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HITT Cancer

Marianne Yardley, Lars Gullestad, Kari Nytrøen
One of the most important prognostic factors in heart failure patients is physical capacity. Patients with very poor physical performance and otherwise eligible, may be listed as candidates for heart transplantation (HTx). After such surgery, life-long immunosuppression therapy is needed to prevent rejection of the new heart. The dark side of immunosuppression is the increased risk of infections, kidney failure, cancer and advanced atherosclerosis (cardiac allograft vasculopathy), with the two latter conditions as the main causes of later mortality...
February 24, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
Chad R Irwin, Mary M Hitt, David H Evans
The rapid growth of tumors depends upon elevated levels of dNTPs, and while dNTP concentrations are tightly regulated in normal cells, this control is often lost in transformed cells. This feature of cancer cells has been used to advantage to develop oncolytic DNA viruses. DNA viruses employ many different mechanisms to increase dNTP levels in infected cells, because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. By disrupting the virus-encoded gene(s) that normally promote dNTP biosynthesis, one can assemble oncolytic versions of these agents that replicate selectively in cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Ronan Ulvé, Mélanie Rault, Mathieu Bahin, Laetitia Lagoutte, Jérôme Abadie, Clotilde De Brito, Jean-Michel Coindre, Nadine Botherel, Audrey Rousseau, Valentin Wucher, Edouard Cadieu, Catherine Thieblemont, Christophe Hitte, Laurence Cornevin, Florian Cabillic, Laura Bachelot, David Gilot, Benoit Hennuy, Thierry Guillaudeux, Arnaud Le Goff, Thomas Derrien, Benoît Hédan, Catherine André
Canine cancers represent a tremendous natural resource due to their incidence and striking similarities to human cancers, sharing similar clinical and pathologic features as well as oncogenic events, including identical somatic mutations. Considering the importance of gene fusions as driver alterations, we explored their relevance in canine cancers. We focused on three distinct human-comparable canine cancers representing different tissues and embryonic origins. Through RNA-Seq, we discovered similar gene fusions as those found in their human counterparts: IGK - CCND3 in B-cell lymphoma, MPB - BRAF in glioma, and COL3A1 - PDGFB in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-like...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Shyam M Garg, Igor M Paiva, Mohammad R Vakili, Rania Soudy, Kate Agopsowicz, Amir H Soleimani, Mary Hitt, Kamaljit Kaur, Afsaneh Lavasanifar
Traceable poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ester) micelles were developed through chemical conjugation of a near-infrared (NIR) dye to the poly(ester) end by click chemistry. This strategy was tried for micelles with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (PBCL) cores. The surface of both micelles was also modified with the breast cancer targeting peptide, P18-4. The results showed the positive contribution of PBCL over PCL core on micellar thermodynamic and kinetic stability as well as accumulation in primary orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors within 4-96 h following intravenous administration in mice...
August 4, 2017: Biomaterials
Sheena H MacLeod, Kyle G Potts, Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Mary M Hitt
Gene therapy with viral vectors, such as adenovirus (Ad), targeted to the human epidermal growth factor receptors 3 and 4 (HER3/4) are potentially useful for cancer therapy. Testing the expression of a reporter gene from these viruses in target cells is essential to determine functionality of the targeted virus. A competition assay with a relevant ligand (heregulin, HRG) can provide convincing evidence that blocking binding to the HER3/4 receptor results in decreased reporter gene expression. Labeling individual viruses with a fluorescent molecule allows examination of the targeted virus in specific steps in the infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kyle G Potts, Chad R Irwin, Nicole A Favis, Desmond B Pink, Krista M Vincent, John D Lewis, Ronald B Moore, Mary M Hitt, David H Evans
Bladder cancer has a recurrence rate of up to 80% and many patients require multiple treatments that often fail, eventually leading to disease progression. In particular, standard of care for high-grade disease, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), fails in 30% of patients. We have generated a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) by mutating the F4L gene that encodes the virus homolog of the cell-cycle-regulated small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2). The F4L -deleted VACVs are highly attenuated in normal tissues, and since cancer cells commonly express elevated RRM2 levels, have tumor-selective replication and cell killing...
