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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134263/diminished-susceptibility-of-african-americans-to-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#1
Jerome M Reich, Jong S Kim
The incidence of three granulomatous response diseases-sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease-differ markedly in African-Americans versus Caucasians. In reviewing a large compendium of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis, we noted that complicating infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria was relatively infrequent among individuals of African-American descent, confirming previous observations of their inherent resistance. Disease-specific variance among African-Americans in the efficacy of their granulomatous response suggests a nexus, a mediating, immunological mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125705/m-tuberculosis-mce3c-promotes-mycobacteria-entry-into-macrophages-through-activation-of-%C3%AE-2-integrin-mediated-signaling-pathway
#2
Yong Zhang, Jie Li, Bingxi Li, Jing Wang, Cui Hua Liu
Establishment of infection by facultative intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires adherence to and internalization by macrophages. However, the effector molecules exploited by Mtb for entry into macrophages remain to be fully understood. The mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins play an essential role in facilitating the internalization of mycobacteria into mammalian cells. Here we characterized Mtb Mce3C as a new mycobacterial surface protein that could promote mycobacterial adhesion to and invasion of macrophages in an RGD motif-dependent manner...
November 10, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124568/pkng-supports-mycobacterial-adaptation-in-acidic-environment
#3
Ruchi Paroha, Rashmi Chourasia, Rajesh Mondal, Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has the remarkable ability to adapt to the hostile environment inside host cells. Eleven eukaryotic like serine-threonine protein kinases (STPKs) are present in Mtb. Protein kinase G (PknG) has been shown to promote mycobacterial survival inside host cells. A homolog of PknG is also present in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS), a fast grower, non-pathogenic mycobacterium. In the present study, we have analyzed the role of PknG in mycobacteria during exposure to acidic environment...
November 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123253/the-gene-fmt-encoding-trna-fmet-formyl-transferase-is-essential-for-normal-growth-of-m-bovis-but-not-for-viability
#4
Miriam Vanunu, Ziv Lang, Daniel Barkan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health threat, necessitating novel drug targets. Protein synthesis in bacteria uses initiator tRNAi charged with formylated methionine residue. Deletion of the formylase gene, tRNA(fMet)-formyl transferase (fmt), causes severe growth-retardation in E. coli and in S. pneumoniae, but not in P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. fmt was predicted to be essential in M. tuberculosis by transposon library analysis, but this was never formally tested in any mycobacteria. We performed a targeted deletion of fmt in M...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119867/targeted-macrophages-delivery-of-rifampicin-loaded-lipid-nanoparticles-to-improve-tuberculosis-treatment
#5
Alexandre Cc Vieira, Joana Magalhães, Sónia Rocha, Marcos S Cardoso, Susana G Santos, Margarida Borges, Marina Pinheiro, Salette Reis
AIM: This work aims to develop a mannosylated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded with rifampicin to improve tuberculosis treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: An active targeting strategy was used and the nanoparticles were characterized. Effects on cell viability and the antimycobacterial activity of the nanoformulations were evaluated. RESULTS: The nanoparticles developed exhibited a size of about 315 nm and polydispersity <0.2. The drug encapsulation efficiency was higher than 90% and its release was sensitive to pH...
