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Cancer immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914100/transient-immunological-and-clinical-effectiveness-of-treating-mice-bearing-premalignant-oral-lesions-with-pd-1-antibodies
#1
Corinne A Levingston, M Rita I Young
A carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesion model that progresses to oral cancer was used to examine the impact of blocking PD-1 on cytokine expression and on progression of lesions to cancer. The results of this study show increased production of IL-2 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice that were treated with PD-1 antibody for one week compared to cytokine production by spleen cells of lesion-bearing mice treated with control antibody. Production of IFN-γ increased at 3 weeks of PD-1 antibody treatment, although production of the other Th1 and inflammatory mediators declined...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912911/hesperidin-ameliorates-immunological-outcome-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-the-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Dariush Haghmorad, Mohammad Bagher Mahmoudi, Zohreh Salehipour, Zoleikha Jalayer, Amir Abbas Momtazi Brojeni, Maryam Rastin, Parviz Kokhaei, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most abundant central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease, which is due to the reaction of auto reactive T cells with own myelin proteins, leading to physical disorder and paralysis among people suffering the disease. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of hesperidin on MS alleviation...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909437/differentially-methylated-dna-regions-in-monozygotic-twin-pairs-discordant-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-epigenome-wide-study
#4
Anders J Svendsen, Kristina Gervin, Robert Lyle, Lene Christiansen, Kirsten Kyvik, Peter Junker, Christian Nielsen, Gunnar Houen, Qihua Tan
OBJECTIVES: In an explorative epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to search for gene independent, differentially methylated DNA positions and regions (DMRs) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by studying monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for RA. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples from 28 MZ twin pairs discordant for RA. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, and immunosuppressive treatment were included as covariates...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908931/filling-the-tank-keeping-antitumor-t-cells-metabolically-fit-for-the-long-haul
#5
REVIEW
Greg M Delgoffe
Discoveries in tumor immunology and subsequent clinical advances in cancer immunotherapy have revealed that the immune system is not oblivious to tumor progression but heavily interacts with developing neoplasia and malignancy. A major factor preventing immune destruction is the establishment of a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provides architecture to the tumor, supports indirect means of immunosuppression such as the recruitment of tolerogenic cells like regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and represents a zone of metabolically dearth conditions...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908930/translating-science-into-survival-report-on-the-second-international-cancer-immunotherapy-conference
#6
Arthur N Brodsky, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey
On September 25-28, 2016, in New York City, the Second International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference was cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute, the American Association for Cancer Research, the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy, and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology. This exciting conference brought together more than 1,400 participants, including scientists, clinicians, investors, and regulators, to discuss the latest scientific advances within the field of cancer immunotherapy. This conference report reviews the chief themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#7
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903713/-trained-immunity-consequences-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Wendy B C Stevens, Mihai G Netea, Arnon P Kater, Walter J F M van der Velden
In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#9
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899275/immunological-consequences-of-immunization-with-tumor-lysate-vaccine-and-propranolol-as-an-adjuvant-a-study-on-cytokine-profiles-in-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#10
Somayeh Ashrafi, Reza Shapouri, Mehdi Mahdavi
In this study, we sought out to study the anti-cancer effects of propranolol (Pro) in combination with tumor lysate vaccine on lymphocyte proliferation activities as well as on IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokine concentration in the tumor microenvironment (TME). A tumor model was established in inbred Balb/C mice using transplantation of tumor to the flank of native mice. Tumor-bearing mice were immunized with lysate tumor cells (vaccine), a combination of Pro/Vaccine (Vac). Control groups consisted of tumor-bearing mice receiving only propranolol or PBS three times with one week interval via subcutaneous (s...
November 26, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896758/phenotyping-multiple-subsets-of-immune-cells-in-situ-in-ffpe-tissue-sections-an-overview-of-methodologies
#11
James R Mansfield
The recent clinical success of new cancer immunotherapy agents and methods is driving the need to understand the role of immune cells in solid tissues, especially tumors. Immune cell phenotyping via flow cytometry, while a cornerstone of immunology, is not spatially resolved and cannot analyze immune cell subsets in situ in clinical biopsy sections or to determine their interrelationships. To address this problem, a number of methodologies have been developed in attempts to phenotype immune and other cells in images acquired from tissue sections and to assess their organization in the tumor and its microenvironment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895329/cancer-immunology-community-seeks-better-end-points
#12
Elie Dolgin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893591/endophthalmitis-in-a-patient-treated-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy
#13
Julie Vadboncoeur, Sébastien Olivier, Hafid Soualhine, Annie-Claude Labbé, Marie-Lyne Bélair
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation has become one of the mainstays of adjunctive therapy in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Ophthalmologic complications are rare, but few cases are reported in the literature. METHODS: Retrospective observational case report. RESULTS: The authors report a case of unilateral Mycobacterium bovis BCG endophthalmitis after intravesical BCG instillations. Despite appropriate systemic antituberculous and corticosteroid therapy, the patient almost completely lost sight in the affected eye...
