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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922293/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-cancer-cachexia
#1
Fabio Penna, Andrea Camperi, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Paola Costelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility to use vitamin D supplementation to improve muscle wasting, with particular focus on cancer cachexia, is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D exerts biological actions on myogenic precursor proliferation and differentiation, impinging on muscle regeneration. However, the effects of VitD supplementation in diseases associated with muscle atrophy, such as cancer cachexia, are poorly investigated. Data obtained in experimental models of cancer cachexia show that the administration of vitamin D to tumor-bearing animals is not able to prevent or delay both muscle wasting and adipose tissue depletion, despite increased expression of muscle vitamin D receptor...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921385/acute-impact-of-home-parenteral-nutrition-in-patients-with-late-stage-cancer-on-family-caregivers-preliminary-data
#2
Lidia Santarpia, Federico Bozzetti
PURPOSE: Since there is no information regarding quality of life of caregivers assisting patients with advanced malignancy on home parenteral nutrition, herewith we report a preliminary series of 19 patients who received total parenteral nutrition at home under the strict supervision of their relatives. METHODS: The relatives of 19 incurable patients with cancer-related cachexia, discharged from the hospital with a home parenteral nutrition program, were prospectively studied...
September 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918909/progesterone-analogues-reduce-plasma-epstein-barr-virus-dna-load-and-improve-pain-control-in-recurrent-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-under-supportive-care
#3
Chia-Yen Hung, Tung-Liang Lin, Yung-Chia Kuo, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Hung-Ming Wang, Cheng-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND: Progesterone analogues, such as megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA), have been used for the palliative care of cancer cachexia for decades and have proven to increase body weight and improve quality of life and performance status. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone analogue use on quality of life in terms of pain control, performance status, body weight gain, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients...
August 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914642/implications-of-weight-loss-for-cancer-patients-receiving-radiotherapy
#4
Steven Kai Ming Lau, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer-associated weight loss is a common comorbid condition best described among patients with advanced malignancy receiving systemic therapy, but its relationship to patients undergoing radiation treatment is less well described. We review the interaction between cancer-associated weight loss and radiation treatment as well as its prognostic significance. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies demonstrate a consistent detrimental effect of cancer-associated weight loss either existing prior to treatment or developing during radiotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911073/treating-cancer-cachexia-an-evolving-landscape
#5
B Laird, M Fallon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902785/predictors-of-pancreatic-cancer-associated-weight-loss-and-nutritional-interventions
#6
Laura Nemer, Somashekar G Krishna, Zarine K Shah, Darwin L Conwell, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Mary Dillhoff, Denis C Guttridge, Alice Hinton, Andrei Manilchuk, Timothy M Pawlik, Carl R Schmidt, Erin E Talbert, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Phil A Hart
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often accompanied by weight loss. We sought to characterize factors associated with weight loss and observed nutritional interventions, as well as define the effect of weight loss on survival. METHODS: Consecutive subjects diagnosed with PDAC (N = 123) were retrospectively evaluated. Univariate analysis was used to compare subjects with and without substantial (>5%) weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with weight loss, and survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox survival models...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884400/nutrition-and-aging-a-practicing-oncologist-s-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Rishi Jain, Efrat Dotan
Malnutrition is common in patients with cancer and is associated with a variety of negative outcomes. These can include reduced treatment tolerance and worsened cancer prognosis. Various aspects of aging, including sensory, physical, or psychosocial changes, place older patients at a particularly high risk for malnutrition, and these geriatric factors must be identified early and addressed. Despite the lack of available evidence on the optimal nutritional interventions for older adults with cancer, the oncologist must be prepared to address the common nutritional concerns that arise in both advanced cancer and survivorship settings...
