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Sarah Löw, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The majority of patients are immunocompetent, with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. Historically, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the first and sole treatment for PCNSL. Today, due to the recognized neurotoxicity of WBRT, this modality is usually avoided in the treatment. Most chemotherapy regimens are based on high-dose methotrexate plus the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, leading to high response rates, but 5-year survival is still poor at approximately 30% compared with other extranodal lymphomas...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Reibán-Espinoza Esteban, Bourlon Christianne, Aguayo Alvaro, Demichelis-Gómez Roberta
INTRODUCTION: The expression of the CD20 on adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-B) has generally been associated with a poor prognosis, and several studies have explored the incorporation of rituximab into the therapeutic regimen for adult ALL-B patients, with a positive effect on event-free survival (EFS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the prognostic value of CD20 expression and the effect of rituximab for the treatment of Hispanic adult ALL-B patients...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Qingkai Dai, Xiaojuan Liu, Hui Yang, Siqi Guo, Yuefang Wang, Luyun Peng, Lei Ye, Lan Chen, Chunqi Lai, Qi Chen, Ge Zhang, Yongmei Jiang
Detection of aberrant antigen expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by flow cytometric is proposed for the quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). There are few studies that investigate the stability of the antigen expression in children with B lineage ALL at the end of remission induction therapy and determine its prognostic impact. Between 2010 and 2015, 691 bone marrow specimens of childhood ALL were sent at diagnosis for immunophenotypic characterization, and follow-up samples for MRD were analyzed on day 33...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Thomas Erblich, Silvia Montoto
Advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) remains an incurable disease, at least with conventional therapy. Despite the long remission and disease-free periods that can be currently achieved with treatment, the disease will ultimately relapse in most of the patients. Areas covered: This article reviews the current spectrum of therapies for patients with relapsed FL in the rituximab area. It will revisit current therapies, approaches to therapeutic decision making and novel agents under investigation. Expert Commentary: At present, rituximab or second generation anti-CD20 antibodies either as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy, anti-CD20 maintenance therapy and stem cell transplant remain effective treatment options for relapsed patients...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Anne M Stowman, Alexandra W Hickman, Ileana S Mauldin, Adela Mahmutovic, Alejandro A Gru, Craig L Slingluff
Desmoplastic melanomas (DM) have unique and challenging clinical presentations and histomorphology. A characteristic feature is the presence of scattered lymphoid aggregates. However, the nature of these aggregates is not defined. We hypothesized that they may be tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), and may be associated with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. We searched our tissue database for 'pure' DMs and for scars as control tissues, collected clinical information, and reviewed H&E histology...
March 13, 2018: Melanoma Research
Elena Aguado-Domínguez, Lourdes Gómez, José Manuel Sousa, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of de novo immune hepatitis (dnIH) after liver transplantation relies on biopsy findings, with an abundance of plasma cells (PCs) in the inflammatory infiltrates a hallmark of the disease. Very little is known about what other types of immune cells exist in the infiltrates mainly located in the portal areas of the liver tissue. METHODS: We analyzed the composition of T cells, B cells, PCs, and macrophages in the liver biopsies of 12 patients with dnIH, 9 of them obtained at the time of diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ahmed I Akl, Hussein A Sheashaa, Mona Abdel Rahim, Muhammed A El Hadedy, Ayman F Refaie
Transplant is the optimal therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. Acute cellular rejection refractory to treatment remains a major risk factor for graft loss and poor outcomes. In this study, we describe a 39-year-old man who received a living-related kidney transplant. Two days after transplant, the patient displayed acute deterioration of graft function. Conventional anti-rejection therapy was initiated, but graft function did not improve. Biopsy revealed acute cellular rejection (grade IIA), and C4d and HLA antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
P Wei, Y L Zhang, J L Xie, Y Y Zheng, W Liu, X G Zhou
Objective: To analyze clinical, pathological, molecular and genetic characteristics of Burkitt-like lymphoma with chromosome 11q aberration. Methods: A case of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration was presented at Beijing Friendship Hospital in November 2016 with detailed clinicopathological features, immunophenotypes, Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) status and molecular genetic characteristics. Results: The patient was a 38-year-old man presenting with the cervical lymphadenopathy. In morphology, the tumor had the similar characteristics of Burkitt lymphoma, including diffuse infiltration of medium to large lymphoid cells, and presence of"starry sky"phenomenon...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
W H Hou, P Wei, J L Xie, Y Y Zheng, Y L Zhang, X G Zhou
Objective: To investigate clinicopathological features and prognosis of tonsillar mantle cell lymphoma(TMCL). Methods: Clinical data of 25 patients with TMCL at Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from 2002 to 2016 were included. All the cases were reviewed microscopically. Various immunohistochemical stains were performed using the MaxVision two-step method. IgH/CCND1 gene fusion was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Additionally, randomly selected 40 cases of non-tonsil MCL of the same period were compared...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Roberta Gualtierotti, Maria Orietta Borghi, Maria Gerosa, Tommaso Schioppo, Paola Larghi, Jens Geginat, Pier Luigi Meroni
OBJECTIVES: B cells play an important role in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accordingly, B cell-targeted therapy has been suggested as a new rational approach for treating lupus. Belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), was reported as the first biological treatment effective in reducing mild-to-moderate SLE disease activity by using different scoring systems and endpoints. Conversely clinical trials with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 expressed by B cells, have failed to achieve primary endpoints in spite of a number of reports showing its beneficial effects...
