hernan Correa, Tina Higginbotham, James C Slaughter, Sari Acra
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disorder in children that requires continued assessment of disease activity, involving repeated sedation, endoscopy, and biopsy analysis. We investigated whether mucosal impedance measurements can be used to monitor disease activity in pediatric patients with EoE. METHODS: We measured mucosal impedance at 3 locations in the esophagus in pediatric patients (1-18 years old; 32 with active EoE, 10 with inactive EoE, 32 with non-erosive reflux disease [NERD]) and 53 children with symptoms but normal findings from histologic analyses (controls) undergoing routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Vanderbilt Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Artur Nemeth, Daniel Agardh, Gabriele Wurm Johansson, Henrik Thorlacius, Ervin Toth
Background: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive method enabling excellent visualization of the small bowel (SB) mucosa. The aim of this study was to examine the impact and safety of VCE performed in children and adolescents with suspected or established Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: A total of 180 VCE examinations in 169 consecutive patients conducted in 2003-14 in a single center were retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 13 years (range 3-17 years) and indications for VCE were suspected (125 cases, 69%) and established (55 cases, 31%) CD...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Way-Seah Lee, Chun-Wei Tee, Zhong-Lin Koay, Tat-Seng Wong, Fatimah Zahraq, Hee-Wei Foo, Sik-Yong Ong, Shin-Yee Wong, Ruey-Terng Ng
AIM: To study implications of measuring quality indicators on training and trainees' performance in pediatric colonoscopy in a low-volume training center. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the performance of pediatric colonoscopies in a training center in Malaysia over 5 years (January 2010-December 2015), benchmarked against five quality indicators: appropriateness of indications, bowel preparations, cecum and ileal examination rates, and complications. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guideline for pediatric endoscopy and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition training guidelines were used as benchmarks...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
L O Gonçalves, M M Lopes, E R Rezende, G Rs Segundo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in childhood. The study aim is to determine the incidence of EoE in pediatric patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), with analysis of epidemiological data regarding sex, age, symptomatology, the frequency of atopy and endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: A retrospective, observational and analytical study performed with an evaluation of medical records of patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a tertiary hospital from January 2004 to January 2014...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Nissreen Mohammad, Vishal Avinashi, Edmond Chan, Bruce A Vallance, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Jonathan W Bush
OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is considered a TH2-mediated food allergy disease that leads to submucosal esophageal fibrosis and strictures. Recent studies focused on adults with EoE identified a strong association with elevated esophageal IgG4 immunostaining. Our study aimed to determine the association of IgG4 with EoE in pediatric patients. METHODS: Using our local EoE research registry, we identified 41 adequate biopsies from EoE patients. We used 10 age- and sex-matched patients with no diagnostic abnormalities at endoscopy or on biopsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Iraj GoliKhatir, Farzad Bozorgi, Seyyedeh Masoume Pashaei
During medical devices evolution many modalities and techniques like Computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy were applied to provide enough evidences for final detection of diseases. As well as current procedures, sonography is a method that individuals are satisfied with it because of various conditions like non-invasive and cheap. Ultrasound is one of the procedures which can be used in diagnosis of fractures and has its own unique feature including different views at the same time with no radiation effects...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Michael Hunter Lanier, Anup S Shetty, Amber Salter, Geetika Khanna
BACKGROUND: Gadolinium deposition in normal tissues is being increasingly recognized. Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) undergo frequent imaging with contrast-enhanced MR enterography (MRE). PURPOSE: To determine the impact of intravenous (IV) gadolinium in assessment of pediatric IBD by MRE. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective, case series. POPULATION: Radiology information system was searched to identify all children who underwent MRE and endoscopy within 30 days in 2016...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Steven W Coutras, Alexander Limjuco, Kristin E Davis, Michele M Carr
OBJECTIVES: Describe the patterns of obstruction in persistent pediatric OSA and their relationship with patient weight. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: All pediatric DISE procedures performed at a tertiary care hospital between October 2010 and October 2015 were reviewed. Patients had polysomnography after adenotonsillectomy that confirmed persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Variables included age, gender, co-morbidities, and AHI...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
S M Bolton, A F Kagalwalla, J B Wechsler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to present and summarize studies on endoscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), at diagnosis and in response to treatment, utilizing rigorous peer-reviewed literature in children wherever possible and to introduce a recently proposed standardized endoscopic evaluation system. RECENT FINDINGS: Gold standard of diagnosis and assessment of response to therapy in EoE requires multiple endoscopies with biopsies for histology, which allows for observation of the esophageal mucosa...
February 28, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Alexandria L Irace, Catherine Shank, Eelam A Adil, Michael J Cunningham, Kosuke Kawai, Georgios Sideridis, Reza Rahbar
Importance: Monitoring current trends in pediatric otolaryngology will help adjust our training and practice paradigms in a way that ensures the long-term viability of the specialty. Objectives: To gauge the current scope of pediatric otolaryngology (ORL) practice within and outside of the United States and to identify changes in caseload over the past decade. Design, Setting, and Participants: An online survey was sent to pediatric ORL chairs and/or fellowship directors at 42 institutions in the United States and abroad...
