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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143151/next-generation-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibodies-in-autoimmune-disease-treatment
#1
Fanny Huynh Du, Elizabeth A Mills, Yang Mao-Draayer
The clinical success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated B cell depletion therapy has contributed to the understanding of B cells as major players in several autoimmune diseases. The first therapeutic anti-CD20 mAb, rituximab, is a murine-human chimera to which many patients develop antibodies and/or experience infusion-related reactions. A second generation of anti-CD20 mAbs has been designed to be more effective, better tolerated, and of lower immunogenicity. These include the humanized versions: ocrelizumab, obinutuzumab, and veltuzumab, and the fully human, ofatumumab...
November 16, 2017: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138744/multiple-myeloma-in-an-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#2
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132419/success-of-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibody-treatment-for-severe-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-caused-by-warm-reactive-immunoglobulin-a-immunoglobulin-g-and-immunoglobulin-m-autoantibodies-in-a-child-a-case-report
#3
Houda Ajmi, Sameh Mabrouk, Saida Hassayoun, Haifa Regaieg, Minyar Tfifha, Chemli Jalel, Hadef Skouri, Noura Zouari, Saoussan Abroug
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in children. First-line therapies for this disease consist of corticosteroids and intravenously administered immunoglobulin that are effective in most patients. However, a small proportion of cases (5 to 10%) is refractory to these therapies and may represent a medical emergency, especially when hemolysis is due to warm immunoglobulin M. Recently, reports of the use of rituximab in adult autoimmune diseases have shown promising results. In children, there are few studies on the use of rituximab in the treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, especially on its long-term efficacy and adverse effects...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130956/ischemic-stroke-histological-thrombus-composition-and-pre-interventional-ct-attenuation-are-associated-with-intervention-time-and-rate-of-secondary-embolism
#5
Peter B Sporns, Uta Hanning, Wolfram Schwindt, Aglae Velasco, Boris Buerke, Christian Cnyrim, Jens Minnerup, Walter Heindel, Astrid Jeibmann, Thomas Niederstadt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of stent retrievers has made the complete extraction and histological analysis of human thrombi possible. A number of large randomized trials have proven the efficacy of thrombectomy for ischemic stroke; however, thrombus composition could have an impact on the efficacy and risk of the intervention. We therefore investigated the impact of histologic thrombus features on interventional outcome and procedure-related embolisms. For a pre-interventional estimation of histologic features and outcome parameters, we assessed the pre-interventional CT attenuation of the thrombi...
October 31, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130617/dendritic-cell-phenotype-in-severe-asthma-reflects-clinical-responsiveness-to-glucocorticoids
#6
Emma S Chambers, Alexandra M Nanzer, Paul E Pfeffer, David F Richards, Adrian R Martineau, Christopher J Griffiths, Christopher J Corrigan, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
BACKGROUND: Subsets of patients with severe asthma remain symptomatic despite prolonged, high dosage glucocorticoid therapy. We hypothesised that the clinical glucocorticoid sensitivity of these asthmatics is reflected in differences in peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets. OBJECTIVE: To compare peripheral blood leukocyte populations using flow cytometry at baseline and after 2 weeks of systemic glucocorticoid (steroid) treatment to identify immunological differences between steroid sensitive (SS) and steroid resistant (SR) asthmatics...
November 11, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128948/a-dramatic-case-of-odynophagia
#7
B Sopeña, J Limeres, L García-Caballero, M Diniz-Freitas, J Seoane, P Diz
We report the case of a 77-year-old male with a history of aortic stenosis and interstitial lung disease, who debuted 3 years ago with an outbreak of necrotic and very painful canker sores. The severity of the lesions and their refractory response to treatment led to several hospital admissions and multiple consultations to different specialists (ENT, rheumatology, dermatology, ophthalmology, cardiology, and internal medicine). During this time, the patient received central parenteral nutrition with an episode of catheter-related septicemia, and he came to require psychiatric assistance for autolytic ideation...
November 11, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128836/characterization-of-liposome-containing-spions-conjugated-with-anti-cd20-developed-as-a-novel-theranostic-agent-for-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#8
S Saesoo, S Sathornsumetee, P Anekwiang, C Treetidnipa, P Thuwajit, S Bunthot, W Maneeprakorn, L Maurizi, H Hofmann, Ruktanonchai Uracha Rungsardthong, N Saengkrit
Despite advances in neuroscience cancer research during the past decades, the survival of cancer patients has only marginally improved and the cure remains unlikely. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle protecting the entry of therapeutic agents to central nervous system, especially for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Thus, the use of small nanoparticle as a drug carrier may be new strategies to overcome this problem. In this study, we fabricated liposome consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) functionalized with anti-CD20 (Rituximab; RTX)...
