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Cancer immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150846/cancer-stem-cells-as-targets-for-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Amy S Codd, Takayuki Kanaseki, Toshihiko Torigo, Zsuzsanna Tabi
Current cancer therapies target the bulk of the tumour, while a population of highly resistant tumour cells may be able to repopulate the tumour and metastasise to new sites. Cancer cells with such stem cell-like characteristics can be identified based on their phenotypic and/or functional features which may open up ways for their targeted elimination. In this review we discuss potential off-target effects of inhibiting cancer stem-cell self-renewal pathways on immune cells, and summarise some recent immunological studies specifically targeting cancer stem cells based on their unique antigen expression...
November 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149832/optimizing-metal-based-chemotherapeutics-targeting-chemoresistance-related-patterns-in-molecular-tumor-immunology-and-immunosuppressive-tumor-networks
#2
Athanasios Salifoglou, Savvas Petanidis, Efrosini Kioseoglou
Tumor cell chemoresistance is a major challenge in cancer therapeutics. Major select metal-based drugs are potent anticancer agents yet they exhibit undesirable side-effects and are effective against only a few types of cancers. A need, therefore, arises for new metallodrugs with an improved spectrum of efficacy and lower toxicity. Development of anticancer drugs based on antitumor metals is currently a very active field, with considerable efforts having been made toward elucidating the mechanisms of immune action of complex metalloforms and optimizing their immunoregulatory bioactivity through appropriate structural modification...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148014/unfavorable-clinical-implications-of-peripheral-blood-cd44-and-cd54-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy
#3
Zhuanbo Luo, Yun Wang, Yanru Lou, Chao Cao, Richard Hubbard, Ning Xu, Xiaoping Huang
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for identification of additional prognostic markers for lung cancer. The aim of this study was to identify novel clinical and immunological predictors of prognosis in lung cancer patients. METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/8+, CD25+, CD69+, CD44+ and CD54+ were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry, for 203 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and 120 healthy controls. RESULTS: The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and CD69+ lymphocytes were significantly lower in patients with lung cancer compared with the healthy control group, while CD54+ and CD44+ lymphocytes were significantly higher...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147609/tumor-immunology-meets%C3%A2-immunology-modified-cancer-cells-as-professional-apc-for-priming-na%C3%A3-ve-tumor-specific-cd4-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Farah Bou Nasser Eddine, Elise Ramia, Giovanna Tosi, Greta Forlani, Roberto S Accolla
Although recent therapeutic approaches have revitalized the enthusiasm of the immunological way to combat cancer, still the comprehension of immunity against tumors is largely incomplete. Due to their specific function, CD8+ T cells with cytolytic activity (CTL) have attracted the attention of most investigators because CTL are considered the main effectors against tumor cells. Nevertheless, CTL activity and persistence is largely dependent on the action of CD4+ T helper cells (TH). Thus establishment of tumor-specific TH cell response is key to the optimal response against cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147605/egfr-mutation-correlates-with-uninflamed-phenotype-and-weak-immunogenicity-causing-impaired-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Zhong-Yi Dong, Jia-Tao Zhang, Si-Yang Liu, Jian Su, Chao Zhang, Zhi Xie, Qing Zhou, Hai-Yan Tu, Chong-Rui Xu, Li-Xu Yan, Yu-Fa Li, Wen-Zhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
Patients with EGFR mutations showed unfavorable response to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Yet the underlying association between EGFR mutation and immune resistance remains largely unclear. We performed an integrated analysis of PD-ligand 1(PD-L1)/CD8 expression and mutation profile based on the repository database and resected early-stage NSCLC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute (GLCI). Meanwhile, 2 pool-analyses were set to clarify the correlation between EGFR mutation and PD-L1 expression, and the association of EGFR status with response to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146441/combining-immunotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Jason M Redman, James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan
Sipuleucel-T, a therapeutic dendritic-cell vaccine, was Food and Drug Administration-approved for prostate cancer in 2010. No new immunotherapies for prostate cancer have been approved since. However, novel agents and combination approaches offer great promise for improving outcomes for prostate cancer patients. Here we review the latest developments in immunotherapy for prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T has demonstrated a survival advantage of 4.1 months in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC), a prostate-specific antigen-targeted vaccine platform, showed evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy in early-phase clinical trials, and results from a phase III trial in advanced disease are pending...
