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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138549/inflammation-and-chronic-colonization-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-sputum-in-copd-patients-related-to-the-degree-of-emphysema-and-bronchiectasis-in-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#1
Ellen Tufvesson, Hanna Markstad, Gracijela Bozovic, Marie Ekberg, Leif Bjermer
The presence of bacteria in the lower airways in COPD results in inflammation, further airway structural damage, and might lead to repeated exacerbations. We have previously shown that chronic colonization of Haemophilus influenzae during stable disease is related to increased inflammation, and we now aimed to relate previous findings of bacterial colonization and inflammation to the degree of radiological findings of bronchiectasis and emphysema. Thirty-nine patients with COPD were included in their stable state, and a high-resolution computed tomography of the lung was performed...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134121/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-atherosclerosis-and-coronary-artery-disease
#2
REVIEW
Magnus Bäck
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have emerged as possible protective factors associated with a decreased risk for myocardial infarction in populations with a high marine food intake, which may relate to effects on lipid metabolism, thrombosis and inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease triglyceride levels and also compete as substrates for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipid mediators. The balance between omega-3-derived specialized proresolving mediators and pro-inflammatory lipid mediators from arachidonic acid metabolism can be measured as the resolvin-to-leukotriene ratio, which has been shown to predict subclinical atherosclerosis...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133219/dietary-fatty-acid-modification-for-the-treatment-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-a-prospective-pilot-trial
#3
Thomas R Schneider, Christina B Johns, Marina L Palumbo, Katherine C Murphy, Katherine N Cahill, Tanya M Laidlaw
BACKGROUND: The high levels of eicosanoid production and the clinical efficacy of leukotriene-modifying pharmacotherapies for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) suggest that other interventions targeting arachidonic acid dysregulation may also improve disease control. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of a high omega-3/low omega-6 diet for the treatment of AERD. METHODS: Prospective, nonblinded dietary intervention in 10 adult patients with AERD at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, MA...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133197/inhibition-of-leukotriene-b4-synthesis-protects-against-early-brain-injury-possibly-via-reducing-the-neutrophil-generated-inflammatory-response-and-oxidative-stress-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#4
Zhen-Nan Ye, Ling-Yun Wu, Jing-Peng Liu, Qiang Chen, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Yue Lu, Meng-Liang Zhou, Wei Li, Zi-Huan Zhang, Da-Yong Xia, Zong Zhuang, Chun-Hua Hang
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a highly potent neutrophil chemoattractant and neutrophils induces inflammatory response and oxidative stress when they recruit to and infiltrate in the injuried/inflamed site, such as the brain parenchyma after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is to investigate the potential effects of inhibition of LTB4 synthesis on neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as early brain injury (EBI) in rats after SAH. A pre-chiasmatic cistern SAH model of rats was used in this experiment...
November 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133059/recent-advances-in-the-search-for-novel-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#5
Ferdinando Bruno, Giuseppe Spaziano, Angela Liparulo, Fiorentina Roviezzo, Seyed Mohammed Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Rosanna Filosa, Bruno D'Agostino
The products of 5-lipoxygenase are synthesized and released in the airway when an asthmatic reaction occurs. 5-lipoxygenase via arachidonic acid metabolism produces leukotrienes that mediate bronchoconstriction and inflammatory modifications essential in the pathophysiology of asthma. Until to now, only one approved 5-LO inhibitor, zileuton, can be found as a potential therapy for asthma. With the increasing number of indications for anti-leukotriene (anti-LT) drugs, the development of 5-LO inhibitor agents becomes increasingly important...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125911/5-lipoxygenase-knockout-aggravated-apical-periodontitis-in-a-murine-model
#6
Y Wu, H Sun, B Yang, X Liu, J Wang
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a vital role in the host innate immune response, including bacteria-induced inflammation. Apical periodontitis (AP) is due to immune disorders caused by imbalances between bacterial invasion and subsequent host defense response. In this work, we investigated the role of 5-lipoxygenase in AP by using 5- lo knockout mice (5- lo-/- mice). Results showed that 5- lo-/- mice had greater periapical bone loss and more osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining than did wild-type mice, as determined by micro-computed tomography and histologic staining...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115880/treatment-response-heterogeneity-in-asthma-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#7
Susanne J H Vijverberg, Niloufar Farzan, Elise M A Slob, Anne H Neerincx, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
