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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432903/the-decidua-of-preeclamptic-like-bph-5-mice-exhibits-an-exaggerated-inflammatory-response-during-early-pregnancy
#1
C Y Heyward, J L Sones, H E Lob, L C Yuen, K E Abbott, W Huang, Z R Begun, S D Butler, A August, C A Leifer, R L Davisson
Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432657/in-vitro-assay-for-measuring-real-time-topotecan-release-from-liposomes-release-kinetics-and-cellular-internalization
#2
Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Lina Chernov, Malathi Anantha, Wieslawa H Dragowska, Marcel B Bally
Topotecan is a drug that is under investigation for the treatment of neuroblastoma and has been encapsulated into liposomes to improve its therapeutic efficacy. However, liposomal formulations still need to be optimized for drug retention and new techniques to measure drug release are required to better understand this process. Here, a novel in vitro method based on fluorescence de-quenching and an automated microscopy imaging platform were developed for monitoring, in real time, the release of topotecan from a liposomal formulation...
April 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432272/establishment-of-an-in-vitro-culture-model-of-theca-cells-from-hierarchical-follicles-in-ducks
#3
Xiang Gan, da Chen, Yan Deng, Junsong Yuan, Bo Kang, Jiamin Qiu, Wenqiang Sun, Chunchun Han, Jiwei Hu, Liang Li, Jiwen Wang
Theca cells, including theca interna cells and theca externa cells, are vital components of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for the in vitro culture of theca cells from duck ovarian hierarchical (F4-F2) follicles. We improved the method for cell separation by using trypsin to further remove granular cells, and we increased the concentration of fetal bovine serum used in in vitro culture to improve cytoactivity. Cell antibody immunofluorescence showed that all inoculated cells could be stained by the CYP17A1/19A1 antibody but not by the FSHR antibody, which could stain granulosa cells...
April 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431793/alcohol-effects-on-the-epigenome-in-the-germline-role-in-the-inheritance-of-alcohol-related-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Lucy G Chastain, Dipak K Sarkar
Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown...
March 6, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#5
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430034/um-chor1-establishment-and-characterization-of-the-first-validated-clival-chordoma-cell-line
#6
John Henry Owen, Christine M Komarck, Anthony C Wang, Waleed M Abuzeid, Richard F Keep, Erin L McKean, Stephen Sullivan, Xing Fan, Mark E P Prince
OBJECTIVE Chordomas are rare malignant tumors thought to arise from remnants of the notochord. They can be located anywhere along the axial skeleton but are most commonly found in the clival and sacrococcygeal regions, where the notochord regresses during fetal development. Chordomas are resistant to many current therapies, leaving surgery as the primary method of treatment. Cancer cell lines have been useful for developing new cancer treatments in a laboratory setting that can then be transferred to the clinic, but there are only 4 validated chordoma cell lines available...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428831/cord-blood-hematopoietic-cells-from-preterm-infants-display-altered-dna-methylation-patterns
#7
Olivia M de Goede, Pascal M Lavoie, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are highly vulnerable to infection. This is partly attributable to the preterm immune system, which differs from that of the term neonate in cell composition and function. Multiple studies have found differential DNA methylation (DNAm) between preterm and term infants' cord blood; however, interpretation of these studies is limited by the confounding factor of blood cell composition. This study evaluates the epigenetic impact of preterm birth in isolated hematopoietic cell populations, reducing the concern of cell composition differences...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428049/stem-cells-for-retinal-disease-a-perspective-on-the-promise-and-perils
#8
Rajesh C Rao, Vaidehi S Dedania, Mark W Johnson
PURPOSE: To summarize key concepts, and early safety and efficacy signals from clinical trials for stem/progenitor cell-based interventions for retinal disease. DESIGN: Interpretive essay. METHODS: Review and synthesis of selected recent reports of stem/progenitor cell-based approaches for retinal disease, with interpretation and perspective. RESULTS: Stem/progenitor cell-based interventions represent a novel class of potential therapies for retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, inherited retinal dystrophies, and others...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427592/pathologic-active-mtor-mutation-in-brain-malformation-with-intractable-epilepsy-leads-to-cell-autonomous-migration-delay
#9
Sae Hanai, Sayuri Sukigara, Hongmei Dai, Tomoo Owa, Shin-Ichi Horike, Taisuke Otsuki, Takashi Saito, Eiji Nakagawa, Naoki Ikegaya, Takanobu Kaido, Noriko Sato, Akio Takahashi, Kenji Sugai, Yuko Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Mikio Hoshino, Yu-Ichi Goto, Schuichi Koizumi, Masayuki Itoh
The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKTs-mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling pathway leads to cell overgrowth and abnormal migration and results in various types of cortical malformations, such as hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia, and tuberous sclerosis complex. However, the pathomechanism underlying abnormal cell migration remains unknown. With the use of fetal mouse brain, we performed causative gene analysis of the resected brain tissues from a patient with HME and investigated the pathogenesis...
