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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785246/modulating-metabolism-to-improve-cancer-induced-muscle-wasting
#1
REVIEW
Fabio Penna, Riccardo Ballarò, Marc Beltrá, Serena De Lucia, Paola Costelli
Muscle wasting is one of the main features of cancer cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome frequently occurring in oncologic patients. The onset of cachexia is associated with reduced tolerance and response to antineoplastic treatments, eventually leading to clinical conditions that are not compatible with survival. Among the mechanisms underlying cachexia, protein and energy dysmetabolism play a major role. In this regard, several potential treatments have been proposed, mainly on the basis of promising results obtained in preclinical models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#2
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780646/incorporating-cystatin-c-to-predict-methotrexate-elimination-in-patients-with-cns-lymphoma-and-suspicious-renal-function
#3
Jason N Barreto, Allison L McClanahan, Andrew D Rule, Carrie A Thompson, Erin Frazee
High-dose methotrexate (MTX; ≥1 g/m2 ) is a renally eliminated and nephrotoxic first-line therapy for central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Creatinine-based estimation of renal function is the recommended approach to dosing MTX in these cases, but nonrenal determinants of creatinine production and elimination in cancer patients such as malnutrition and cachexia lead to overestimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by this method and a heightened risk for drug toxicity. Serum cystatin C is one of the first readily available, relatively inexpensive, endogenous biomarkers to emerge as a practical adjunct to creatinine for estimation of renal function for drug dosing...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779814/should-omega-3-fatty-acids-be-used-for-adjuvant-treatment-of-cancer-cachexia
#4
REVIEW
Daryna Sergiyivna Lavriv, Pedro Miguel Neves, Paula Ravasco
OBJECTIVES: Cancer cachexia is characterised by a progressive loss of muscle, resulting in functional impairment and shorter survival. Therefore, omega-3 has been studied for its role as an anti-cachectic therapy. This systematic review identified studies published on use of omega-3 in cancer cachexia in order to examine the potential benefit. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and B-on databases was conducted to identify clinical trials published between 2000 and 2015, to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFAs on nutritional features and Quality of Life in cancer cachexia...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#5
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761924/decreased-hepatic-response-to-glucagon-adrenergic-agonists-and-camp-in-glycogenolysis-gluconeogenesis-and-glycolysis-in-tumor-bearing-rats
#6
Giuliana R Biazi, Isabele G Frasson, Daniele R Miksza, Hely de Morais, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Gisele L Bertolini, Helenir M de Souza
The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746226/medical-oncologists-beliefs-practices-and-knowledge-regarding-marijuana-used-therapeutically-a-nationally-representative-survey-study
#7
Ilana M Braun, Alexi Wright, John Peteet, Fremonta L Meyer, David P Yuppa, Dragana Bolcic-Jankovic, Jessica LeBlanc, Yuchiao Chang, Liyang Yu, Manan M Nayak, James A Tulsky, Joji Suzuki, Lida Nabati, Eric G Campbell
Background Although almost every state medical marijuana (MM) law identifies cancer as a qualifying condition, little research supports MM's use in oncology. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between these laws and the scientific evidence base poses clinical challenges for oncologists. Oncologists' beliefs, knowledge, and practices regarding MM were examined in this study. Methods In November 2016, we mailed a survey on MM to a nationally-representative, random sample of 400 medical oncologists. Main outcome measures included whether oncologists reported discussing MM with patients, recommended MM clinically in the past year, or felt sufficiently informed to make such recommendations...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745361/a-window-beneath-the-skin-how-computed-tomography-assessment-of-body-composition-can-assist-in-the-identification-of-hidden-wasting-conditions-in-oncology-that-profoundly-impact-outcomes
#8
L E Daly, C M Prado, A M Ryan
Advancements in image-based technologies and body composition research over the past decade has led to increased understanding of the importance of muscle abnormalities, such as low muscle mass (sarcopenia), and more recently low muscle attenuation (MA), as important prognostic indicators of unfavourable outcomes in patients with cancer. Muscle abnormalities can be highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging between 10 and 90 %), depending on the cohort under investigation and diagnostic criteria used...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737795/the-anti-wasting-effects-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-cancer-experimental-data-and-clinical-studies
#9
Mahsa Esfahani, Sahar Sahafi, Ali Derakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#10
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722201/treating-cachexia-using-soluble-acvr2b-improves-survival-alters-mtor-localization-and-attenuates-liver-and-spleen-responses
#11
Tuuli A Nissinen, Jaakko Hentilä, Fabio Penna, Anita Lampinen, Juulia H Lautaoja, Vasco Fachada, Tanja Holopainen, Olli Ritvos, Riikka Kivelä, Juha J Hulmi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. METHODS: The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719601/increased-gut-permeability-in-cancer-cachexia-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#12
Laure B Bindels, Audrey M Neyrinck, Audrey Loumaye, Emilie Catry, Hannah Walgrave, Claire Cherbuy, Sophie Leclercq, Matthias Van Hul, Hubert Plovier, Barbara Pachikian, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella, Patrice D Cani, Jean-Paul Thissen, Nathalie M Delzenne
Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any chemotherapy. These alterations occurred independently of anorexia and were driven by interleukin 6. Gut dysfunction was found to be resistant to treatments with an anti-inflammatory bacterium ( Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) or with gut peptides involved in intestinal cell renewal (teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue)...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697274/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-body-composition-and-inflammation-markers-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer-from-a-public-hospital-in-mexico
#13
Obed Solís-Martínez, Valentina Plasa-Carvalho, Geraldine Phillips-Sixtos, Yanelly Trujillo-Cabrera, Arturo Hernández-Cuellar, Gloria E Queipo-García, Eduardo Meaney-Mendiolea, Guillermo M Ceballos-Reyes, Vanessa Fuchs-Tarlovsky
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck cancer patients are at high risk of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and literature shows that Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) could regulate it. We aim to determine the EPA effect on body composition and pro-inflammatory markers in patients with head neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized single-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer who received a polymeric diet with 2 g of EPA or a standard polymeric diet for six weeks before antineoplastic treatment...
