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Hosana G Rodrigues, Marco A R Vinolo, Fabio T Sato, Juliana Magdalon, Carolina M C Kuhl, Ana S Yamagata, Ana Flávia M Pessoa, Gabriella Malheiros, Marinilce F Dos Santos, Camila Lima, Sandra H Farsky, Niels O S Camara, Maria R Williner, Claudio A Bernal, Philip C Calder, Rui Curi
INTRODUCTION: Impaired wound healing has been widely reported in diabetes. Linoleic acid (LA) accelerates the skin wound healing process in non-diabetic rats. However, LA has not been tested in diabetic animals. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether oral administration of pure LA improves wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Dorsal wounds were induced in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats treated or not with LA (0...
2016: PloS One
Jianbo Li, Huixia Jia, Xiaojiao Han, Jin Zhang, Pei Sun, Mengzhu Lu, Jianjun Hu
Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jae-Myung Yoo, Ju-Hye Yang, Young Soo Kim, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma
The mistletoe Loranthus parasiticus has been used as a compound for traditional medicine in Northeast Asia for a long time and is known to possess neuroprotective action. Nonetheless, the effect of Loranthus parasiticus on allergic responses remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated whether the water extract of Loranthus parasiticus (LPE) could inhibit IgE-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 cells. LPE inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 184.5 μg/mL) and the formation of tumor necrosis factor-α (IC50, 84...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Marco Rimoldi, Oliviero Rossi, Nadia Rota
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical status of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and understand treatment approaches in Italy through specialists who treat CSU (dermatologists and allergy specialists) and CSU patients' experience. DESIGN: Multicentre survey. SETTING: Online structured questionnaires (one for physicians and one for patients). PARTICIPANTS: Physicians and patients with CSU in Italy. INTERVENTIONS: None...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Lin Luo, Rica Tanaka, Shigeyuki Kanazawa, Feng Lu, Ayato Hayashi, Takehiko Yokomizo, Hiroshi Mizuno
AIMS: The synthetic leukotriene B4 receptor type 2 (BLT2) agonist CAY10583 (CAY) accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice by promoting keratinocyte migration. However, its effects on fibroblast activity and granulation are unknown. We investigated the mechanisms by which CAY promotes wound healing. METHODS: CAY was applied to wounds on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and wound closure, granulation thickness, and epithelialization gaps were analyzed. BLT2 expression was examined by RT-PCR...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with chronic inflammation providing a link to the development of chronic health effects. Furthermore, there is evidence that pathways activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induce airway inflammation and thereby play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of genetic variation of the ER stress pathway on air pollution-induced inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Tomasz Szul, Peter Castaldi, Michael H Cho, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar
In chronic inflammatory lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the concurrent organ-specific and systemic inflammatory responses lead to airway remodelling and vascular dysfunction. Although a major common risk factor for COPD, cigarette smoke alone cannot explain the progression of this disease; there is increasing evidence that genetic predisposition also plays a role in COPD susceptibility and progression. A key enzyme in chronic lung inflammation is leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Girlaine Pereira da Silva, Daniele Corrêa Fernandes, Mariana Vieira Vigliano, Eduardo Nunes da Fonseca, Shirley Vânia Moura Santos, Paulo Roberto Marques, Maria da Graça Justo, Kátia Costa de Carvalho Sabino, Marsen Garcia Pinto Coelho
OBJECTIVES: Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli (Alismataceae) is popularly used as an infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. This work fractionated the aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus (AEEm) to improve its anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Anti-inflammatory action was evaluated, in vivo, by air pouch model (total leucocyte, protein and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 )), and, in vitro, by neutrophil migration (transwell assay) and its Mac1 expression (flow cytometry), and RAW 264...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Zhen-Nan Ye, Zong Zhuang, Ling-Yun Wu, Jing-Peng Liu, Qiang Chen, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Zi-Huan Zhang, Wei Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Chun-Hua Hang
Convincing evidence supports that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-meditated inflammation contributes to the adverse prognosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and pathologic neutrophil accumulation after SAH in the brain parenchyma enhances the inflammatory process. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a highly potent lipid chemoattractant of neutrophils, and its biological effects are mediated primarily through the high-affinity LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1). It is verified that NF-κB-dependent BLT1 mediates LTB4 signaling and LTB4 stimulates NF-κB-dependent inflammation via BLT1...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
Nathan Rabinovitch, Colby D Adams, Matthew Strand, Kirsten Koehler, John Volckens
BACKGROUND: Most particulate matter (PM) and health studies in children with asthma use exposures averaged over the course of a day and do not take into account spatial/temporal variability that presumably occurs as children move from home, into transit and then school microenvironments. The objectives of this work were to identify increases in morning PM exposure occurring within home, transit and school microenvironments and determine their associations with asthma-related inflammation and rescue medication use...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Arijit Ghosh, Fang Chen, Feng Wu, Su-Su Tang, Mei Hu, Yan Long, Hong-Bin Sun, Ling-Yi Kong, Hao Hong
Our previous studies showed that cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 (CysLT1R) is upregulated in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and that administration of CysLT1R antagonists such as pranlukast or montelukast can ameliorate memory impairment in mice. In the current study, we sought to explore the role of CysLT1R in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced mouse model of memory impairment and neuroinflammation through shRNA-mediated knockdown of CysLT1R and also its pharmacological blockade by pranlukast...