May 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427432/anti-human-platelet-antigen-hpa-1a-antibodies-may-affect-trophoblast-functions-crucial-for-placental-development-a-laboratory-study-using-an-in-vitro-model
#10
Mariana Eksteen, Gøril Heide, Heidi Tiller, Yan Zhou, Nora Hersoug Nedberg, Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Anne Husebekk, Bjørn R Skogen, Tor B Stuge, Mette Kjær
BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibodies against paternal human platelet antigens (HPAs) on fetal platelets. Antibodies against HPA-1a are accountable for the majority of FNAIT cases. We have previously shown that high levels of maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies are associated with clinically significant reduced birth weight in newborn boys. Chronic inflammatory placental lesions are associated with increased risk of reduced birth weight and have previously been reported in connection with FNAIT pregnancies...
April 21, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426964/ipsc-derived-human-microglia-like-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases
#11
Edsel M Abud, Ricardo N Ramirez, Eric S Martinez, Luke M Healy, Cecilia H H Nguyen, Sean A Newman, Andriy V Yeromin, Vanessa M Scarfone, Samuel E Marsh, Cristhian Fimbres, Chad A Caraway, Gianna M Fote, Abdullah M Madany, Anshu Agrawal, Rakez Kayed, Karen H Gylys, Michael D Cahalan, Brian J Cummings, Jack P Antel, Ali Mortazavi, Monica J Carson, Wayne W Poon, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Microglia play critical roles in brain development, homeostasis, and neurological disorders. Here, we report that human microglial-like cells (iMGLs) can be differentiated from iPSCs to study their function in neurological diseases, like Alzheimer's disease (AD). We find that iMGLs develop in vitro similarly to microglia in vivo, and whole-transcriptome analysis demonstrates that they are highly similar to cultured adult and fetal human microglia. Functional assessment of iMGLs reveals that they secrete cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, migrate and undergo calcium transients, and robustly phagocytose CNS substrates...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426904/in-vitro-study-of-the-proliferation-and-growth-of-human-fetal-osteoblasts-on-mg-and-si-co-substituted-tricalcium-phosphate-ceramics
#12
Juan Parra, Ismael H García Páez, Antonio H De Aza, Carmen Baudin, M Rocío Martín, Pilar Pena
The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of the solid state sintering, a conventional ceramic processing method, to obtain Mg and Si co-substituted tricalcium phosphate bioceramics and composites containing diopside. A series of new Ca3 (PO4 )2 based ceramics has been prepared from attrition milled mixtures of synthetic Ca3 (PO4 )2 and CaMg(SiO3 )2 powders, isostatically pressed and sintered at 1250-1300°C. Materials containing 0, 1 and 5 wt.% of CaMg(SiO3 )2 were constituted by β + α - Ca3 (PO4 )2 solid solutions while the material containing 60 wt...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426137/hydroxyurea-hydroxycarbamide-for-sickle-cell-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425492/fluorescence-and-bioluminescence-imaging-of-angiogenesis-in-flk1-nano-lantern-transgenic-mice
#14
Jun Matsushita, Shigenori Inagaki, Tomomi Nishie, Tomoki Sakasai, Junko Tanaka, Chisato Watanabe, Ken-Ichi Mizutani, Yoshihiro Miwa, Ken Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Takara, Hisamichi Naito, Hiroyasu Kidoya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takeharu Nagai, Satoru Takahashi, Masatsugu Ema
Angiogenesis is important for normal development as well as for tumour growth. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis are not fully understood, partly because of the lack of a good animal model for imaging. Here, we report the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse that expresses a bioluminescent reporter protein, Nano-lantern, under the control of Fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1). Flk1-Nano-lantern BAC Tg mice recapitulated endogenous Flk1 expression in endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells during development and tumour growth...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425436/corrigendum-mhc-dependent-inhibition-of-uterine-nk-cells-impedes-fetal-growth-and-decidual-vascular-remodeling
#15