May 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Sandi W Smith, Rose Hitt, Jessica Russell, Samantha Nazione, Kami Silk, Charles K Atkin, David Keating
Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA...
May 24, 2016: Health Communication
S Chaurasiya, P Hew, P Crosley, D Sharon, K Potts, K Agopsowicz, M Long, C Shi, M M Hitt
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been used clinically for the treatment of some malignancies, but the toxicities associated with systemic IL-2 therapy are a major challenge. Here we have determined whether transcriptional targeting of IL-2 to breast cancer (BrCa) using an engineered human mammaglobin promoter/enhancer (MPE2) is a feasible option for reducing IL-2-associated toxicities while still achieving a meaningful antitumor effect. We have constructed nonreplicating adenovirus vectors encoding either a reporter gene (luciferase) or human IL-2 (hIL-2) complementary DNA under control of the MPE2 sequence, the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early (MCMV) promoter or the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter...
2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Wilbur C Hitt, Gordon M Low, Christian E Lynch, C Heath Gauss, Everett F Magann, Curtis L Lowery, Hari Eswaran
BACKGROUND: Individuals in rural areas are often restricted by the amount of physicians' availability, thus limiting access to healthcare in those settings. INTRODUCTION: While Pap smear screening has increased across the United States, the rural South still reports high rates of cervical cancer and mortality. One solution to improve patient outcomes related to cervical cancer in rural settings is telecolposcopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with abnormal Pap results or an abnormal visual examination needing an evaluation by colposcopy were referred to a hospital-based telecolposcopy program...
October 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
María José Echarri, Ana Lopez-Martin, Ricardo Hitt
Surgery and radiotherapy are the standard treatment options for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Chemoradiotherapy is an alternative for patients with locally advanced disease. In recurrent/metastatic disease and after progression to platin-based regimens, no standard treatments other than best supportive care are currently available. Most SCCHN tumours overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This receptor is a tyrosine-kinase membrane receptor that has been implicated in angiogenesis, tumour progression and resistance to different cancer treatments...
February 26, 2016: Cancers
Rose Hitt, Evan Perrault, Sandi Smith, David M Keating, Samantha Nazione, Kami Silk, Jessica Russell
Results of ongoing scientific research on environmental determinants of breast cancer are not typically presented to the public in ways they can easily understand and use to take preventive actions. In this study, results of scientific studies on progesterone exposure as a risk factor for breast cancer were translated into high and low literacy level messages. Using the heuristic systematic model, this study examined how ability, motivation, and message processing (heuristic and systematic) influenced perceptions of risk beliefs and negative attitudes about progesterone exposure among women who read the translated scientific messages...
June 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Christian K Adokoh, Stephen Quan, Mary Hitt, James Darkwa, Piyush Kumar, Ravin Narain
In this study, statistical glyco-dithiocarbamate (DTC) copolymers were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and subsequently used to prepare glyconanoparticles and conjugated glyconanoparticles with the anticancer drug, gold(I) triphenylphosphine. These glyconanoparticles and the corresponding conjugates were then tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity in both normal and cancer cell lines using Neutral Red assay. The glyconanoparticles and their Au(I)PPh3 conjugates were all active against MCF7 and HepG2 cells, but galactose-functionalized glyconanoparticles {P(GMA-EDAdtc(AuPPh3)-st-LAEMA)AuNP} were found to be the most cytotoxic to HepG2 cells (IC50 ∼ 4...
October 13, 2014: Biomacromolecules
Alex Forbrich, Robert Paproski, Mary Hitt, Roger Zemp
Blood biomarkers are potentially powerful diagnostic tools that are limited clinically by low concentrations, the inability to determine biomarker origin and unknown patient baseline. Recently, ultrasound has been shown to liberate proteins and large mRNA biomarkers, overcoming many of these limitations. We have since demonstrated that adding lipid-stabilized microbubbles elevates mRNA concentration an order of magnitude compared with ultrasound without microbubbles, in vitro. Unfortunately the large size of some mRNA molecules may limit efficiency of release and hinder efficacy as an ultrasound-liberated biomarker...