September 7, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883883/atractylodin-induces-myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation-and-promotes-gastric-emptying-through-ghrelin-receptor
#9
Yu Bai, Yan-Hua Zhao, Jian-Ya Xu, Xi-Zhong Yu, Yun-Xia Hu, Zhi-Qiang Zhao
Atractylodin is one of the main constituents in the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea Thunb., being capable of treating cancer cachexia-anorexia and age-related diseases as an agonist of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSR was herein expressed in human gastric smooth muscle cells (HGSMCs) and activated by ghrelin receptor agonist L-692,585. Like L-692,585, atractylodin also increased Ca(2+) and enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) through GHSR in HGSMCs. In addition, atractylodin promoted gastric emptying and MLC phosphorylation in the gastric antrum of mice also through GHSR...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882973/elevated-serum-aa-epa-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-skeletal-muscle-depletion-in-cachexic-patients-with-advanced-gastro-intestinal-cancers
#10
Moeko Kitagawa, Seiji Haji, Teruyoshi Amagai
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of cancer patients has increased. Cancer patients are prone to sarcopenia as a result of the decrease in muscle mass and muscle weakness which occurs in cancer cachexia. Attention has been given on the effects of fatty acid administration on cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart-review study of consecutive patients with unresectable advanced GI cancer (stage IV) (n=46) receiving chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient or in-hospital setting between December 2012 and September 2015 at our Institution...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865876/resistance-and-tolerance-defenses-in-cancer-lessons-from-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Sheila Rao, Janelle S Ayres
Infectious disease and cancer are two maladies with multiple similarities. Both types of disease induce activation of the host immune response and induce pathologies that compromise host heath and survival. In infection biology, defense against pathogens can be broken down into two distinct components called resistance and tolerance. Resistance protects the host by killing pathogens. Tolerance protects the host by alleviating the pathology caused by the infection. The conceptual framework of resistance and tolerance, concepts explored during infectious disease, is applicable to cancer, a condition for which patient survival is dependent on tumor eradication (resistance) and the mitigation of pathologies that occur during disease (tolerance)...
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859366/variation-by-stage-in-the-effects-of-prediagnosis-weight-loss-on-mortality-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-esophageal-cancer-patients
#12
S Shen, J L Araujo, N K Altorki, J R Sonett, A Rodriguez, K Sungur-Stasik, C F Spinelli, A I Neugut, J A Abrams
Cancer cachexia is increasingly recognized as a poor prognostic marker for various tumor types. Weight loss in esophageal cancer is multifactorial, as patients with bulky tumors also have reduced ability to eat. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prediagnosis weight loss and mortality in esophageal cancer and to determine whether these associations vary with tumor stage. We conducted a prospective cohort study of esophageal cancer patients at two tertiary centers. We recorded baseline patient characteristics including medications, smoking, body mass index, and weight loss in the year prior to diagnosis, and collected data on treatment and outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858429/energy-imbalance-and-cancer-cause-or-consequence
#13
REVIEW
Xiaohui Wang, Wei Liu, Xiangyang Xie
Obesity has been an epidemic worldwide over the past decades and significantly increases the risk of developing a variety of deadly diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been well documented. The drastically increased frequency of a number of cancers in obesity has attracted growing interest. On one hand, how increased adiposity promotes cancer development remains poorly understood, despite the fact that considerable epidemiological evidence has suggested links between them...
August 31, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855797/oncology-update-anamorelin
#14
REVIEW
Eric Prommer
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a catabolic syndrome associated with uncontrolled muscle breakdown. There may be associated fat loss. Occurring in high frequency in advanced cancer, it is an indicator of poor prognosis. Besides weight loss, patients experience a cluster of symptoms including anorexia, early satiety, and weakness. The 3 stages of cachexia include stages of precachexia, cachexia, and refractory cachexia. Refractory cachexia is associated with active catabolism or the presence of factors that make active management of weight loss no longer possible...