Asthmatic patients show a large heterogeneity in response to asthma medication. Rapidly evolving genotyping technologies have led to the identification of various genetic variants associated with treatment outcomes. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current knowledge of genetic variants influencing treatment response to the most commonly used asthma medicines: short- and long-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA/LABA), inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and leukotriene modifiers. This review shows that various genetic variants have been identified, but none are currently used to guide asthma treatment...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114905/leukotriene-receptor-antagonism-may-not-be-effective-in-atopic-dermatitis-treatment-after-all
#8
W K Chin
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Literature evidence suggests leukotriene involvement in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This article aimed to discuss whether the off-label use of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is justifiable for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. COMMENT: Most non-randomized studies supported the use of montelukast for atopic dermatitis treatment. However, evidence from these studies should be interpreted with caution as it is relatively weak due to the absence of randomization, control groups and blinding processes, subjecting the results to high risk of selection and reporting biases...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114894/lack-of-long-term-add-on-effect-by-montelukast-in-postoperative-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-with-nasal-polyps
#9
Laura Van Gerven, Cristobal Langdon, Arturo Cordero, Sara Cardelús, Joaquim Mullol, Isam Alobid
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Eosinophils and mast cells are among the key cells in inflammatory diseases like chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma. Leukotriene antagonists have proven to be effective in the treatment of asthma, but data about their efficacy in CRS are scarce, whereas data on montelukast as an add-on treatment to intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) in a postoperative setting are completely lacking. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open-label trial...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112183/leukotrienes-biosynthesis-in-coronary-artery-disease-results-of-leukotrienes-and-thromboxane-in-myocardial-infarction-ltimi-study
#10
Edyta Stodółkiewicz, Barbara Rewerska, Marcin Rzeszutko, Marek Tomala, Anton Chrustowicz, Krzysztof Żmudka, Marek Sanak, Wojciech Szczeklik
INTRODUCTION    Leukotrienes (LTs) play a potential role in atherosclerosis and may contribute to cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery disease.  OBJECTIVES    1) to compare the baseline production of LTs in stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and 2) assess whether increased production of LTs is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in one-year follow up from MI.  PATIENTS AND METHODS    LTIMI (Leukotrienes and Thromboxane In Myocardial Infarction) was single-center, prospective, observational study of patients with stable sCAD and MI...
November 7, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105371/mast-cells-partially-contribute-to-mucosal-adjuvanticity-of-surfactin-in-mice
#11
Naoto Yoshino, Ryosuke Takeshita, Hanae Kawamura, Yutaka Sasaki, Masahiro Kagabu, Toru Sugiyama, Yasushi Muraki, Shigehiro Sato
INTRODUCTION: Surfactin (SF) is a cyclic lipopeptide that has potent mucosal adjuvant properties. However, immunological mechanisms of SF adjuvant action have not yet been elucidated. As some cyclic lipopeptides, such as polymyxin, can stimulate histamine release from mast cells, we hypothesized that mast cell activation is critical for SF adjuvanticity. METHODS/RESULTS: We observed that following intranasal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) plus SF, the titers of the OVA-specific antibody (Ab) in the mucosal secretions and plasma of mast cell-deficient mice were significantly lower than those in congenic normal mice, although OVA-specific Ab did not entirely disappear from mast cell-deficient mice...
November 3, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101583/therapeutic-effect-of-28-homobrassinolide-on-leukotriene-synthesis-in-leukemia-cells
#12
Chuan He, Zhigang Liu, Jingcao Huang, Ting Liu
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of 28-homobrassinolide on leukotriene synthesis in the 2H3 cells. Cell viability was determined by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were determined in the cell and cell lysates. Intracellular Ca(2+) was determined in the intact cells. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) expression was determined in the cells using immunofluorescence. LTC4 and LTB4 were tremendously increased in IgE-loaded 2H3 cells. However, these levels were significantly reduced following treatment with 28-homobrassinolide...
November 3, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090333/resolvin-e1-e2-ameliorate-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-via-chemr23
#13
Satoshi Deyama, Kento Shimoda, Hiroe Suzuki, Yuka Ishikawa, Kohei Ishimura, Hayato Fukuda, Natsuko Hitora-Imamura, Soichiro Ide, Masamichi Satoh, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Satoshi Shuto, Masabumi Minami
RATIONALE: Resolvins are bioactive lipid mediators that are generated from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We recently demonstrated that the DHA-derived resolvins D1 and D2 exert antidepressant effects. However, whether the EPA-derived resolvins E1 (RvE1) and E2 (RvE2) produce antidepressant effects is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined the antidepressant effects of RvE1/RvE2 in a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression model using the tail suspension and forced swim tests...