December 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146246/nanoparticle-formulation-improves-doxorubicin-efficacy-by-enhancing-host-antitumor-immunity
#7
Eric M Mastria, Leon Y Cai, Matthew J Kan, Xinghai Li, Jeffrey L Schaal, Steven Fiering, Michael D Gunn, Mark W Dewhirst, Smita K Nair, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Strategies that enhance the host antitumor immune response promise to revolutionize cancer therapy. Optimally mobilizing the immune system will likely require a multi-pronged approach to overcome the resistance developed by tumors to therapy. Recently, it has become recognized that doxorubicin can contribute to re-establishing host antitumor immunity through the generation of immunogenic cell death. However, the potential for delivery strategies to further enhance the immunological effects of doxorubicin has not been adequately examined...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#8
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145885/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-melanoma-bridge-napoli-november-30th-3rd-december-2016
#9
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, Gennaro Ciliberto, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Connie P M Duong, Soldano Ferrone, Silvia C Formenti, Claus Garbe, Ruth Halaban, Samir Khleif, Jason J Luke, Lluis M Mir, Willem W Overwijk, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Paul Sondel, Janis M Taube, Per Thor Straten, David F Stroncek, Jennifer A Wargo, Hassane Zarour, Magdalena Thurin
Major advances have been made in the treatment of cancer with targeted therapy and immunotherapy; several FDA-approved agents with associated improvement of 1-year survival rates became available for stage IV melanoma patients. Before 2010, the 1-year survival were quite low, at 30%; in 2011, the rise to nearly 50% in the setting of treatment with Ipilimumab, and rise to 70% with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in 2013 was observed. Even more impressive are 1-year survival rates considering combination strategies with both targeted therapy and immunotherapy, now exceeding 80%...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145317/complete-remission-and-long-term-survival-of-a-patient-with-melanoma-metastases-treated-with-high-dose-fever-inducing-viscum-album-extract-a-case-report
#10
Paul G Werthmann, Alexander Hintze, Gunver S Kienle
INTRODUCTION: Metastatic malignant cutaneous melanoma (MCM)-a highly immunogenic cancer-typically has a poor prognosis. Viscum album extracts (VAEs) have strong immune-stimulating, apoptogenic, and cytotoxic effects. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old MCM patient with newly diagnosed lymph node metastases opted for sole VAE treatment. VAEs were initially applied subcutaneously, and then later in exceptionally high, fever-inducing doses, both intravenously and intralesionally...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142417/inhibition-of-phosphorylated-c-jun-nh-2-terminal-kinase-by-2-4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-5-dimethylchalcone-isolated-from-eugenia-aquea-burm-f-leaves-in-jurkat-t-cells
#11
Melisa I Barliana, Ajeng Diantini, Anas Subarnas, Rizky Abdulah, Takashi Izumi
Background: Indonesian medicinal plants have been used for their anticancer activity for decades. However, the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants have not been fully examined scientifically. As cancer is a major health problem worldwide, searching for a new anticancer compound has attracted considerable attention. Our previous study found that 2',4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone, an active compound isolated from leaves of Indonesian medicinal plants Eugenia aquea Burm f...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#12
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139554/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-new-strategies-to-checkmate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ruairi A M Wilson, T R Jeffry Evans, Alasdair R Fraser, Robert J B Nibbs
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) or Programmed cell Death protein 1 (PD-1) receptors have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in subsets of patients with malignant disease. This emerging treatment modality holds great promise for future cancer treatment and has engaged pharmaceutical research interests in tumour immunology. While ICIs can induce rapid and durable responses in some patients, identifying predictive factors for effective clinical responses has proven challenging...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139122/vaccination-with-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-confer-effective-protection-in-a-murine-model-of-colon-adenocarcinoma
#14
M Tabatabaei, N Mosaffa, R Ghods, S Nikoo, S Kazemnejad, M Khanmohammadi, E Mirzadeghan, A Mahmoudi, M R Bolouri, R Falak, B Keshavarzi, M Ramezani, A H Zarnani