December 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116636/pe-and-ppe-genes-a-tale-of-conservation-and-diversity
#7
Giovanni Delogu, Michael J Brennan, Riccardo Manganelli
PE and PPE are two large families of proteins typical of mycobacteria whose structural genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) occupy about 7% of the total genome. The most ancestral PE and PPE proteins are expressed by genes that belong to the same operon and in most cases are found inserted in the esx clusters, encoding a type VII secretion system. Duplication and expansion of pe and ppe genes, coupled with intragenomic and intergenomic recombination events, led to the emergence of the polymorphic pe_pgrs and ppe_mptr genes in the MTBC genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#8
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114022/hupb-is-a-bacterial-nucleoid-associated-protein-with-an-indispensable-eukaryotic-like-tail
#9
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Katarzyna Ginda, Bartosz Wojtaś, Bartłomiej Gielniewski, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
In bacteria, chromosomal DNA must be efficiently compacted to fit inside the small cell compartment while remaining available for the proteins involved in replication, segregation, and transcription. Among the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) responsible for maintaining this highly organized and yet dynamic chromosome structure, the HU protein is one of the most conserved and highly abundant. HupB, a homologue of HU, was recently identified in mycobacteria. This intriguing mycobacterial NAP is composed of two domains: an N-terminal domain that resembles bacterial HU, and a long and distinctive C-terminal domain that contains several PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the H1/H5 family of eukaryotic histones...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109708/differential-identification-of-mycobacterial-species-using-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#10
Azar D Khosravi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Ali Teimoori
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing wordwide. Due to the difference in treatment of NTM infections and tuberculosis, rapid species identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates is necessary for the effective management of mycobacterial diseases treatment and their control strategy. In this study, a cost-effective technique, real-time PCR coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, was developed for the differentiation of Mycobacterial species using a novel rpoBC sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109706/a-novel-tetr-like-transcriptional-regulator-is-induced-in-acid-nitrosative-stress-and-controls-expression-of-an-efflux-pump-in-mycobacteria
#11
Filomena Perrone, Barbara De Siena, Lidia Muscariello, Sharon L Kendall, Simon J Waddell, Margherita Sacco
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive inside macrophages under acid-nitrosative stress. M. tuberculosis Rv1685c and its ortholog in M. smegmatis, MSMEG_3765, are induced on exposure to acid-nitrosative stress. Both genes are annotated as TetR transcriptional regulators, a family of proteins that regulate a wide range of cellular activities, including multidrug resistance, carbon catabolism and virulence. Here, we demonstrate that MSMEG_3765 is co-transcribed with the upstream genes MSMEG_3762 and MSMEG_3763, encoding efflux pump components...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109010/a-novel-isothermal-amplification-based-method-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#12
Dongxin Liu, Bing Zhao, Xichao Ou, Huiwen Zheng, Aijing Ma, Wencong He, Shengfen Wang, Yang Zhou, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Ping Hou, Guangxue He, Yanlin Zhao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to tuberculosis control and prevention. A series of diagnostic methods has been available for MTB detection; however, new rapid, simple and affordable methods are needed. In this study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA)-based assay was developed to detect the IS6110 gene of the M. tuberculosis complex. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), a colorimetric indicator, was used to detect amplification products...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107333/granzyme-b-disrupts-central-metabolism-and-protein-synthesis-in-bacteria-to-promote-an-immune-cell-death-program
#13
Farokh Dotiwala, Sumit Sen Santara, Andres Ariel Binker-Cosen, Bo Li, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Judy Lieberman
Human cytotoxic lymphocytes kill intracellular microbes. The cytotoxic granule granzyme proteases released by cytotoxic lymphocytes trigger oxidative bacterial death by disrupting electron transport, generating superoxide anion and inactivating bacterial oxidative defenses. However, they also cause non-oxidative cell death because anaerobic bacteria are also killed. Here, we use differential proteomics to identify granzyme B substrates in three unrelated bacteria: Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacteria tuberculosis...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102585/laryngeal-sarcoidosis-in-a-child-case-report
#14
Gabriel Vega-Cornejo, Priscila Ayala-Buenrostro
Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic, granulomatous disorder. Our patient was a 2-year-old girl with multiple airway conditions and a partial response to inhaled and systemic steroids. She was positive for acute phase reactants and negative for antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction revealed atypical Mycobacteria and she was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed by histopathology in a biopsy of larynx that revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process with Langhans giant cells and acute and ulcerated areas with changes compatible with tuberculosis...
