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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712119/circulating-activin-a-predicts-survival-in-cancer-patients
#1
Audrey Loumaye, Marie de Barsy, Maxime Nachit, Pascale Lause, Aline van Maanen, Pierre Trefois, Damien Gruson, Jean-Paul Thissen
BACKGROUND: Several experimental evidences pinpoint the possible role of Activin A (ActA) as a driver of cancer cachexia. Supporting this hypothesis, we showed recently that human cancer cachexia is associated with high ActA levels. Moreover, ActA levels were correlated with body weight loss and skeletal muscle density, two prognostic factors in cancer patients. Our goal was therefore to investigate the value of ActA to predict survival in cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with colorectal or lung cancer were prospectively enrolled at the time of diagnosis or relapse between January 2012 and March 2014...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708669/the-role-of-hypothalamic-inflammation-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-serotonin-in-the-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome
#2
Klaske van Norren, Jvalini T Dwarkasing, Renger F Witkamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cancer patients, the development of cachexia (muscle wasting) is frequently aggravated by anorexia (loss of appetite). Their concurrence is often referred to as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This review focusses on the recent evidence underlining hypothalamic inflammation as key driver of these processes. Special attention is given to the involvement of hypothalamic serotonin. RECENT FINDINGS: The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is directly associated with higher mortality in cancer patients...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701224/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-40-49
#3
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology, which sparkle diverse thoughts, interesting communications, and potential collaborations among researchers all over the world. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as followed. Question 40. Why do mice being used as tumorigenesis models raised in different places or different conditions possess different tumor formation rate? Question 41. How could we generate more effective anti-metastasis drugs? Question 42...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701059/brucea-javanica-oil-emulsion-alleviates-cachexia-induced-by-lewis-lung-cancer-cells-in-mice
#4
Chao Chen, Binbin Wang
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) on cachexia, by observing changes in related indexes in mice with cachexia and identifying the genes responsible based on gene chip analysis. In the BJOE treatment group, body weight loss, tumor growth and metastasis were found obviously inhibited, food and water intake had markedly increased, and survival time was significantly prolonged, as compared to the control group. Moreover, the BJOE witnessed improvement in body weight, prevention of tumor metastasis and overall increase in survival time, as compared to Indometacin (IND, the positive control medicine)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691536/mabp1-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#5
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, Mauricio Burotto
Inflammation is an established process in colorectal cancer development and a hallmark of progression, and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the morbidity and functional compromise associated with malignancy. MABp1, described as a first-in-class true human antibody against interleukin-1α, has undergone clinical trial evaluation in a number of indications, recently completing late phase clinical trial testing under Fast Track designation for cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome in colorectal cancer patients...
July 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685088/modified-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Koichi Kurishima, Hiroko Watanabe, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Hiroaki Satoh, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Systemic inflammatory response, which represents the presence of cachexia, is observed often in patients with lung cancer. To evaluate the prognostic significance of the presence of a systemic inflammatory response in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, a retrospective study using modified Glasgow prognostic Score (mGPS) was performed. This score is composed of serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels. All the patients with SCLC who were diagnosed in Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital and Mito Medical Center between April 1999 and July 2016 were included in this study...
