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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323020/metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells-consequences-on-ph-and-tumour-progression-integrated-therapeutic-perspectives-with-dietary-lipids-as-adjuvant-to-anticancer-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jean-François Dumas, Lucie Brisson, Stéphan Chevalier, Karine Mahéo, Gaëlle Fromont, Driffa Moussata, Pierre Besson, Sébastien Roger
While tumours arise from acquired mutations in oncogenes or tumour-suppressor genes, it is clearly established that cancers are metabolic diseases characterized by metabolic alterations in tumour cells, and also non-tumour cells of the host organism resulting in tumour cachexia and patient weakness. In this review, we aimed at delineating details by which metabolic alterations in cancer cells, characterized by mitochondrial bioenergetics deregulations and the preference for aerobic glycolysis, are critical parameters controlling the aggressive progression of tumours...
March 17, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315777/appetite-disorders-in-cancer-patients-impact-on-nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life
#2
David E Barajas Galindo, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Moreno, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo, María Asunción Rodríguez-García, Dalia María Ávila-Turcios, Miran Alejo-Ramos, Rocío Villar-Taibo, Ana Urioste-Fondo, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D Ballesteros-Pomar
Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both)...
March 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298897/plasma-ghrelin-levels-are-associated-with-anorexia-but-not-cachexia-in-patients-with-nsclc
#3
Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Jacqueline A E Langius, Annemieke C Heijboer, Annemarie Becker, Marian A E de van der Schueren, Henk M W Verheul
Background and Aims: The ghrelin receptor is one of the new therapeutic targets in the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Previous studies revealed that plasma ghrelin levels were high in patients with anorexia nervosa and low in obese subjects. We studied to what extent ghrelin levels are related with anorexia and cachexia in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: Fasted ghrelin levels were determined as well as anorexia and cachexia in patients with stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer before chemotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296247/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-a-pilot-study
#4
H Alexander Ebhardt, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Alain Schilb, Neil Johns, Carolyn A Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, Ruedi Aebersold, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294567/growth-hormone-secretagogues-prevent-dysregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-calcium-homeostasis-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#5
Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonietta Mele, Michela De Bellis, Sabata Pierno, Francesco Rana, Adriano Fonzino, Roberta Caloiero, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Arcangela Giustino, Maria Addolorata Mariggiò, Mauro Coluccia, Domenico Tricarico, Marcello Diego Lograno, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293870/erratum-to-update-on-management-of-cancer-related-cachexia
#6
Lindsey J Anderson, Eliette D Albrecht, Jose M Garcia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292759/ovarian-function-s-role-during-cancer-cachexia-progression-in-the-female-mouse
#7
Kimbell L Hetzler, Justin P Hardee, Holly A LaVoie, E Angela Murphy, James A Carson
Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and the progression of cancer cachexia in the female Apc(Min/+) mouse...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291621/a-comparison-of-research-into-cachexia-wasting-and-related-skeletal-muscle-syndromes-in-three-chronic-disease-areas
#8
Andrew J Stewart Coats, Louise G Shewan
INTRODUCTION: We compared the frequency of cancer, heart and lung related cachexia and cachexia-related research articles in the specialist journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) to those seen in a leading European journal in each specialist area during 2015 and 2016 to assess whether work on cachexia and related fields is relatively over or under represented in each specialist area. RESULTS: In the dedicated journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, there were 44 references related to cancer, 5 related to respiratory disease, 5 related to heart failure, and 21 related to more than one of these chronic diseases...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288584/adipose-tissue-fibrosis-in-human-cancer-cachexia-the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-pathway
#9
Michele Joana Alves, Raquel Galvão Figuerêdo, Flavia Figueiredo Azevedo, Diego Alexandre Cavallaro, Nelson Inácio Pinto Neto, Joanna Darck Carola Lima, Emidio Matos-Neto, Katrin Radloff, Daniela Mendes Riccardi, Rodolfo Gonzalez Camargo, Paulo Sérgio Martins De Alcântara, José Pinhata Otoch, Miguel Luiz Batista Junior, Marília Seelaender
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that dramatically decreases survival. Loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the key characteristics of cachexia. WAT wasting is paralleled by microarchitectural remodeling in cachectic cancer patients. Fibrosis results from uncontrolled ECM synthesis, a process in which, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) plays a pivotal role. So far, the mechanisms involved in adipose tissue (AT) re-arrangement, and the role of TGFβ in inducing AT remodeling in weight-losing cancer patients are poorly understood...