February 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Ramya Chockalingam, Savina Aneja, Anisha B Patel
Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is the most common type of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. The cutaneous manifestations of PCFCL typically include solitary erythematous or violaceous plaques, nodules, or tumors of varying sizes. Grouped lesions also may be observed, but multifocal disease is rare. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with PCFCL with an unusual clinical presentation resembling folliculitis or Grover disease. Histologic studies demonstrated extensive lymphoma cells in a nodular and diffuse pattern...
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Meghdad Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Seyed Masoud Hashemi Karouei, Majid Lotfinia, Amir Amanzadeh, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against B-lymphocyte specific antigen CD20, which is used for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, the effectiveness of rituximab is limited partly due to treatment resistance. The aim of this study was to develop rituximab-based antibody drug conjugate (ADC) to enhance rituximab activity. In this study, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) was covalently conjugated to dithiothreitol -reduced rituximab via a valine-citrulline peptide linker (rituximab-vcMMAE)...
March 9, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Aniek Lamberts, H Ilona Euverman, Jorrit B Terra, Marcel F Jonkman, Barbara Horváth
Introduction: Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, a transmembrane protein expressed on B cells, causing B cell depletion. RTX has shown great efficacy in studies of pemphigus vulgaris, but data of pemphigoid diseases are limited. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of RTX in pemphigoid diseases. Methods: The medical records of 28 patients with pemphigoid diseases that were treated with RTX were reviewed retrospectively...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael J Robertson, Christopher W Stamatkin, David Pelloso, Jill Weisenbach, Nagendra K Prasad, Ahmad R Safa
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an immunostimulatory cytokine that augments antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by human natural killer cells against antibody-coated lymphoma cells in vitro and that has antitumor activity in animal models. Ofatumumab is a CD20 monoclonal antibody with activity against human B-cell lymphomas. A phase I study of recombinant human (rh) IL-18 given with ofatumumab was undertaken in patients with CD20 lymphoma who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Barry H Rickman, Tim Morgan, Matthew Klope, Susan Berta, Sandra Dubpernell, Howard Garrett, Mary Jo Adams, Stephanie A Norman
Necropsy of a female adult pregnant harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena revealed a multicentric plasmacytoma. The plasmacytoma infiltrated the cranial lung lobes, mediastinal lymph nodes and the spleen. Diagnosis was based on gross, histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies. Histopathology revealed a diffuse proliferation of atypical pleomorphic neoplastic round cells with plasmacytic features. Positive immunohistochemistry with anti-CD79a and anti-CD20 antibody markers and anti-multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM-1) for plasmacytoma confirmed this neoplasm to be of B-cell origin...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Meng-Chen Tsai, Chun-Chi Kuo, Ying-Zhen Su, Yen-Chuan Hsieh, Shih-Sung Chuang
Effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) is a rare but distinct entity of large B-cell lymphoma in effusion without association with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8). Spontaneous regression after pleurocentesis has been observed; but to our knowledge, there are no reports on the morphological and molecular features of subsequent aspirations in regressing cases. Here, we report the case of a 92-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with right pleural effusion. He had no human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis C virus infection, and CT scans revealed no mass lesion...
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Julia K Winkler, Matthias Schiller, Carolin Bender, Alexander H Enk, Jessica C Hassel
Treatment of metastatic melanoma remains challenging, despite a variety of new and promising immunotherapeutic and targeted approaches to therapy. New treatment options are still needed to improve long-term tumour control. We present a case series of seven patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated individually with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab between July 2014 and July 2015. Two of the patients were treated in an adjuvant setting. All patients had already received a variety of treatments. During an induction phase, the administration of four cycles of weekly rituximab 375 mg/m2 body surface area was planned...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
G Pasello, G Zago, F Lunardi, L Urso, I Kern, G Vlacic, F Grosso, M Mencoboni, G L Ceresoli, M Schiavon, F Pezzuto, A Pavan, S E Vuljan, P Del Bianco, P Conte, F Rea, F Calabrese
Background: Tumor immune microenvironment (TME) plays a key role in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) pathogenesis and treatment outcome, supporting a role of immune checkpoint inhibitors as anticancer approach. This study retrospectively investigated TME and PD-L1 expression in naïve MPM cases and their change under chemotherapy. Patients and methods: Diagnostic biopsies of MPM patients were collected from four Italian and one Slovenian cancer centers. Pathological assessment of necrosis, inflammation, grading, and mitosis was performed...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
R Rahmanzadeh, M S Weber, W Brück, S Navardi, M A Sahraian
For decades, B cells were ignored in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, and the disease was always regarded as a T cell-mediated disorder. Recent evidence shows that there is an antigen-driven B-cell response in the central nervous system of patients with MS, and memory B cells/plasma cells are detectable in MS lesions. The striking efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies in reducing the inflammatory activity of the disease highlights that B cells may play more pathogenetic roles than expected. B cells express several unique characteristic markers on their surface, for example, CD19, CD20 molecules, that provide selective targets for monoclonal antibodies...
March 7, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
E C Tallantyre, D H Whittam, S Jolles, D Paling, C Constantinesecu, N P Robertson, A Jacob
B-cell depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapies are being increasingly used as long-term maintenance therapy for neuroinflammatory disease compared to many non-neurological diseases where they are used as remission-inducing agents. While hypogammaglobulinaemia is known to occur in over half of patients treated with medium to long-term B-cell-depleting therapy (in our cohort IgG 38, IgM 56 and IgA 18%), the risk of infections it poses seems to be under-recognised. Here, we report five cases of serious infections associated with hypogammaglobulinaemia occurring in patients receiving rituximab for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
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