July 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684736/fish-oil-enriched-nutrition-combined-with-systemic-chemotherapy-for-gastrointestinal-cancer-patients-with-cancer-cachexia
#7
Yumiko Shirai, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Asahi Hishida, Aki Ogawa, Kyoko Okamoto, Miki Shintani, Yuki Morimoto, Ryutaro Nishikawa, Takeshi Yokoe, Koji Tanaka, Hisashi Urata, Yuji Toiyama, Yasuhiro Inoue, Motoyoshi Tanaka, Yasuhiko Mohri, Ajay Goel, Masato Kusunoki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki
Despite recent advances in chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer, a crucial factor related to poor prognosis is reduced tolerance to chemotherapy induced by cancer cachexia. Fish oil (FO)-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) modulates inflammation in patients with various malignancies; however, the impact of FO-enriched nutrition as a combined modality therapy on clinical outcomes remains controversial. We systemically analysed chronological changes in biochemical and physiological status using bioelectrical impedance analysis in 128 gastrointestinal cancer patients provided with or without FO-enriched nutrition during chemotherapy...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677505/oncostatin-m-potential-implications-for-malignancy-and-metabolism
#8
Jacqueline M Stephens, Carrie M Elks
BACKGROUND: The gp130 cytokine, oncostatin M (OSM), serves several physiological and pathological functions. At the molecular level, OSM can directly or indirectly participate in tumorigenesis and insulin resistance development. Although OSM was initially found to be anti-proliferative in tumors, numerous tumorigenic roles for OSM have been reported in a variety of cancers. In metabolic diseases, OSM signaling may be required for homeostasis in both the liver and the adipose tissue, since abrogation of OSM signaling causes obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652543/ghrelin-does-not-influence-cancer-progression-in-a-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#9
Hironobu Tsubouchi, Hitomi Onomura, Yusuke Saito, Shigehisa Yanagi, Ayako Miura, Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Masamitsu Nakazato
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is produced in the human stomach. Although ghrelin has therapeutic potential for cancer cachexia, ghrelin treatment may have a concern about accelerating cancer progression. Here, using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line HLC-1, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on molecular mechanisms linked to cancer progression, including cell viability, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and mitochondrial activity. Both types of mouse alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) expressed the GHSR, as did the human normal airway cell lines BEAS-2B and HLC-1...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651827/effects-of-nutrition-and-physical-exercise-intervention-in-palliative-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Alexandra Uster, Maya Ruehlin, Stefanie Mey, David Gisi, Ruud Knols, Reinhard Imoberdorf, Miklos Pless, Peter E Ballmer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer cachexia is multifactorial and should be targeted using a multimodal form of intervention. The purpose of the present trial was to test the effects of a combined nutrition and physical exercise program on cancer patients with metastatic or locally advanced tumors of the gastrointestinal and lung tracts. METHODS: Patients were randomized into two groups: One group received a minimum of three standardized individual nutritional counselling sessions and participated in a 60-min exercise program twice a week...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650393/orthotopic-patient-derived-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-engraft-into-the-pancreatic-parenchyma-metastasize-and-induce-muscle-wasting-to-recapitulate-the-human-disease
#11
Kristina L Go, Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
OBJECTIVE: Limitations associated with current animal models serve as a major obstacle to reliable preclinical evaluation of therapies in pancreatic cancer (PC). In an effort to develop more reliable preclinical models, we have recently established a subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. However, critical aspects of PC responsible for its highly lethal nature, such as the development of distant metastasis and cancer cachexia, remain underrepresented in the flank PDX model...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643734/the-significance-of-serum-leptin-level-in-patients-with-early-stage-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Fatih Karatas, Bulent Yalcin, Suleyman Sahin, Hakan Akbulut, Gungor Utkan, Ahmet Demirkazik, Fikri Icli
BACKGROUNDS: The serum leptin level (SLL) has been shown to increase in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, available data regarding the relation between SLL and tumor subtypes, survival, cachexia, and tumor respectability in NSCLC are still under debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate SLL in NSCLC patients with and without cachexia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 patients with early stage NSCLC were enrolled in this prospective study...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637074/-nutrition-in-cancer-effective-in-prevention-and-treatment
#13
Jann Arends
