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Cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328480/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-inhibit-apoptosis-in-myoblasts-cocultured-with-colon-carcinoma-cells
#1
Xianliang Zeng, Sizeng Chen, Yanfeng Lin, Zhao Ke
Cancer cachexia is a life‑threatening syndrome associated with myofiber damage. Tumor factors impair muscle regeneration by promoting myoblast apoptosis. Ghrelin is a multifunctional hormone with an anti‑apoptotic effect, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated whether the coculturing of C2C12 myoblasts with CT26 colon carcinoma cells may induce myoblast apoptosis, and whether acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) may exert anti‑apoptotic effects...
January 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318756/loss-of-skeletal-muscle-during-systemic-chemotherapy-is-prognostic-of-poor-survival-in-patients-with-foregut-cancer
#2
Louise E Daly, Éadaoin B Ní Bhuachalla, Derek G Power, Samantha J Cushen, Karl James, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, weight loss, and muscle wasting are common in patients with foregut cancers (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile ducts) and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the changes in body composition that occur in these patients during chemotherapy and its impacts clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of adult foregut cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2016 was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316343/circulating-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-mcp-1-is-associated-with-cachexia-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#3
Erin E Talbert, Heather L Lewis, Matthew R Farren, Mitchell L Ramsey, Jeffery M Chakedis, Priyani Rajasekera, Ericka Haverick, Angela Sarna, Mark Bloomston, Timothy M Pawlik, Teresa A Zimmers, Gregory B Lesinski, Phil A Hart, Mary E Dillhoff, Carl R Schmidt, Denis C Guttridge
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated wasting, termed cancer cachexia, has a profound effect on the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients but remains difficult to recognize and diagnose. While increases in circulating levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with cancer cachexia, these associations were generally made in patients with advanced disease and thus may be associated with disease progression rather than directly with the cachexia syndrome. Thus, we sought to assess potential biomarkers of cancer-induced cachexia in patients with earlier stages of disease...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315166/exercise-protects-against-cancer-induced-cardiac-cachexia
#4
Traci L Parry, Reid Hayward
Cancer has been shown to negatively stimulate autophagy, leading to declines in cardiac function. While exercise is cardioprotective, its influence over autophagy-mediated tumor growth and cardiac function are not well defined. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of exercise on tumor morphology and cardiac function. METHODS: Fisher 344 rats (n=28) were assigned to one of four groups: 1) sedentary non tumor-bearing (SED), 2) sedentary tumor-bearing (SED+T), 3) wheel run non-tumor bearing (WR), or 4) wheel running tumor bearing (WR+T)...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311302/fenofibrate-prevents-skeletal-muscle-loss-in-mice-with-lung-cancer
#5
Marcus D Goncalves, Seo-Kyoung Hwang, Chantal Pauli, Charles J Murphy, Zhe Cheng, Benjamin D Hopkins, David Wu, Ryan M Loughran, Brooke M Emerling, Guoan Zhang, Douglas T Fearon, Lewis C Cantley
The cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by the catabolism of stored nutrients in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that is particularly prevalent in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of skeletal muscle results in functional impairments and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in systemic metabolism in a genetically engineered mouse model of NSCLC. We show that a portion of these animals develop loss of skeletal muscle, loss of adipose tissue, and increased inflammatory markers mirroring the human cachexia syndrome...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304290/effects-of-metformin-on-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-disorders-in-tumor-bearing-rats-with-advanced-cachexia
#6
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Angelo Carpinelli, Helenir Medri de Souza
Metformin (MET) is widely used in the correction of insulin (INS) resistance and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on INS resistance and metabolic disorders associated with cancer cachexia is not established. We investigated the MET effects, isolated or associated with INS, on INS resistance and metabolic changes induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats with advanced cachexia. MET (500 mg.kg-1, oral) and MET + INS (NPH, 1.0 IU.kg-1, sc) were administered during 12 days, starting on the day of tumor cell inoculation...
January 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286357/are-cannabinoids-an-alternative-for-cachexia-anorexia-syndrome-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#7
Claudia Cabeza, Oscar Corsi, Pedro Pérez-Cruz
INTRODUCTION: Cachexia and anorexia are among the most frequent symptoms in patients with cancer. Cannabinoids have been used in patients with advanced cancer; however, their role is still controversial. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
December 29, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285688/pancreatoblastoma-an-unusual-diagnosis-in-an-adult-patient
#8
Gonçalo Nunes, Hélder Coelho, Marta Patita, Rita Barosa, Pedro Pinto Marques, Lídia Roque Ramos, Maria José Brito, Aurora Tomaz, Jorge Fonseca
The authors describe a 31-year-old man admitted due to progressive weight loss, diarrhea and massive hepatomegaly. Laboratory data showed anemia (haemoglobin 11.7 g/dl), abnormal liver tests (total bilirubin 1.4 g/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 70 U/l, alanine aminotransferase 37 U/l and alkaline phosphatase 520 U/l). Abdominal ultrasound (US) displayed a large heterogeneous liver with a segment IV 25 mm nodule. Magnetic resonance revealed a 4 cm pancreatic tail mass and several liver nodules consistent with metastasis...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282687/metabolic-changes-during-cancer-cachexia-pathogenesis
#9
Ng Shyh-Chang
Wasting of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is a hallmark of metastatic cancer and a major cause of death. Like patients with cachexia caused by other chronic infections or inflammatory diseases, the cancer subject manifests both malnutrition and metabolic stress. Both carbohydrate utilization and amino acid incorporation are decreased in the muscles of cancer cachexia patients. Cancer cells affect host metabolism in two ways: (a) their own metabolism of nutrients into other metabolites and (b) circulating factors they secrete or induce the host to secrete...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274028/a-cross-sectional-study-examining-the-prevalence-of-cachexia-and-areas-of-unmet-need-in-patients-with-cancer
#10
Ola Magne Vagnildhaug, Trude Rakel Balstad, Sigrun Saur Almberg, Cinzia Brunelli, Anne Kari Knudsen, Stein Kaasa, Morten Thronæs, Barry Laird, Tora Skeidsvoll Solheim
PURPOSE: The semantics of defining cancer cachexia over the last decade has resulted in uncertainty as to the prevalence. This has further hindered the recognition and subsequent treatment of this condition. Following the consensus definition for cancer cachexia in 2011, there is now a need to establish estimates of prevalence. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of cachexia in an unselected cancer population. A secondary aim was to assess patient-perceived need of attention to cachexia...