November 1, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101285/dual-phosphorylation-in-response-regulator-protein-prra-is-crucial-for-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacteria-consequent-upon-transcriptional-activation
#15
Alok K Mishra, Shivraj M Yabaji, Rikesh K Dubey, Ekta Dhamija, Kishore K Srivastava
The remarkable ability of M. tuberculosis ( Mtb ) to survive inside the human macrophages is attributed to the presence of a complex sensory and regulatory network. PrrA is a DNA-binding regulatory protein, belongs to an essential two-component system (TCS), PrrA/B; which is required for early phase intracellular replication of Mtb. Despite its importance, the mechanism of PrrA/B-mediated signaling is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the binding of PrrA on the promoter DNA and its consequent activation is cumulatively controlled via dual phosphorylation of the protein...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101028/gamma-glutamylcysteine-protects-ergothioneine-deficient-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutants-against-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress
#16
C Sao Emani, M J Williams, P D Van Helden, M J C Taylor, I J Wiid, B Baker
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), cannot synthesize GSH, but synthesizes two major low molecular weight thiols namely mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (ERG). Gamma-glutamylcysteine (GGC), an intermediate in GSH synthesis, has been implicated in the protection of lactic acid bacteria from oxidative stress in the absence of GSH. In mycobacteria, GGC is an intermediate in ERG biosynthesis, and its formation is catalysed by EgtA (GshA). GGC is subsequently used by EgtB in the formation of hercynine-sulphoxide-GGC...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098330/mycobacterial-membrane-proteins-qcrb-and-atpe-roles-in-energetics-antibiotic-targets-and-associated-mechanisms-of-resistance
#17
Luke Bown, Santosh K Srivastava, Brandon M Piercey, Clarissa K McIsaac, Kapil Tahlan
Infections caused by mycobacteria are difficult to treat due to their inherent physiology, cellular structure, and intracellular lifestyle. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen of global concern as it causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans, which requires 6-9 months of chemotherapy. The situation is further exacerbated in the case of infections caused by drug-resistant strains, which necessitate the prolonged use of agents associated with increased host toxicities. Great effort has been invested into the development of new agents for the treatment of drug-resistant infections, in addition to novel strategies to reduce treatment time...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097168/synthesis-and-biological-evolution-of-hydrazones-derived-from-4-trifluoromethyl-benzohydrazide
#18
Martin Krátký, Szilvia Bősze, Zsuzsa Baranyai, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jarmila Vinšová
Reflecting the known biological activity of isoniazid-based hydrazones, seventeen hydrazones of 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzohydrazide as their bioisosters were synthesized from various benzaldehydes and aliphatic ketones. The compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. avium, M. kansasii), bacterial and fungal strains. The most antimicrobial potent derivatives were also investigated for their cytostatic and cytotoxic properties against three cell lines...
October 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096645/benzoylphenyl-thiocyanates-are-new-effective-inhibitors-of-the-mycobacterial-resuscitation-promoting-factor-b-protein
#19
Galina R Demina, Vadim D Nikitushkin, Margarita O Shleeva, Olga B Riabova, Alexander Yu Lepioshkin, Vadim A Makarov, Arseny S Kaprelyants
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs), capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate groups alongside with the compounds with the modified number and different spatial location of the substituents are compared...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076653/tuberculosis-in-southern-brazilian-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-first-epidemiological-findings
#20
A L G Maciel, M R Loiko, T S Bueno, J G Moreira, M Coppola, E R Dalla Costa, K B Schmid, R O Rodrigues, S P Cibulski, A C Bertagnolli, F Q Mayer
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis that affects domestic and wild animals. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies on tuberculosis in wild animal populations and their possible role in the disease maintenance in cattle herds; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tuberculosis in wild boars in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Tissue samples of animals hunted under government consent were submitted to histopathology and M. bovis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as screening tests; the positive samples were subsequently submitted to bacterial isolation, the gold standard diagnosis...
October 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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