February 22, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Oana Belei, Laura Olariu, Maria Puiu, Cristian Jinca, Cristina Dehelean, Tamara Marcovici, Otilia Marginean
INTRODUCTION: the majority of studies of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in children are retrospective, focusing on therapeutic endoscopy. Previous studies performed in adult patients have demonstrated that both scheduled second look endoscopy and high dose continuous omeprazole infusion are effective in the prevention of peptic ulcer rebleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two strategies using esomeprazole for the prevention of rebleeding following primary endoscopic hemostasis in children with peptic ulcers...
February 21, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Cary G Sauer, Matthew S Loop, Suresh Venkateswaran, Vin Tangpricha, Thomas R Ziegler, Ashish Dhawan, Courtney McCall, Erin Bonkowski, David R Mack, Brendan Boyle, Anne M Griffiths, Neal S Leleiko, David J Keljo, James Markowitz, Susan S Baker, Joel Rosh, Robert N Baldassano, Sonia Davis, Shiven Patel, Jessie Wang, Alison Marquis, Krista L Spada, Subra Kugathasan, Thomas Walters, Jeffrey S Hyams, Lee A Denson
Background: Vitamin D regulates intestinal epithelial and immune functions, and vitamin D receptor deficiency increases the severity of murine colitis. Bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is available to target tissues and may be a driver of immune function. The aim is to evaluate the relationship of bioavailable 25(OH)D to the clinical expression of treatment naive pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: The PROTECT (Predicting Response to Standardized Pediatric Colitis Therapy) study enrolled children ≤17 years newly diagnosed with UC...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jake J Lee, Matthew D Ford, Allison B Tobey, Noel Jabbour
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether awake endoscopy can diagnose base-of-tongue obstruction as reliably as sleep endoscopy in infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). DESIGN: The study was retrospective with the clinicians blinded to patient identity. Endoscopy findings were assessed and measured by the performing pediatric otolaryngologist. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: All infants with PRS managed between January 2005 and July 2015 were included...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Li-Ping Yao, Li Zhang, Ju Mei, Fang-Bao Ding, Hui-Ming Li, Ming Ding, Xin Yang, Xiao-Ming Li, Kun Sun
The present study aimed to investigate the capabilities of the cardiovascular virtual endoscopy (VE) system in diagnosing tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and performing measurements. A total of 37 patients underwent two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations. The obtained MDCT images were applied to a cardiovascular VE system. Diagnostic time by VE was first studied and compared with MDCT. Subsequently, with surgical findings as the ground truth, the capabilities of VE, 2-DE and MDCT in diagnosing TOF and its complications were investigated...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Patrick Fox, Michael C Ost
In recent years, the incidence of nephrolithiasis in the pediatric population appears to be increasing.1 This has placed a new emphasis on surgical management of stones in children. In the past, extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) was the preferred management technique for stones in children.2 More recently, though, advances in endoscopy have allowed ureteroscopy to be adapted to the pediatric population and this approach has become more frequently utilized not just for lower ureteral calculi but also for proximal ureteral and renal stones...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Wen-Jue Soong, Pei-Chen Tsao, Yu-Sheng Lee, Chia-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the placement, surveillance management and long-term outcomes of the tracheobronchial (TB) balloon expandable metallic stent (BEMS) managed by therapeutic flexible endoscopy (TFE). METHODS: This is a retrospective review and analysis of all computerized medical records and related flexible endoscopy videos of pediatric patients who received TB BEMS during 20 years period, from January 1997 to December 2016. TFE techniques with forceps debridement, balloon dilatation and laser ablation were used to implant stents, perform regular surveillance, maintain their functions, and expand the diameters of BEMS...
2018: PloS One
Anat Yerushalmy-Feler, Riva Tauman, Ari Derowe, Eran Averbuch, Amir Ben-Tov, Yael Weintraub, Dror Weiner, Achiya Amir, Hadar Moran-Lev, Shlomi Cohen
BACKGROUND: Enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the major etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Lymphatic hyperplasia is common to both OSA and celiac disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on OSA symptoms in children with celiac disease. METHODS: Children with celiac disease aged 2-18 years were prospectively recruited before the initiation of a gluten-free diet. Children with negative celiac serology who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopies for other indications served as controls...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Eyal Zifman, Hagar Banai, Raanan Shamir, Tamar Ringel-Kulka, Noam Zevit
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) guidelines call for similar practices in adults and children with EoE. We compared the diagnostic and management practices of gastroenterologists treating adult and pediatric patients suspected of having, or diagnosed with, EoE. METHODS: A 19 question multiple choice questionnaire was given to gastroenterologists treating either adults or children. Questions explored four areas of interest: Physician demographics, diagnosis and tissue sampling practices, management, and the need for societal publications on EoE...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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