October 6, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Masamichi Yamashita
Aspirin is the oldest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it sometimes causes asthma-like symptoms known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which can be serious. Unwanted effects of aspirin (aspirin intolerance) are also observed in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, a type I allergy disease, and aspirin-induced urticaria (AIU). However the target and the mechanism of the aspirin intolerance are still unknown. There is no animal or cellular model of AERD, because its pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown, but it is thought that inhibition of cyclooxygenase by causative agents lead to an increase of free arachidonic acid, which is metabolized into cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) that provoke airway smooth muscle constriction and asthma symptoms...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Jérémie A Doiron, Luc M Leblanc, Martin J G Hébert, Natalie A Levesque, Aurélie F Paré, Jacques Jean-François, Marc Cormier, Marc E Surette, Mohamed Touaibia
Leukotrienes (LTs) are a class of lipid mediators implicated in numerous inflammatory disorders. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) possesses potent anti-LTs activity through the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of LTs. In this study, we describe the design and synthesis of CAPE analogs as radical scavengers and 5-LO inhibitors. Caffeic esters bearing propargyl and allyl linkers between the caffeoyl and aryl moieties (4a-i and 5a-i, respectively) were synthesized by Sonogashira and Heck cross coupling reactions to probe the effects of flexibility and aryl substitution on 5-LO inhibition...
September 26, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Andrew R Parker, Andrew G Ayars, Matthew C Altman, William R Henderson
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome of severe asthma and rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis with exacerbations of baseline eosinophil-driven and mast cell-driven inflammation after nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ingestion. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, dysregulation of the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism is thought to be key. Central features of AERD pathogenesis are overproduction of proinflammatory and bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin (PG) D2 and inhibition of bronchoprotective and antiinflammatory PGE2...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
John W Steinke, Spencer C Payne, Larry Borish
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) involves overexpression of proinflammatory mediators, including 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), resulting in constitutive overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Mast cells and eosinophils have roles in mediating many of the observed effects. Increased levels of both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon (IFN)-γ are present in the tissue of patients with AERD. Previous studies showed that IL-4 is primarily responsible for the upregulation of LTC4S by mast cells...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Katherine N Cahill, Tanya M Laidlaw
The acute clinical symptoms that develop following the oral ingestion of aspirin, or any other inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1, are well established in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and bronchospasm. Less commonly, gastrointestinal distress, rash, angioedema, or urticaria also develops. However, the pathobiology that drives these clinical reactions is poorly understood. Use of an intranasal aspirin challenge protocol or administration of premedications inhibiting the leukotriene pathway decreases the severity of clinical reaction, which suggests the involvement of both local effector cells and cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced reactions...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Erik Stempel, Tanja Gaich
Seven-membered rings fused with an indole are termed cyclohepta[b]indoles. Compounds exhibiting this structure motif display a broad spectrum of biological activities, ranging from inhibition of adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP), deacetylation of histones, inhibition of leukotriene production p53, antituberculosis activities, and anti-HIV activities. These biological profiles are found in natural products containing the cyclohepta[b]indole motif, as well as in pharmaceuticals that contain this structure motif...
October 6, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Hae-Sim Park
Elderly asthma (EA) is regarded as a distinct phenotype of asthma and is associated with age-related changes in airway structure and alterations in lung function and immune responses. EA is difficult to diagnose because of aging and co-morbidities, and overlaps with fixed airway obstructive disease. Novel modalities to differentiate between EA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are necessary. A multifaceted approach, including clinical history, smoking habits, atopy, and measurement of lung function, is mandatory to differentiate asthma from COPD...
October 6, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Lorraine Burke, Clare T Butler, Adrian Murphy, Bruce Moran, William M Gallagher, Jacintha O'Sullivan, Breandán N Kennedy
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current pharmacotherapy options include cytotoxic chemotherapy, anti-VEGF, and anti-EGFR targeting drugs, but these are limited by toxic side effects, limited responses and ultimately resistance. Cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) signaling regulates intestinal homeostasis with mounting evidence suggesting that CysLT signaling also plays a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Therefore, CysLT signaling represents a novel target for this malignancy...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
José A Cornejo-García, James R Perkins, Raquel Jurado-Escobar, Elena García-Martín, José A Agúndez, Enrique Viguera, Natalia Pérez-Sánchez, Natalia Blanca-López
Individual genetic background together with environmental effects are thought to be behind many human complex diseases. A number of genetic variants, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been shown to be associated with various pathological and inflammatory conditions, representing potential therapeutic targets. Prostaglandins (PTGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid and related polyunsaturated fatty acids that participate in both normal homeostasis and inflammatory conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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