Jens Kieckbusch, Louise M Gaynor, Ashley Moffett, Francesco Colucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424684/modulation-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-c-by-human-cytomegalovirus-stimulates-kir2ds1-recognition-by-natural-killer-cells
#16
Kattria van der Ploeg, Chiwen Chang, Martin A Ivarsson, Ashley Moffett, Mark R Wills, John Trowsdale
The interaction of inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules has been characterized in detail. By contrast, activating members of the KIR family, although closely related to inhibitory KIRs, appear to interact weakly, if at all, with HLA class I. KIR2DS1 is the best studied activating KIR and it interacts with C2 group HLA-C (C2-HLA-C) in some assays, but not as strongly as KIR2DL1. We used a mouse 2B4 cell reporter system, which carries NFAT-green fluorescent protein with KIR2DS1 and a modified DAP12 adaptor protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424591/bcl11b-a-critical-neurodevelopmental-transcription-factor-roles-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Matthew J Lennon, Simon P Jones, Michael D Lovelace, Gilles J Guillemin, Bruce J Brew
B cell leukemia 11b (Bcl11b) is a zinc finger protein transcription factor with a multiplicity of functions. It works as both a genetic suppressor and activator, acting directly, attaching to promoter regions, as well as indirectly, attaching to promoter-bound transcription factors. Bcl11b is a fundamental transcription factor in fetal development, with important roles for the differentiation and development of various neuronal subtypes in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been used as a specific marker of layer V subcerebral projection neurons as well as striatal interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424008/olfactory-development-part-2-neuroanatomic-maturation-and-dysgeneses
#18
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to the primitive telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Olfactory bulb neurons do not differentiate in situ but arrive via the rostral migratory stream. Synaptic glomeruli and concentric laminar architecture are unlike other cortices. Fetal olfactory maturation of neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and myelination remains incomplete at term and have a protracted course of postnatal development. The olfactory ventricular recess involutes postnatally but dilates in congenital hydrocephalus...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423971/intrauterine-infection-immune-system-and-premature-birth
#19
Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo, Eduardo Arthur Rodovalho Alves, Renata Alves de Andrade Moreira, Viviane Oliveira Severino, Laura Penna Rocha, Maria Luíza Gonçalves Dos Reis Monteiro, Marlene Antônia Dos Reis, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Juliana Reis Machado, Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa
Preterm birth accounts for nearly one million deaths among children under five years of age, and although its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated, ascending intrauterine infection and fetal inflammatory response seem to be the main triggers. The intense inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β, TNF-α, PAF, IFN-γ and IL-6, PGE2 and MMP-1 and MMP-9 causes fetal membrane damage and rupture, increased uterine contractions and biochemical and structural changes in the cervix. Furthermore, preterm neonates have deficient innate and adaptive immune responses characterized by reduced levels of IgG, opsonization and phagocytosis, as well as increased activation of Th1 cells in relation to Th2 cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423190/the-clinical-utility-of-genome-wide-non-invasive-prenatal-screening
#20
Francesco Fiorentino, Sara Bono, Francesca Pizzuti, Sara Duca, Arianna Polverari, Monica Faieta, Marina Baldi, Laura Diano, Francesca Spinella
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we expanded conventional cell-free fetal DNA(cfDNA)-based non-invasive prenatal testing(NIPT) to cover the entire genome. We aimed to compare the performance of the two test in a large general population of pregnant women, in order to assess the clinical utility of the genome-wide screening. METHOD: Genome-wide cfDNA analysis was offered to 12.114 pregnant women undergoing NIPT for common fetal aneuploidy. Sequencing data were analyzed using an algorithm optimized to identify aneuploidies and subchromosomal aberrations...
April 17, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
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