October 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083972/inhaled-corticosteroid-containing-treatment-escalation-and-outcomes-for-patients-with-asthma-in-a-u-s-health-care-organization
#14
Lindsay G S Bengtson, Yanni Yu, Weijia Wang, Feng Cao, Erin M Hulbert, Ryan Wolbeck, Caitlin A Elliott, Ami R Buikema
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common disorder that affects approximately 8% of the U.S. POPULATION: Treatment guidelines indicate inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as the mainstay treatment, yet poor asthma control is common among ICS-treated patients. Treatment escalation (ICS dose increase and other controller therapy add-ons) is used to manage symptoms. Real-world studies of postescalation outcomes may inform treatment decisions. OBJECTIVES: To (a) describe characteristics and treatment patterns among asthma patients who escalated treatment and (b) assess outcomes (exacerbations, uncontrolled asthma, and health care resource utilization [HCRU]) after escalation...
November 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079387/management-of-allergic-rhinitis-a-review-for-the-community-pharmacist
#15
REVIEW
J Russell May, William K Dolen
PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis is a highly prevalent disease affecting the quality of life of millions of North Americans. The management of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, and immunotherapy. Current pharmacologic options include oral and intranasal antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, oral and intranasal anticholinergics, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstays of treatment, with practice guidelines recommending intranasal corticosteroids as first-line treatment for moderate to severe allergic rhinitis...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076063/neuropsychiatric-events-associated-with-leukotriene-modifying-agents-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Sharon W Y Law, Angel Y S Wong, Shweta Anand, Ian C K Wong, Esther W Chan
INTRODUCTION: Leukotriene-modifying agents (LTMAs) including montelukast, zafirlukast, and zileuton are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Various neuropsychiatric events (NEs) have been reported; however, the evidence of the association is conflicting. This systematic review investigates the association between NEs and LTMAs by assessing the relevant published literature. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library were searched using keywords...
October 26, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075514/deconstructing-the-traditional-japanese-medicine-kampo-compounds-metabolites-and-pharmacological-profile-of-maoto-a-remedy-for-flu-like-symptoms
#17
Akinori Nishi, Katsuya Ohbuchi, Hirotaka Kushida, Takashi Matsumoto, Keiko Lee, Haruo Kuroki, Shigeki Nabeshima, Chika Shimobori, Nagisa Komokata, Hitomi Kanno, Naoko Tsuchiya, Makoto Zushi, Tomohisa Hattori, Masahiro Yamamoto, Yoshio Kase, Yukiko Matsuoka, Hiroaki Kitano
Pharmacological activities of the traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) are putatively mediated by complex interactions between multiple herbal compounds and host factors, which are difficult to characterize via the reductive approach of purifying major bioactive compounds and elucidating their mechanisms by conventional pharmacology. Here, we performed comprehensive compound, pharmacological and metabolomic analyses of maoto, a pharmaceutical-grade Kampo prescribed for flu-like symptoms, in normal and polyI:C-injected rats, the latter suffering from acute inflammation via Toll-like receptor 3 activation...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074417/multiple-mechanisms-underlying-neuroprotection-by-secretory-phospholipase-a2-preconditioning-in-a-surgically-induced-brain-injury-rat-model
#18
Yuechun Wang, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Onat Akyol, Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intra-operative bleeding, post-operative brain edema and neuroinflammation are major complications in patients with surgical brain injury (SBI). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the upstream enzyme which initiates the PLA2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) inflammatory pathway. We hypothesized PLA2preconditioning (PPC) prior to SBI can activate endogenous anti-inflammatory responses to protect against SBI. This study evaluated if PPC can ameliorate neurosurgical complications and elucidated PPC-mediated possible protective mechanisms in a rat SBI model...
October 24, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072660/-the-role-of-a-leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-in-the-restoration-of-the-nasal-breathing-in-the-patients-presenting-with-polypous-rhinosinusitis
#19
T A Mashkova, A B Mal'tsev, A I Nerovny, L S Bakulina
The present study was designed to investigate the clinical. laboratory, and morphological characteristics of the nasal obstruction process. It included 87 patients presenting with polypous rhinosinusitis. The dynamics of the serum leukotriene C4 (LTC4) level in the patients and the morphological changes in their polypous tissue suggested the existence of the pronounced exudative phase of allergic inflammation and provided a basis for the use of the leukotriene receptor antagonist in the form of the sodium montelucast tablets for the treatment of nasal obstruction...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067980/comparative-analysis-of-inflammatory-gene-expression-levels-in-metabolic-syndrome-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Jiny Nair, Vijay V Kakkar, Jayashree Shanker
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the likelihood of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), and inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of both these conditions. The present work was conducted to examine the relative expression of 18 key inflammatory genes associated with MetS and incident CAD in a representative group of patients. METHODS: A total of 178 male patients, including 57 with CAD and 121 without CAD, were enrolled in the study...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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