March 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286533/chinese-herbal-medicine-baoyuan-jiedu-decoction-inhibited-muscle-atrophy-of-cancer-cachexia-through-atrogin-l-and-murf-1
#10
YaNan Zhang, XiaoChun Han, Bing Ouyang, ZhiChun Wu, HuaYun Yu, Yuan Wang, GuoWei Liu, XuMing Ji
The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine called "Baoyuan Jiedu" (BYJD for short) decoction, improving life quality and preventing muscle atrophy of cancer cachexia model mice. We showed that the effect of BYJD decoction increased body weights of mice and reduced tumor volume and tumor mass. Furthermore, BYJD decoction increased the gastrocnemii mass and the transverse diameter of muscle fiber morphology. Moreover, BYJD reduced the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271727/impact-of-sarcopenia-in-the-management-of-urological-cancer-patients
#11
Hiroshi Fukushima, Fumitaka Koga
Sarcopenia, the degenerative and systemic loss of skeletal muscle mass, develops as a consequence of the progression of cancer cachexia. Recent studies suggest that sarcopenia may be used as a biomarker in the management of patients with several cancers. Areas covered: In this article, the authors review 1) the methods to simply and optimally evaluate and define sarcopenia using computed tomography images in daily clinical practice and 2) the impact of sarcopenia in the management of urological cancers, specifically focusing on the usefulness in predicting treatment-related complications and prognosis...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264935/stat3-promotes-ifn%C3%AE-tnf%C3%AE-induced-muscle-wasting-in-an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-and-il-6-independent-manner
#12
Jennifer F Ma, Brenda J Sanchez, Derek T Hall, Anne-Marie K Tremblay, Sergio Di Marco, Imed-Eddine Gallouzi
Cachexia is a debilitating syndrome characterized by involuntary muscle wasting that is triggered at the late stage of many cancers. While the multifactorial nature of this syndrome and the implication of cytokines such as IL-6, IFNγ, and TNFα is well established, we still do not know how various effector pathways collaborate together to trigger muscle atrophy. Here, we show that IFNγ/TNFα promotes the phosphorylation of STAT3 on Y705 residue in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers by activating JAK kinases. Unexpectedly, this effect occurs both in vitro and in vivo independently of IL-6, which is considered as one of the main triggers of STAT3-mediated muscle wasting...
March 6, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261113/validation-of-the-cachexia-score-casco-staging-cancer-patients-the-use-of-minicasco-as-a-simplified-tool
#13
Josep M Argilés, Angelica Betancourt, Joan Guàrdia-Olmos, Maribel Peró-Cebollero, Francisco J López-Soriano, Clelia Madeddu, Roberto Serpe, Sílvia Busquets
The CAchexia SCOre (CASCO) was described as a tool for the staging of cachectic cancer patients. The aim of this study is to show the metric properties of CASCO in order to classify cachectic cancer patients into three different groups, which are associated with a numerical scoring. The final aim was to clinically validate CASCO for its use in the classification of cachectic cancer patients in clinical practice. We carried out a case -control study that enrolled prospectively 186 cancer patients and 95 age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259044/neuroimmune-mechanisms-of-behavioral-alterations-in-a-syngeneic-murine-model-of-human-papilloma-virus-related-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Daniel W Vermeer, Diana L Christian, Jessica M Molkentine, Kathy A Mason, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer
Patients with cancer often experience a high symptom burden prior to the start of treatment. As disease- and treatment-related neurotoxicities appear to be additive, targeting disease-related symptoms may attenuate overall symptom burden for cancer patients and improve the tolerability of treatment. It has been hypothesized that disease-related symptoms are a consequence of tumor-induced inflammation. We tested this hypothesis using a syngeneic heterotopic murine model of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer...
February 11, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#15
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249026/development-of-ghrelin-resistance-in-a-cancer-cachexia-rat-model-using-human-gastric-cancer-derived-85as2-cells-and-the-palliative-effects-of-the-kampo-medicine-rikkunshito-on-the-model
#16
Kiyoshi Terawaki, Yohei Kashiwase, Yumi Sawada, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Katsuya Ohbuchi, Yuka Sudo, Masami Suzuki, Kanako Miyano, Seiji Shiraishi, Yoshikazu Higami, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Tomohisa Hattori, Yoshio Kase, Yoichi Ueta, Yasuhito Uezono
Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial disease characterized by decreased food intake and loss of body weight due to reduced musculature with or without loss of fat mass. Patients with gastric cancer have a high incidence of cachexia. We previously established a novel CC rat model induced by human gastric cancer-derived 85As2 cells in order to examine the pathophysiology of CC and identify potential therapeutics. In patients with CC, anorexia is often observed, despite elevation of ghrelin, suggesting that ghrelin resistance may develop in these patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248228/role-of-protein-carbonylation-in-skeletal-muscle-mass-loss-associated-with-chronic-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death...
May 6, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241978/high-prevalence-of-cachexia-in-newly-diagnosed-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-an-exploratory-study
#18
Harriët Jager-Wittenaar, Pieter U Dijkstra, Gerard Dijkstra, Johan Bijzet, Johannes A Langendijk, Bernard F A M van der Laan, Jan L N Roodenburg
OBJECTIVE: In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241470/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Roberto Valente, Marco Del Chiaro, Johan Permert, J-Matthias Löhr
Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238764/cullin-e3-ligase-activity-is-required-for-myoblast-differentiation
#20
Jordan Blondelle, Paige Shapiro, Andrea A Domenighetti, Stephan Lange
The role of cullin E3-ubiquitin ligases for muscle homeostasis is best known during muscle atrophy, as the cullin-1 substrate adaptor atrogin-1 is among the most well-characterized muscle atrogins. We investigated whether cullin activity was also crucial during terminal myoblast differentiation and aggregation of acetylcholine receptors for the establishment of neuromuscular junctions in vitro. The activity of cullin E3-ligases is modulated through post-translational modification with the small ubiquitin-like modifier nedd8...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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