September 2014: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
T Y Seiwert, J Fayette, D Cupissol, J M Del Campo, P M Clement, R Hitt, M Degardin, W Zhang, A Blackman, E Ehrnrooth, E E W Cohen
BACKGROUND: Afatinib is an oral, irreversible ErbB family blocker that has shown activity in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer. We hypothesized that the agent would have greater antitumor activity compared with cetuximab in recurrent or metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, whose disease has progressed after platinum-containing therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An open-label, randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 43 centers; 124 patients were randomized (1 : 1) to either afatinib (50 mg/day) or cetuximab (250 mg/m(2)/week) until disease progression or intolerable adverse events (AEs) (stage I), with optional crossover (stage II)...
September 2014: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Robert J Paproski, Alexander Forbrich, Mary Hitt, Roger Zemp
Microbubbles driven by ultrasound are capable of permeabilizing cell membranes and allowing biomarkers or therapeutics to exit from or enter cancer cells, respectively. Unfortunately, the relatively large size of microbubbles prevents extravasation. Lipid-based perfluorobutane microbubbles can be made seven-fold smaller by pressurization, creating 430-nm nanodroplets. The present study compares microbubbles and nanodroplets with respect to their ability to enhance miR-21 and mammaglobin mRNA release from cultured ZR-75-1 cells...
August 2014: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Matthew G K Benesch, Xiaoyun Tang, Tatsuo Maeda, Akira Ohhata, Yuan Y Zhao, Bernard P C Kok, Jay Dewald, Mary Hitt, Jonathan M Curtis, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
Autotaxin is a secreted enzyme that produces most extracellular lysophosphatidate, which stimulates 6 G-protein-coupled receptors. Lysophosphatidate promotes cancer cell survival, growth, migration, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present work investigated whether inhibiting autotaxin could decrease breast tumor growth and metastasis. We used a new autotaxin inhibitor (ONO-8430506; IC90=100 nM), which decreased plasma autotaxin activity by >60% and concentrations of unsaturated lysophosphatidates by >75% for 24 h compared with vehicle-treated mice...
June 2014: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
W Charles Hitt, Margaret Larrimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
Chad R Irwin, Nicole A Favis, Kate C Agopsowicz, Mary M Hitt, David H Evans
Myxoma virus (MYXV) is one of many animal viruses that exhibit oncolytic properties in transformed human cells. Compared to orthopoxviruses like vaccinia (VACV), MYXV spreads inefficiently, which could compromise its use in treating tumors and their associated metastases. The VACV F11 protein promotes virus exit and rapid spread by inhibiting Rho signalling, which results in a disruption of cortical actin. We have previously shown that although MYXV lacks an F11 homolog, the F11L gene can be introduced into MYXV promoting the spread of this Leporipoxvirus in natural host cells...
2013: PloS One
R Hitt, J J Grau, A López-Pousa, A Berrocal, C García-Girón, A Irigoyen, J Sastre, J Martínez-Trufero, J A Brandariz Castelo, E Verger, J J Cruz-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for patients with unresectable, nonmetastatic locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). This randomized, open-label, phase III clinical trial compared the efficacy between standard CCRT and two different induction chemotherapy (ICT) regimens followed by CCRT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated LASCCHN were randomly assigned to ICT (three cycles), with either docetaxel (Taxotere), cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF arm) or cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF arm), followed by CCRT [7 weeks of radiotherapy (RT) with cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 22 and 43]; or 7 weeks of CCRT alone...
January 2014: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Reineke A Schoot, Leontien C M Kremer, Marianne D van de Wetering, Cornelia H van Ommen
BACKGROUND: Venous thrombo-embolic events (VTEs) occur in 2.2% to 14% of paediatric cancer patients and cause significant morbidity and mortality. The malignant disease itself, the cancer treatment and the presence of central venous catheters (CVCs) increase the risk of VTE. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the effects of preventive systemic treatments in paediatric cancer patients with tunnelled CVCs on (a)symptomatic VTE. Secondary objectives of this review were to investigate adverse effects of systemic treatments for the prevention of (a)symptomatic VTE in paediatric cancer patients with tunnelled CVCs; and to investigate the effects of systemic treatments in the prevention of (a)symptomatic VTE with CVC-related infection in paediatric cancer patients with tunnelled CVCs...
September 11, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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