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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101649/molecular-mechanism-of-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-recent-research-advances
#1
REVIEW
Kunihiro Sakuma, Wataru Aoi, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Skeletal muscle provides a fundamental basis for human function, enabling locomotion and respiration. Muscle loss occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) and normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators (atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.) have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of these mediators markedly differs within both conditions. Sarcopenia and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin-linked molecules...
January 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095590/cancer-cachexia-awareness-diagnosis-and-treatment-are-lacking-among-oncology-providers
#2
EDITORIAL
Mary Kay Barton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094484/a-simplified-screening-tool-to-identify-seriously-ill-patients-in-the-emergency-department-for-referral-to-a-palliative-care-team
#3
Paolo Cotogni, Anna DE Luca, Andrea Evangelista, Claudia Filippini, Renata Gili, Antonio Scarmozzino, Giovannino Ciccone, Luca Brazzi
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of an Emergency Department (ED)-initiated screening to identify seriously ill patients in need of palliative care (PC) and to develop a simplified screening tool (SST). METHODS: Eligible patients with known diagnosis of chronic heart, lung, liver, and kidney failures, progressive neurological diseases or advanced cancer, awaiting to be hospitalized after an ED-visit, were assessed with the screening tool from the Italian Society Anaesthesia Analgesia Resuscitation Intensive Care (SIAARTI)...
January 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090620/early-engagement-in-physical-activity-and-exercise-is-key-in-managing-cancer-cachexia
#4
Jo Bayly, Andrew Wilcock, Irene J Higginson, Matthew Maddocks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090619/the-evolving-approach-to-management-of-cancer-cachexia
#5
REVIEW
Rony Dev, Angelique Wong, David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087388/unravelling-the-role-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cancer-through-the-foxo3-foxm1-axis
#6
Paula Saavedra-García, Katie Nichols, Zimam Mahmud, Lavender Yuen-Nam Fan, Eric W-F Lam
Obesity and cachexia represent divergent states of nutritional and metabolic imbalance but both are intimately linked to cancer. There is an extensive overlap in their signalling pathways and molecular components involved such as fatty acids (FAs), which likely play a crucial role in cancer. Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are responsible of a wide range of transcriptional programmes during normal development, and the FOXO3-FOXM1 axis is associated with cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. Free fatty acids (FFAs), FA synthesis and β-oxidation are associated with cancer development and progression...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074289/anamorelin-for-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Yu Bai, Yunxia Hu, Yanhua Zhao, Xizhong Yu, Junwei Xu, Zhiyun Hua, Zhiqiang Zhao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Anamorelin on patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) based on a meta-analysis of published randomized trials. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Data from each selected study were evaluated individually. All continuous outcomes were calculated by the mean difference or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval for each study...
January 10, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065483/defining-the-role-of-dietary-intake-in-determining-weight-change-in-patients-with-cancer-cachexia
#8
R Nasrah, M Kanbalian, C Van Der Borch, N Swinton, S Wing, R T Jagoe
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062340/differences-in-symptom-burden-among-cancer-patients-with-different-stages-of-cachexia
#9
Ting Zhou, Kaixiang Yang, Sudip Thapa, Huiquan Liu, Bangyan Wang, Shiying Yu
CONTEXT: Cancer patients with cachexia may suffer from significant burden of symptoms and it can severely impair patients' quality of life. However, only few studies have targeted the symptom burden in cancer cachexia patients, and whether the symptom burden differed in different cachexia stages is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the symptom burden in cancer cachexia patients, and to compare the severity and occurrence rates of symptoms among cancer patients with non-cachexia, pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058815/small-rnaome-profiling-from-human-skeletal-muscle-novel-mirnas-and-their-targets-associated-with-cancer-cachexia
#10
Ashok Narasimhan, Sunita Ghosh, Cynthia Stretch, Russell Greiner, Oliver F Bathe, Vickie Baracos, Sambasivarao Damaraju
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene (mRNA) expression. Although the pathological role of miRs have been studied in muscle wasting conditions such as myotonic and muscular dystrophy, their roles in cancer cachexia (CC) are still emerging. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are (i) to profile human skeletal muscle expressed miRs; (ii) to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRs between cachectic and non-cachectic cancer patients; (iii) to identify mRNA targets for the DE miRs to gain mechanistic insights; and (iv) to investigate if miRs show potential prognostic and predictive value...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058802/increased-thrombin-generation-in-a-mouse-model-of-cancer-cachexia-is-partially-interleukin-6-dependent
#11
Caroline J Reddel, John D Allen, Anahid Ehteda, Ryland Taylor, Vivien M Y Chen, Jennifer L Curnow, Leonard Kritharides, Graham Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia and cancer-associated thrombosis are potentially fatal outcomes of advanced cancer which have not previously been mechanistically linked. The colon 26 (C26) carcinoma is a well-established mouse model of complications of advanced cancer cachexia, partially dependent on high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by the tumor. OBJECTIVES: To assess if cancer cachexia altered coagulation state and if this was attributable to tumor IL-6 production...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055030/prognostic-significance-of-preoperative-and-postoperative-plasma-levels-of-ghrelin-in-gastric-cancer-3-year-survival-study
#12
Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Afshin Abdirad, Amir Afraz Fallah, Sevil Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadeghi, Reza Heidari, Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh, Kazem Zendehdel
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate prognostic effects of plasma levels of ghrelin before and after gastrectomy in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We followed 81 GC patients up to 3 years in this study. They were candidates for curative gastrectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelins before and after the operation were assessed. Association of plasma levels of ghrelin with survival were assessed and adjusted for other potential prognostic factors using Cox regression analyses...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053001/cancer-cachexia-differentially-regulates-visceral-adipose-tissue-turnover
#13
Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo X Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, Miguel Luiz Batista
Cancer cachexia (CC) is a progressive metabolic syndrome that is marked by severe body weight loss. Metabolic disarrangement of fat tissues is a very early event in CC, followed by adipose tissue (AT) atrophy and remodelling. However, there is little information regarding the possible involvement of cellular turnover in this process. Thus, we evaluated the effect of CC on AT turnover of mesenteric (ME) and retroperitoneal (RP) AT depots as possible factors that contribute to AT atrophy. CC was induced by a subcutaneous injection of Walker tumour cells (2x10(7)) in Wistar rats...