Nutritional effects on cancer occurrence and on treatment outcome in cancer patients may depend on food preferences and on the quantity of foods supplied. However, it has been difficult to reliably show beneficial effects of specific dietary concepts on cancer incidence. On the other hand, obesity as a result of chronic overfeeding has been linked firmly to an increased risk of a number of cancers as well as on cancer recurrence after treatment. Metabolic consequences of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may be responsible for inducing and/or promoting cancer growth and should be antagonized by regular moderate physical activity in healthy subjects and in cancer survivors...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627024/the-applicability-of-a-weight-loss-grading-system-in-cancer-cachexia-a-longitudinal-analysis
#14
Ola Magne Vagnildhaug, David Blum, Andrew Wilcock, Peter Fayers, Florian Strasser, Vickie E Baracos, Marianne J Hjermstad, Stein Kaasa, Barry Laird, Tora S Solheim
BACKGROUND: A body mass index (BMI) adjusted weight loss grading system (WLGS) is related to survival in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the WLGS by confirming its prognostic validity, evaluating its relationship to cachexia domains, and exploring its ability to predict cachexia progression. METHODS: An international, prospective observational study of patients with incurable cancer was conducted. For each patient, weight loss grade was scored 0-4...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#15
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621564/the-emerging-role-of-anamorelin-hydrochloride-in-the-management-of-patients-with-cancer-anorexia-cachexia
#16
David C Currow, Richard Je Skipworth
Cancer cachexia affects many patients with advanced cancer. This multifactorial syndrome, which involves loss of muscle mass and body weight, profoundly affects patients' physical functioning and quality of life. Pharmacologic interventions that target weight loss and also improve patient-reported measures are required. Anamorelin hydrochloride is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist for the treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia that stimulates release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, and improves food intake and body weight...
June 16, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614627/a-randomized-phase-ii-feasibility-trial-of-a-multimodal-intervention-for-the-management-of-cachexia-in-lung-and-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Tora S Solheim, Barry J A Laird, Trude Rakel Balstad, Guro B Stene, Asta Bye, Neil Johns, Caroline H Pettersen, Marie Fallon, Peter Fayers, Kenneth Fearon, Stein Kaasa
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of weight loss (including muscle and fat), anorexia, and decreased physical function. It has been suggested that the optimal treatment for cachexia should be a multimodal intervention. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of a multimodal intervention (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplements, exercise, and anti-inflammatory medication: celecoxib) for cancer cachexia in patients with incurable lung or pancreatic cancer, undergoing chemotherapy...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609371/orthotopic-patient-derived-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-engraft-into-the-pancreatic-parenchyma-metastasize-and-induce-muscle-wasting-to-recapitulate-the-human-disease
#18
Kristina L Go, Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
OBJECTIVE: Limitations associated with current animal models serve as a major obstacle to reliable preclinical evaluation of therapies in pancreatic cancer (PC). In an effort to develop more reliable preclinical models, we have recently established a subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. However, critical aspects of PC responsible for its highly lethal nature, such as the development of distant metastasis and cancer cachexia, remain underrepresented in the flank PDX model...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607086/specific-targeting-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-ligands-demonstrates-distinct-roles-in-the-regulation-of-muscle-mass-in-health-and-disease
#19
Justin L Chen, Kelly L Walton, Adam Hagg, Timothy D Colgan, Katharine Johnson, Hongwei Qian, Paul Gregorevic, Craig A Harrison
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) network of ligands and intracellular signaling proteins is a subject of intense interest within the field of skeletal muscle biology. To define the relative contribution of endogenous TGF-β proteins to the negative regulation of muscle mass via their activation of the Smad2/3 signaling axis, we used local injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) encoding ligand-specific antagonists into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Eight weeks after AAV injection, inhibition of activin A and activin B signaling produced moderate (∼20%), but significant, increases in TA mass, indicating that endogenous activins repress muscle growth...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606800/physical-exercise-positively-influences-breast-cancer-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Kalliopi Adraskela, Eleftheria Veisaki, Michael Koutsilieris, Anastassios Philippou
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer in women. Its pathogenesis involves genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. A large body of evidence indicates that physical activity has positive effects on every aspect of breast cancer evolution, including prevention, medical treatment, and aftercare clinical settings. Thus, different types of exercise can influence the prevention and progression of the disease through several common mechanisms, such as reduction of insulin resistance and improvement of immunity and cardiovascular function...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
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