May 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693703/the-role-of-vegf-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-malignant-pleural-effusion-in-patients-with-non%C3%A2-small-cell-lung-cancer-review
#14
Yao Chen, Nicholas W Mathy, Hongda Lu
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a severe medical condition, which can result in breathlessness, pain, cachexia and reduced physical activity. It can occur in almost all types of malignant tumors; however, lung cancer is the most common cause of MPE, accounting for ~1/3 of clinical cases. Although there are numerous therapeutic approaches currently available for the treatment of MPE, none are fully effective and the majority can only alleviate the symptoms of the patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has now been recognized as one of the most important regulatory factors in tumor angiogenesis, which participates in the entire process of tumor growth through its function to stimulate tumor angiogenesis, activate host vascular endothelial cells and promote malignant proliferation...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682773/mortality-data-from-the-european-adrenal-insufficiency-registry-patient-characterization-and-associations
#15
Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Pinggao Zhang, Andrea M Isidori, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Mortality from primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI; PAI and SAI, respectively) is 2-3-fold higher than in the general population. Mortality relates to cardiovascular disease, acute adrenal crisis (AC), cancer and infections; however, there has been little further characterization of patients who have died. DESIGN/METHODS: We analysed real-world data from 2034 patients (801 PAI, 1233 SAI) in the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR; NCT01661387)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682162/metabolic-alterations-in-a-slow-paced-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-induced-wasting
#16
Elisabeth Wyart, Simone Reano, Myriam Y Hsu, Dario Livio Longo, Mingchuan Li, Emilio Hirsch, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Chiara Riganti, Paolo Ettore Porporato
Cancer cachexia is a devastating syndrome occurring in the majority of terminally ill cancer patients. Notably, skeletal muscle atrophy is a consistent feature affecting the quality of life and prognosis. To date, limited therapeutic options are available, and research in the field is hampered by the lack of satisfactory models to study the complexity of wasting in cachexia-inducing tumors, such as pancreatic cancer. Moreover, currently used in vivo models are characterized by an explosive cachexia with a lethal wasting within few days, while pancreatic cancer patients might experience alterations long before the onset of overt wasting...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680449/modeling-tumor-growth-inhibition-and-toxicity-outcome-after-administration-of-anticancer-agents-in-xenograft-mice-a-dynamic-energy-budget-deb-approach
#17
N Terranova, E M Tosca, E Borella, E Pesenti, M Rocchetti, P Magni
Host features, such as cell proliferation rates, caloric intake, metabolism and energetic conditions, significantly influence tumor growth; at the same time, tumor growth may have a dramatic impact on the host conditions. For example, in clinics, at certain stages of the tumor growth, cachexia (body weight reduction) may become so relevant to be considered as responsible for around 20% of cancer deaths. Unfortunately, anticancer therapies may also contribute to the development of cachexia due to reduced food intake (anorexia), commonly observed during the treatment periods...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672230/diaphragm-plasticity-in-aging-and-disease-therapies-for-muscle-weakness-go-from-strength-to-strength
#18
Sarah M Greising, Coen A C Ottenheijm, Ken D O'Halloran, Esther Barreiro
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and is required to be highly active throughout the lifespan. The diaphragm muscle must be able to produce and sustain various behaviors that range from ventilatory to non-ventilatory such as those required for airway maintenance and clearance. Throughout the lifespan various circumstances and conditions may affect the ability of the diaphragm muscle to generate requisite forces and in turn the diaphragm muscle may undergo significant weakness and dysfunction. For example, hypoxic stress, critical illness, cancer cachexia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and age-related sarcopenia all represent conditions in which significant diaphragm muscle dysfunction exits...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662645/a-novel-herbal-formula-sge-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-cancer-cell-death-and-alleviates-cachexia-symptoms-induced-by-colon-26-adenocarcinoma
#19
Aeyung Kim, Minju Im, Jin Yeul Ma
Cachexia in cancer patients, characterized by marked involuntary weight loss and impaired physical function, is associated with a poor prognosis in response to conventional treatment and with an increase in cancer-related mortality. Prevention of skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia via inhibition of pro-cachectic factors, as well as a reduction in tumor mass, has been considered reasonable pharmacological and nutritional interventions to treat cancer patients. In this study, we constructed a novel herbal formula, SGE, which contains Ginseng Radix alba, Atractylodis Rhizoma alba , and Hoelen , examined its anti-cancer and anti-cachexia efficacies...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651709/-cannabinoid-therapy-in-practice
#20
REVIEW
T Rasche, D Emmert, C Stieber, M Mücke, R Conrad
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the media and scientists have shown increased interest in cannabis-based drugs. OBJECTIVES: Background information about cannabis-based drugs and their mechanism of action as well as discussion of possible applications as supportive therapy or in palliative medicine, respectively, are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The recent literature was examined and evaluated. RESULTS: In many medical fields, we do not have sufficient evidence for the efficacy of cannabinoids...
April 12, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
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