November 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127674/pharmacotherapeutic-management-of-pediatric-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Christine Mauz-Körholz, Natascha Ströter, Julia Baumann, Ante Botzen, Katharina Körholz, Dieter Körholz
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprise approximately 15% of all childhood malignancies. Cure rates for both lymphoma entities have evolved tremendously during the last couple of decades, raising the 5-year survival rates to almost 100% for HL and to 85% for NHL. The mainstay therapy for both malignancies is still chemotherapy-with different regimens recommended for different types of disease. In HL, combined modality treatment, i.e., chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, has long been the standard regimen...
November 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123374/anti-cd20-cell-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-fixed-dosing-schedule-for-ocrelizumab-is-overkill
#10
Jagannadha Avasarala
Anti-CD 20 therapies have found significant uses in multiple sclerosis (MS). Based singularly on the accumulated evidence with the use of rituximab (RTX; Rituxan, Genentech, and Biogen) in neuroimmunological diseases, ocrelizumab (OCR; Ocrevus, Genentech) was developed as a treatment option for MS and selectively targets CD20 B cells, a cell surface antigen found on pre-B cells, mature, and memory B cells, but not on lymphoid stem cells and plasma cells. On the basis of indirect evidence, elimination of the antigen-presenting capabilities and antigen nonspecific immune functions of B cells appear to be central to the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD20 B-cell therapies...
2017: Drug Target Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121114/cd4-levels-control-the-odds-of-induction-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-tracer-doses-of-therapeutic-antibodies
#11
Sharat Srinivasula, Erin Gabriel, Insook Kim, Paula DeGrange, Alexis St Claire, Candace Mallow, Robert E Donahue, Chang Paik, H C Lane, Michele Di Mascio
Rapidly increasing number of therapeutic antibodies are being repurposed to imaging probes for noninvasive diagnosis, as well as monitoring during treatment or disease recurrence. Though antibody-based imaging involves tracer doses (~3 log lower than therapeutic doses), and immune responses are severely reduced in patients with impaired immunity, formation of anti-tracer antibodies (ATA) has been observed hampering further diagnostic monitoring. Here, we explored the potential to develop humoral responses to intravenously administered tracer dose of a monoclonal antibody F(ab΄)2 fragment, and associated with host related immune measures in 49 rhesus macaques categorized into healthy (uninfected controls), SIV-progressors, SIV non-progressors, or total body irradiated (TBI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120553/rituximab-maintenance-strategy-in-advanced-follicular-lymphoma-facts-and-controversies
#12
Vibor Milunović, Martina Bogeljić Patekar, Karla Mišura Jakubac, Inga Mandac Rogulj, Delfa Radić-Krišto, Ana Planinc-Peraica, Slobodanka Ostojić Kolonić
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal CD20 antibody used in the treatment of CD20 positive non-Hodgkin lymphomas and has revolutionized treatment approach to these hematologic malignancies in the last decade. The main aim of this review is to present data on the use of rituximab in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL). We will focus on rituximab maintenance strategies in the first and second line treatment. This approach has improved the outcome in FL patients with better progression-free survival in all patients and better overall survival in relapsed setting...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118759/b-cells-are-indispensable-for-a-novel-mouse-model-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#13
Junfeng Zheng, Qiaoniang Huang, Renliang Huang, Fengyuan Deng, Xiaoyang Yue, Junping Yin, Wenjie Zhao, Yan Chen, Lifang Wen, Jun Zhou, Renda Huang, Gabriela Riemekasten, Zuguo Liu, Frank Petersen, Xinhua Yu
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantibodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies, and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114004/dysproteinemias-and-glomerular-disease
#14
Nelson Leung, Maria E Drosou, Samih H Nasr
Dysproteinemia is characterized by the overproduction of an Ig by clonal expansion of cells from the B cell lineage. The resultant monoclonal protein can be composed of the entire Ig or its components. Monoclonal proteins are increasingly recognized as a contributor to kidney disease. They can cause injury in all areas of the kidney, including the glomerular, tubular, and vascular compartments. In the glomerulus, the major mechanism of injury is deposition. Examples of this include Ig amyloidosis, monoclonal Ig deposition disease, immunotactoid glomerulopathy, and cryoglobulinemic GN specifically from types 1 and 2 cryoglobulins...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113954/an-improved-method-to-quantify-human-nk-cell-mediated-antibody-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-adcc-per-igg-fcr-positive-nk-cell-without-purification-of-nk-cells
#15
Alexander P Sung, Jennifer J-J Tang, Michael J Guglielmo, Doug Redelman, Julie Smith-Gagen, Lucinda Bateman, Dorothy Hudig
