Read by QxMD icon Read

Cancer cachexia

Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Alessandro Laviano, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Angela Koverech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients. The pathogenesis is related to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. However, whether nutritional support may contribute to effectively prevent and treat cachexia remains a debated issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that anabolic windows of opportunity occur during the clinical trajectory of cancer patients. Also, the use of specific nutrients, namely omega-3 fatty acids, may enhance the efficacy of nutritional support when tumor-driven inflammatory response is high...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Rulin Sun, Santao Zhang, Xing Lu, Wenjun Hu, Ning Lou, Yan Zhao, Jia Zhou, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-induced muscle wasting, which commonly occurs in cancer cachexia, is characterized by impaired quality of life and poor patient survival. To identify an appropriate treatment, research on the mechanism underlying muscle wasting is essential. Thus far, studies on muscle wasting using cancer cachectic models have generally focused on early cancer cachexia (ECC), before severe body weight loss occurs. In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
S Aydin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław J Kruszewski, Mariusz Szajewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Ewa Sobczak, Maksymilian Czerepko, Wiesława Łysiak-Szydłowska
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no established guidelines regarding the use of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) vs. medium-chain triglycerides medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe malnutrition of patients with refractory cachexia (RC) often causes their disqualification from invasive methods of treatment thus decreasing their quality of life and survival time. AIM: To compare the changes in nutritional state of patients with RC receiving PN with LCT and LCT/MCT lipid emulsions and to assess the influence of enteral nutrition on their survival time...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Benjamin Weide, Tina Schäfer, Alexander Martens, Anastasia Kuzkina, Laura Uder, Seema Noor, Claus Garbe, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Jörg Wischhusen
Biomarkers are strongly needed for diagnostic surveillance of metastatic melanoma patients. Based on its known association with tumor metastasis and its ability to induce cancer cachexia we investigated serum levels of growth and differentiation factor 15 (sGDF-15) as marker for overall survival (OS). sGDF-15 was retrospectively measured by ELISA in 761 samples obtained at distinct time points during routine clinical care of stage III/IV melanoma patients. In the entire cohort sGDF-15 ≥1.5ng/mL was strongly associated with reduced OS after assessment...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sasikarn Chamchod, Clifton D Fuller, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Aaron Grossberg, Jay A Messer, Jolien Heukelom, G Brandon Gunn, Micheal E Kantor, Hillary Eichelberger, Adam S Garden, David I Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
F Giap, S K M Lau, B S Gannavaparu, P Iyengar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chaoyi Wang, Dunwei Guo, Qiang Wang, Song You, Zhongpeng Qiao, Yong Liu, Hang Dai, Hua Tang
To examine the effects of aliskiren, a small-molecule renin inhibitor, on cancer cachexia and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A cancer cachexia model was established by subcutaneously injecting C26 mouse colon carcinoma cells into isogenic BALB/c mice. Aliskiren was administered intragastrically [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on day 5 (as a preventive strategy, AP group) or on day 12 (as a therapeutic strategy, AT group) after C26 injection. Mice that received no C26 injection (healthy controls, HC group) or only C26 injection but not aliskiren (cancer, CA group) were used as controls...