4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044437/body-mass-index-change-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-is-associated-with-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-1
#14
Merry-Lynn Noelle McDonald, Sungho Won, Manuel Mattheisen, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Erica Rutten, Megan Hardin, Wai-Ki Yip, Stephen I Rennard, David A Lomas, Emiel F M Wouters, Alvar Agusti, Richard Casaburi, Christoph P Lange, George O'Connor, Craig P Hersh, Edwin K Silverman
BACKGROUND: There have been a number of candidate gene association studies of cancer cachexia-related traits, but no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been published to date. Cachexia presents in patients with a number of complex traits, including both cancer and COPD. The objective of the current investigation was to search for a shared genetic aetiology for change in body mass index (ΔBMI) among cancer and COPD by using GWAS data in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: A linear mixed effects model accounting for age, sex, and change in smoking status was used to calculate ΔBMI in participants over 40 years of age with three consecutive BMI time points (n = 4162)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041627/the-relationship-between-muscle-protein-content-and-ct-derived-muscle-radio-density-in-patients-with-upper-gi-cancer
#15
Michael I Ramage, Neil Johns, Christopher D A Deans, James A Ross, Thomas Preston, Richard J E Skipworth, Carsten Jacobi, Kenneth C H Fearon
INTRODUCTION: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss. Cross-sectional analysis of CT scans is a recognized research method for assessing skeletal muscle volume. However, little is known about the relationship between CT-derived estimates of muscle radio-density (SMD) and muscle protein content. We assessed the relationship between CT-derived body composition variables and the protein content of muscle biopsies from cancer patients. METHODS: Rectus abdominis biopsies from cancer patients (n = 32) were analysed for protein content and correlated with phenotypic data gathered using CT body composition software...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038676/health-care-professionals-experience-understanding-and-perception-of-need-of-advanced-cancer-patients-with-cachexia-and-their-families-the-benefits-of-a-dedicated-clinic
#16
David Scott, Joanne Reid, Peter Hudson, Peter Martin, Sam Porter
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is defined as the on-going loss of skeletal muscle mass that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support. It is found in up to 80% of patients with advanced cancer and has profound psycho-social consequences for patients and their families. Previous studies demonstrate that many healthcare professionals receive little formal education in cachexia management leading them to feel that they have limited understanding of the syndrome and cannot intervene effectively...
December 30, 2016: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035969/the-neurobiological-impact-of-ghrelin-suppression-after-oesophagectomy
#17
REVIEW
Conor F Murphy, Carel W le Roux
Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034669/pioglitazone-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-weight-loss-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#18
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Cassia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia, Dimas Zaia, Ângelo Rafael Carpinelli, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Helenir Medri de Souza
AIM: The lipogenic effect of pioglitazone (PGZ), an insulin (INS) sensitizer, is well established. However, few studies have evaluated PGZ effects in preventing weight loss in cancer. We investigated PGZ effects, alone or associated with INS, on INS resistance, cachexia and metabolic abnormalities induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats MAIN METHODS: PGZ (5.0mg·kg(-1), oral) or PGZ+INS (NPH, 1.0UI·kg(-1), sc), were once-daily administered during 12days, starting on the day inoculation of Walker-256 tumor cells...
December 26, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028907/clec-2-promotes-hematogenous-tumor-metastasis-and-prothrombotic-state-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#19
Toshiaki Shirai, Osamu Inoue, Shogo Tamura, Nagaharu Tsukiji, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Hiroshi Endo, Kaneo Satoh, Makoto Osada, Hitomi Sato-Uchida, Hideki Fujii, Yukio Ozaki, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
BACKGROUND: C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) is a platelet activation receptor of sialoglycoprotein podoplanin, which is expressed on the surface of certain types of tumor cells. CLEC-2-podoplanin interactions facilitate hematogenous tumor metastasis. However, direct evidence of the role of CLEC-2 in hematogenous metastasis and cancer progression is lacking. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We generated immunological CLEC-2-depleted mice by using anti-mouse CLEC-2 monoclonal antibody 2A2B10 and investigated whether CLEC-2 promoted hematogenous tumor metastasis and tumor growth and exacerbated the prognosis of mice bearing podoplanin-expressing B16F10 melanoma cells...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025863/anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-hepatoma-tumour-bearing-rats-requires-the-area-postrema-but-not-vagal-afferents-and-is-paralleled-by-increased-mic-1-gdf15
#20
Tito Borner, Myrtha Arnold, Johan Ruud, Samuel N Breit, Wolfgang Langhans, Thomas A Lutz, Anders Blomqvist, Thomas Riediger
BACKGROUND: The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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