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte ADCC supports anti-viral protection and monoclonal antibody (mAb) anti-tumor therapies. To predict in vivo ADCC therapeutic responses of different individuals, measurement of both ADCC cellular lytic capacity and their NK cellular receptor recognition of antibodies on 'target' cells are needed, using clinically available amounts of blood. Twenty ml of blood provides sufficient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for the new assay for lytic capacity described here and for an antibody EC50 assay for Fc-receptor recognition...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112016/b-lymphoblastic-leukemia-lymphoma-with-burkitt-like-morphology-and-igh-myc-rearrangement-report-of-3-cases-in-adult-patients
#16
Yiting Li, Gunjan Gupta, Ari Molofsky, Yi Xie, Nader Shihabi, Jane McCormick, Elaine S Jaffe
Isolated MYC rearrangement without other recurrent genetic abnormalities is rare in B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL/LBL), with most cases reported in pediatric patients. We report 3 adult cases with lymphoblasts showing a precursor B cell immunophenotype, and isolated MYC/IGH translocation. All 3 cases occurred in male patients with initial presentation of diffuse lymphadenopathy. Cases 1 and 2 had B-ALL with significantly increased lymphoblasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Case 3, a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection, had the diagnosis of B-LBL made on a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy and had no peripheral blood or bone marrow involvement...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109348/-a-case-of-gastric-follicular-lymphoma-resected-and-diagnosed-with-laparoscopy-and-endoscopy-cooperative-surgery
#17
Takuya Seike, Katsuhisa Inamura, Noriko Okuno, Yoshihide Asaumi, Yoshiko Takata, Toshiyuki Okamura, Sadaya Matano, Shintaro Terahata, Kohmei Sakatoku, Hiroshi Kawai
A woman in her 70s was diagnosed with a protruding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma during a secondary health examination. After eradication of Helicobacter pylori, a biopsy revealed gastric follicular lymphoma (FL) and the lesion was still protruding one year later. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed focal nodular hypermetabolic activity, suggesting that FL may have transformed into a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy showed no other lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, and bone marrow biopsy showed no permeation into the marrow...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105119/lymphoproliferative-disorders-with-concurrent-hhv8-and-ebv-infection-beyond-primary-effusion-lymphoma-and-germinotropic-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#18
Wei Wang, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Jeffrey L Medeiros
AIMS: Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) characterized by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are rare and two entities are included in the World and Health Organization classification: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and germinotropic LPD. These two entities have very different clinicopathological presentations and prognosis. Here we describe two cases of HHV8-positive, EBV-positive lymphoma with clinicopathological features that are not consistent with either PEL or germinotropic LPD...
November 3, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105104/b-lymphocytes-limit-senescence-driven-fibrosis-resolution-and-favor-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-mouse-liver-injury
#19
Francesca Faggioli, Eleonora Palagano, Luca Di Tommaso, Matteo Donadon, Veronica Marrella, Camilla Recordati, Stefano Mantero, Anna Villa, Paolo Vezzoni, Barbara Cassani
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent neoplasia and a leading cause of inflammation-related cancer mortality. Despite most HCC arise from persistent inflammatory conditions; pathways linking chronic inflammation to cancer development are still incompletely elucidated. We dissected the role of adaptive immunity in the Mdr2-/- mouse, a model of inflammation-associated cancer, in which ablation of adaptive immunity has been induced genetically (Rag2-/-Mdr2-/- and μMt-Mdr2-/- mice) or with in vivo treatments using lymphocyte-specific depleting antibodies (anti-CD20 or anti-CD4/CD8)...
November 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099112/enfermedad-de-castleman-an%C3%A3-lisis-histopatol%C3%A3-gico-e-inmunohistoqu%C3%A3-mico-de-39-casos
#20
Diana Brisa Sevilla-Lizcano, Christian Lizette Frias-Soria, Carlos Ortiz-Hidalgo
Introduction: Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative that comprises two distinct clinical subtypes (unicentric and multicentric) and has two basic histopathology patterns that are hyaline-vascular (HV) and plasma-cell (PC) type. Some cases of multicentric PC disease are associated with HHV-8 infection. Objective: To present the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 39 cases of CD. Methods: A review of cases with the diagnosis CD from the files of the Department of Pathology of the ABC Medical Centre in Mexico City was performed...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
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