In spite of being the star of therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment, the results of immunotherapeutic approaches are still far from expectations. In this regard, primary prevention of cancer using prophylactic cancer vaccines has gained considerable attention. The immunologic similarities between cancer development and placentation have helped researchers to unravel molecular mechanisms responsible for carcinogenesis and to take advantage of stem cells from reproductive organs to elicit robust anti-cancer immune responses...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138574/cancer-cell-dormancy-mechanisms-and-implications-of-cancer-recurrence-and-metastasis
#15
REVIEW
Xiao-Lei Gao, Mei Zhang, Ya-Ling Tang, Xin-Hua Liang
More recently, disease metastasis and relapse in many cancer patients several years (even some decades) after surgical remission are regarded as tumor dormancy. However, the knowledge of this phenomenon is cripplingly limited. Substantial quantities of reviews have summarized three main potential models that can be put forth to explain such process, including angiogenic dormancy, immunologic dormancy, and cellular dormancy. In this review, newly uncovered mechanisms governing cancer cell dormancy are discussed, with an emphasis on the cross talk between dormant cancer cells and their microenvironments...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138137/the-next-frontier-head-and-neck-cancer-immunoprevention
#16
J Silvio Gutkind, Jack D Bui
Restoring T cell-mediated antitumor immunity by targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) results in immunomodulation and durable remissions. However, the overall response rate to these immunotherapies in HNSCC is only approximately 20%. This raises the possibility that immunologic intervention earlier in the HNSCC continuum, such as in oral premalignant lesions (OPL) could elicit an increased therapeutic response. New experimental studies suggest that immune therapies can be used for HNSCC prevention rather than therapy...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137877/immune-analysis-of-radium-223-in-patients-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#17
Joseph W Kim, Min Sun Shin, Youna Kang, Insoo Kang, Daniel P Petrylak
BACKGROUND: Radium223 (Ra223) delivers high-energy radiation to osteoblastic metastasis of prostate cancer, resulting in irreparable double-stranded DNA damage. The effects of Ra223 on CD8+ T cell subsets in patients with prostate cancer is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen men with metastatic prostate cancer with clinical indication for Ra223 without any autoimmune or immune deficiency conditions were enrolled. Patients received a course of Ra223 50 kBq/kg...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137294/immunoprevention-of-kras-driven-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-a-multipeptide-vaccine
#18
Jing Pan, Qi Zhang, Shizuko Sei, Robert H Shoemaker, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Mutations in KRAS are detected in up to 30% of lung cancer cases. No effective therapies specifically targeting mutant KRAS have been developed. Vaccination against KRAS mutants is one of the venues of active exploration. The present study evaluated both immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of a newly formulated multipeptide vaccine targeting multiple epitopes of the KRAS molecule. The formulated vaccine contained top four peptides, which elicited the strongest immunologic response and showed 100% sequence homology between human and mouse...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137242/immune-profiling-of-nf1-associated-tumors-reveals-histologic-subtype-distinctions-and-heterogeneity-implications-for-immunotherapy
#19
Kellie B Haworth, Michael A Arnold, Christopher R Pierson, Kwangmin Choi, Nicholas D Yeager, Nancy Ratner, Ryan D Roberts, Jonathan L Finlay, Timothy P Cripe
Successful treatment of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated tumors poses a significant clinical challenge. While the primary underlying genetic defect driving RAS signaling is well described, recent evidence suggests immune dysfunction contributes to tumor pathogenesis and malignant transformation. As immunologic characterizations, prognostic and predictive of immunotherapeutic clinical response in other cancers, are not fully described for benign and malignant NF1-related tumors, we sought to define their immunologic profiles...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136276/targeted-therapies-immunologic-effects-and-potential-applications-outside-of-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Anna E Kersh, Spencer Ng, Yun Min Chang, Maiko Sasaki, Susan N Thomas, Haydn T Kissick, Gregory B Lesinski, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Edmund K Waller, Brian P Pollack
Two pharmacologic approaches that are currently at the forefront of treating advanced cancer are those that center on disrupting critical growth/survival signaling pathways within tumor cells (commonly referred to as "targeted therapies") and those that center on enhancing the capacity of a patient's immune system to mount an antitumor response (immunotherapy). Maximizing responses to both of these approaches requires an understanding of the oncogenic events present in a given patient's tumor and the nature of the tumor-immune microenvironment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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