November 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891129/immunological-and-translational-aspects-of-nk-cell-based-antitumor-immunotherapies
#14
REVIEW
Maxim Shevtsov, Gabriele Multhoff
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the first line of defense against cancer. NK cells that are deficient in CD3 and a clonal T cell receptor (TCR) can be subdivided into two major subtypes, CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic and CD56(bright)CD16(-) immunoregulatory NK cells. Cytotoxic NK cells not only directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes or via death receptor interactions, but also act as regulatory cells for the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890919/human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-and-their-involvement-in-tumor-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Dang Wu, Pin Wu, Fuming Qiu, Qichun Wei, Jian Huang
γδT cells are a conserved population of innate lymphocytes with diverse structural and functional heterogeneity that participate in various immune responses during tumor progression. γδT cells perform potent immunosurveillance by exerting direct cytotoxicity, strong cytokine production and indirect antitumor immune responses. However, certain γδT-cell subsets also contribute to tumor progression by facilitating cancer-related inflammation and immunosuppression. Here, we review recent observations regarding the antitumor and protumor roles of major structural and functional subsets of human γδT cells, describing how these subsets are activated and polarized, and how these events relate to subsequent function in tumor immunity...
November 28, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890562/tailor-made-fibroblast-specific-and-antibiotic-free-interleukin-12-plasmid-for-gene-electrotransfer-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Urska Kamensek, Natasa Tesic, Gregor Sersa, Spela Kos, Maja Cemazar
Electrotransfer mediated delivery of interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene, encoded on a plasmid vector, has already been demonstrated to have a potent antitumor efficacy and great potential for clinical application. In the present study, our aim was to construct an optimized IL-12-encoding plasmid that is safe from the regulatory point of view. In light of previous studies demonstrating that IL-12 should be released in a tumor localized manner for optimal efficacy, the strong ubiquitous promoter was replaced with a weak endogenous promoter of the collagen 2 gene, which is specific for fibroblasts...
November 24, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890369/anti-tumor-activity-of-tanshinone-iia-in-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-against-lewis-mice-with-lung-cancer
#17
Qi Li, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Li-Fang Xu, Yu-Chuan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor activity of tanshinone IIA in combined with cyclophosphamide against Lewis mice with lung cancer and the effect on cellular immune function. METHODS: Lewis tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit of mice in each group (n = 20) to establish Lewis lung cancer mice model. After model establishment, mice in the model group were given normal saline by lavage, qd. Mice in treatment I group were given intraperitoneal injection of Tan IIA, 15 mg/kg, qd...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890174/immune-related-adverse-effects-of-cancer-immunotherapy-implications-for-rheumatology
#18
REVIEW
Laura C Cappelli, Ami A Shah, Clifton O Bingham
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly studied and used as therapy for a growing number of malignancies. ICIs work by blocking inhibitory pathways of T-cell activation, leading to an immune response directed against tumors. Such nonspecific immunologic activation can lead to immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Some IRAEs, including inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, myositis, and vasculitis, are of special interest to rheumatologists. As use of ICIs increases, recognition of these IRAEs and developing treatment strategies will become important...
February 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888517/differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neutrophil-granulocytes-from-common-marmoset-monkey-callithrix-jacchus
#19
Christopher Schrimpf, Christoph Wrede, Silke Glage, Jan Hegermann, Samantha Backhaus, Rainer Blasczyk, Hans-Gert Heuft, Thomas Müller
BACKGROUND: Inherited and acquired marrow failure syndromes most commonly lead to defect in myeloid and/or neutrophil differentiation and/or function. Besides this, neutropenia induced by cancer-adjusted chemotherapy is a frequent clinical problem. In both cases, cell replacement therapy is a well-established, but due to necessity of donors limited and perilous procedure. Therefore, autologous cell replacement from patients' own marrow-derived cells lowers risk and bares new possibilities for therapy...
November 25, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885681/dynamics-of-occurrence-of-refractory-coeliac-disease-and-associated-complications-over-25%C3%A2-years
#20
W Eigner, K Bashir, C Primas, L Kazemi-Shirazi, F Wrba, M Trauner, H Vogelsang
BACKGROUND: Refractory coeliac disease, enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma are rare but prognostically important complications in coeliac disease. AIM: To analyse potential changes in occurrence of complicated coeliac disease over the last 25 years. METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty eight patients were included and evaluated based on their time of first presentation at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria...
November 25, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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