2017: Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846098/the-metabolic-effects-of-gdf15-are-mediated-by-the-orphan-receptor-gfral
#15
Paul J Emmerson, Feng Wang, Yong Du, Qian Liu, Richard T Pickard, Malgorzata D Gonciarz, Tamer Coskun, Matthew J Hamang, Dana K Sindelar, Kimberly K Ballman, Lisa A Foltz, Avinash Muppidi, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, Gavin C Barnard, Jason X Tang, Xilin Liu, Xudong Mao, Robert Siegel, John H Sloan, Pamela J Mitchell, Bei B Zhang, Ruth E Gimeno, Bei Shan, Xinle Wu
Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), also known as MIC-1, is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and has been implicated in various biological functions, including cancer cachexia, renal and heart failure, atherosclerosis and metabolism. A connection between GDF15 and body-weight regulation was initially suggested on the basis of an observation that increasing GDF15 levels in serum correlated with weight loss in individuals with advanced prostate cancer. In animal models, overexpression of GDF15 leads to a lean phenotype, hypophagia and other improvements in metabolic parameters, suggesting that recombinant GDF15 protein could potentially be used in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 28, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845591/mitochondrial-degeneration-precedes-the-development-of-muscle-atrophy-in-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-in-tumour-bearing-mice
#16
Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Justin P Hardee, James A Carson, Michael P Wiggs, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is largely irreversible, at least via nutritional means, and responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. Therefore, preventive measures are of primary importance; however, little is known about muscle perturbations prior to onset of cachexia. Cancer cachexia is associated with mitochondrial degeneration; yet, it remains to be determined if mitochondrial degeneration precedes muscle wasting in cancer cachexia. Therefore, our purpose was to determine if mitochondrial degeneration precedes cancer-induced muscle wasting in tumour-bearing mice...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844941/paracrine-activin-a-signaling-promotes-melanoma-growth-and-metastasis-through-immune-evasion
#17
Prudence Donovan, Olivier A Dubey, Susanna Kallioinen, Katherine W Rogers, Katja Muehlethaler, Patrick Müller, Donata Rimoldi, Daniel B Constam
The secreted growth factor Activin-A of the TGFβ family and its receptors can promote or inhibit several cancer hallmarks including tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, vascularization, lymphangiogenesis and inflammation. However, a role in immune evasion and its relationship with tumor-induced muscle wasting and tumor vascularization, and the relative contributions of autocrine versus paracrine Activin signaling remain to be evaluated. To address this, we compared the effects of truncated soluble Activin receptor II B as a ligand trap, or constitutively active mutant type IB receptor versus secreted Activin-A or the related ligand Nodal in mouse and human melanoma cell lines and tumor grafts...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842895/skeletal-muscle-lysosomal-function-via-cathepsin-activity-measurement
#18
Kristyn Gumpper, Matthew Sermersheim, Michael X Zhu, Pei-Hui Lin
Muscle wasting or cachexia is commonly associated with aging and many diseases such as cancer, infection, autoimmune disorders, and trauma. Decrease in muscle mass, or muscle atrophy, is often caused by dysfunction of protein proteolytic systems, such as lysosomes, which regulate protein turnover and homeostasis. Lysosomes contain many hydrolases and proteases and, thus, represent the major organelle that control protein turnover. Recently, lysosomes have emerged as a signaling hub to integrate cellular functions of nutrient sensing and metabolism, autophagy, phagocytosis, and endocytosis, which are all related to tissue homeostasis...
August 27, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830524/lipases-and-lipid-droplet-associated-protein-expression-in-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-cachectic-patients-with-cancer
#19
Renata Silvério, Fábio S Lira, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M Oller do Nascimento, José P Otoch, Paulo S M Alcântara, Miguel L Batista, Marília Seelaender
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by marked loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Fat loss from adipose tissue in cancer cachexia is partly the result of increased lipolysis. Despite the growing amount of studies focused on elucidating the mechanisms through which lipolysis-related proteins regulate the lipolytic process, there are scarce data concerning that profile in the adipose tissue of cancer cachectic patients. Considering its fundamental importance, it was our main purpose to characterize the expression of the lipolysis-related proteins in the white adipose tissue of cachectic cancer patients...
August 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825869/cancer-cachexia-cause-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
Todd W Mattox
Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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