December 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258243/canadine-from-corydalis-turtschaninovii-stimulates-myoblast-differentiation-and-protects-against-myotube-atrophy
#11
Heyjin Lee, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Nam-In Baek, Jae-Ha Ryu
Cachexia and sarcopenia are the main causes of muscle atrophy. These result in a reduction in the muscle fiber area, myo-protein content, and muscle strength, with various molecular modulators being involved. Although several reports have proposed potential therapeutic agents, no effective treatments have been found for muscle atrophy. We searched for myogenic modulators from medicinal plants to treat muscle diseases. We isolated six alkaloids from Corydalis turtschaninovii and evaluated their myogenic potential by using the MyoD reporter gene assay in C2C12 cells...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247677/brainstem-glp-1-signalling-contributes-to-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-the-rat
#12
Tito Borner, Claudia G Liberini, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS...
December 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245988/alcohol-intake-aggravates-adipose-browning-and-muscle-atrophy-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#13
Bo Wang, Faya Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixiu Wang, Yan-Nan Ma, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245316/primary-malignant-myopericytoma-with-cancer-cachexia-report-of-the-first-case-and-review-of-literature
#14
Wenjuan Chen, Le Han, Hailin Pang, Lian Duan, Zheng Zhao
RATIONALE: Malignant myopericytoma is extremely rare, with a few cases described in the English literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: This novel study aimed to report a case of malignant myopericytoma with cancer cachexia arising in the left armpit. Also, it presented a review of the English literature regarding primary malignant myopericytoma, aiming to clarify the clinical features and potentially curative treatment. A 56-year-old male presented with an ulcerated and smelly mass involving her left armpit...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230965/prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-cachexia-by-acvr2b-ligand-blocking-has-different-effects-on-heart-and-skeletal-muscle
#15
Juha J Hulmi, Tuuli A Nissinen, Markus Räsänen, Joni Degerman, Juulia H Lautaoja, Karthik Amudhala Hemanthakumar, Janne T Backman, Olli Ritvos, Mika Silvennoinen, Riikka Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Toxicity of chemotherapy on skeletal muscles and the heart may significantly contribute to cancer cachexia, mortality, and decreased quality of life. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective cytostatic agent, which unfortunately has toxic effects on many healthy tissues. Blocking of activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) ligands is an often used strategy to prevent skeletal muscle loss, but its effects on the heart are relatively unknown. METHODS: The effects of DOX treatment with or without pre-treatment with soluble ACVR2B-Fc (sACVR2B-Fc) were investigated...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226712/-risk-stratification-before-thoracic-surgery-perioperative-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#16
Attila Vágvölgyi, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Pál Vadász, János Tamás Varga
INTRODUCTION: Besides the oncology and operative surgical technics, functional aspects influence the operability of lung cancer. Preoperative risk stratification, evaluation of postoperative complications needs to be considered. AIM: To review international literature and experiences of our institute. METHOD: We focused the literature of risk stratification of thoracic surgery. Lung function, lung mechanics, chest kinematics, exercise physiology were considered...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#17
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216311/amelioration-of-sexual-behavior-and-motor-activity-deficits-in-a-castrated-rodent-model-with-a-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-sarm-2f
#18
Megumi Morimoto, Yuichiro Amano, Masahiro Oka, Ayako Harada, Hisashi Fujita, Yukiko Hikichi, Ryuichi Tozawa, Masuo Yamaoka, Takahito Hara
Sarcopenia and cachexia present characteristic features of a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, anorexia, and lack of motivation. Treatments for these diseases have not yet been established, although selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are considered as therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a novel SARM compound, SARM-2f, exhibits anabolic effect on muscles, with less stimulatory effect on prostate weight compared with testosterone, in rat Hershberger assays and cancer cachexia models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205930/post-diagnosis-weight-loss-as-a-prognostic-factor-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Daniel S Mytelka, Li Li, Karin Benoit
BACKGROUND: Cachexia and its most visible manifestation, weight loss, represent important poor prognostic factors for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This work examines how severity of weight loss as an indicator of cachexia affects outcomes. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study of electronic medical records, patients with non-small cell lung cancer were monitored for weight loss from an initial assessment (within 2 months of index diagnosis) to a landmark at 5 months (at least 3 months after initial assessment)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205293/cancer-cachexia-are-we-ready-to-take-a-step-forward
#20
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Cancer
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