September 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
Meredith C Mason, Jose M Garcia, Shubhada Sansgiry, Annette Walder, David H Berger, Daniel A Anaya
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is an important measure of physiologic reserve associated with worse survival and represents an actionable factor for the cancer population. However, the incidence of cachexia in surgical cancer patients and its impact on postoperative outcomes are currently unknown. METHODS: A prospective cohort study enrolling patients having elective cancer surgery (2012-2014) at a Veterans Affairs tertiary referral center. Preoperative cancer cachexia (weight loss ≥5% over 6-mo period before surgery) was the predictor of interest...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Raymond D Devine, Clayton M Eichenseer, Loren E Wold
Cardiovascular dysfunction as a result of tumor burden is becoming a recognized complication; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. A murine model of cancer cachexia has shown marked increases of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known mediators of cardiac remodeling, in the left ventricle. The extent to which MMPs are involved in remodeling remains obscured. To this end a common antibiotic, minocycline, with MMP inhibitory properties was used to elucidate MMP involvement in tumor induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Nikita Consul, Xiaotao Guo, Courtney Coker, Sara Lopez-Pintado, Hanina Hibshoosh, Binsheng Zhao, Kevin Kalinsky, Swarnali Acharyya
Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Fábio Santos Lira, Gustavo D Pimentel, Camila Oliveira de Souza, Helena Batatinha, Luana A Biondo, Alex S Yamashita, Edson A Lima Junior, José Cesar Rosa Neto
White adipose tissue (WAT) is no longer considered a tissue whose main function is the storage of TAG. Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, several studies have elucidated the important role of WAT as an endocrine organ, the source of the adipokines. The low-grade inflammation observed in obese and cancer cachexia patients is explained, at least partially, by the exacerbated release of proinflammatory adipokines. Despite of the recent progress in the characterization of the various adipokines and lipokines produced by WAT, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the secretion of these molecules in different physiological and pathological circumstances...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Taek Gun Jeong, Ji Wan Kim, Sun-Young Lee, Hee Sun Park, Hye Seung Han, Dae Yong Hwang
BACKGROUND: Correlation between colorectal cancer (CRC) and abdominal obesity has been established, but there is a paucity of data on non-obese CRC patients. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of CRCs that occur in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive CRC patients without cachexia were included. Unintended body weight loss, T4- or M1-staged CRCs, extensive lymph node involvement, or synchronous malignancy were classified as cachectic conditions...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Mohamad Assi, Amélie Rébillard
Chronic inflammation and excessive loss of skeletal muscle usually occur during cancer cachexia, leading to functional impairment and delaying the cure of cancer. The release of cytokines by tumor promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn regulate catabolic pathways involved in muscle atrophy. ROS also exert a dual role within tumor itself, as they can either promote proliferation and vascularization or induce senescence and apoptosis. Accordingly, previous studies that used antioxidants to modulate these ROS-dependent mechanisms, in cancer and cancer cachexia, have obtained contradictory results, hence the need to gather the main findings of these studies and draw global conclusions in order to stimulate more oriented research in this field...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Matthew Maddocks, Jane Hopkinson, John Conibear, Annie Reeves, Clare Shaw, Ken C H Fearon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer cachexia is common and reduces function, treatment tolerability and quality of life. Given its multifaceted pathophysiology a multimodal approach to cachexia management is advocated for, but can be difficult to realise in practice. We use a case-based approach to highlight practical approaches to the multimodal management of cachexia for patients across the cancer trajectory. RECENT FINDINGS: Four cases with lung cancer spanning surgical resection, radical chemoradiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy and no anticancer treatment are presented...
September 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Geraldo E Vicentini, Luciane Fracaro, Sara R G de Souza, Heber A Martins, Flávia A Guarnier, Jacqueline N Zanoni
Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting...
2016: PloS One
Eric J Roeland, Joseph D Ma, Sandahl H Nelson, Tyler Seibert, Sean Heavey, Carolyn Revta, Andrea Gallivan, Vickie E Baracos
PURPOSE: Participation in cancer cachexia clinical trials requires a defined weight loss (WL) over time. A loss in skeletal muscle mass, measured by cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) image analysis, represents a possible alternative. Our aim was to compare WL versus muscle loss in patients who were screened to participate in a cancer cachexia clinical trial. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients screened for an interventional cancer cachexia trial requiring a ≥5 % WL over the preceding 6 months...
September 15, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Mitja Lainscak, Alessandro Laviano
Novel action beta-blockers combine many different pharmacological effects. The espindolol exhibits effects through β and central 5-HT1α receptors to demonstrate pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, and appetite-stimulating actions. In the ACT-ONE trial, espindolol reversed weight loss and improved handgrip strength in patients with cachexia due to non-small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer. With this trial, another frontier of cachexia management is in sight. Nonetheless, more efficacy and safety data is needed before new therapeutic indications for novel action beta-blockers can be endorsed...
September 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"