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Regulatory t cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667169/expression-of-scavenger-receptor-marco-defines-a-targetable-tumor-associated-macrophage-subset-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Linnéa La Fleur, Vanessa F Boura, Andrey Alexeyenko, Anders Berglund, Victor Pontén, Johanna Sm Mattsson, Dijana Djureinovic, Johan Persson, Hans Brunnström, Johan Isaksson, Eva Brandén, Hirsh Koyi, Patrick Micke, Mikael Ci Karlsson, Johan Botling
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are attractive targets for immunotherapy. Recently, studies in animal models showed that treatment with an anti-TAM antibody directed against the scavenger receptor MARCO resulted in suppression of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Here we investigated the expression of MARCO in relation to other macrophage markers and immune pathways in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort (n=352). MARCO, CD68, CD163, MSR1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and associations to other immune cells and regulatory pathways were studied in a subset of cases (n=199) with available RNA-seq data...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666981/an-early-life-mucosal-insult-temporarily-decreases-acute-oxazolone-induced-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Katja M Bendtsen, Peter Tougaard, Axel K Hansen
Inflammatory priming of immune cells in early life may optimize the response to a subsequent inflammatory challenge later in life. To prime the immune cells in the gut in vivo through a short inflammatory insult, we administered a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to 5-weeks-old BALB/c mice in the drinking water. We hypothesized that DSS-primed mice would show decreased inflammation and difference in immunological profiling, when subjected to presensitizing and oxazolone-induced colitis by rectal instillation at 9 weeks compared to non-DSS-primed control mice...
April 18, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666503/regulatory-t-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-modify-dendritic-cell-function
#3
Sim L Tung, Dominic A Boardman, Monica Sen, Marilena Letizia, Qi Peng, Nicole Cianci, Laura Dioni, Leo M Carlin, Robert Lechler, Valentina Bollati, Giovanna Lombardi, Lesley A Smyth
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subpopulation of T cells that maintain tolerance to self and limit other immune responses. They achieve this through different mechanisms including the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes as shown by us, and others. One of the ways that Treg derived EVs inhibit target cells such as effector T cells is via the transfer of miRNA. Another key target for the immunoregulatory function of Tregs is the dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we demonstrate directly, and for the first time, that miRNAs are transferred from Tregs to DCs via Treg derived EVs...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666403/intact-interleukin-10-receptor-signaling-protects-from-hippocampal-damage-elicited-by-experimental-neurotropic-virus-infection-of-sjl-mice
#4
Ann-Kathrin Uhde, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Niko Hensel, Peter Claus, Michael Beckstette, René Teich, Stefan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Klaus Jung, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection represents an experimental mouse model to study hippocampal damage induced by neurotropic viruses. IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with profound anti-inflammatory properties, which critically controls immune homeostasis. In order to analyze IL-10R signaling following virus-induced polioencephalitis, SJL mice were intracerebrally infected with TMEV. RNA-based next generation sequencing revealed an up-regulation of Il10, Il10rα and further genes involved in IL-10 downstream signaling, including Jak1, Socs3 and Stat3 in the brain upon infection...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666308/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-contributes-to-t-cell-mediated-autoimmune-inflammation-by-promoting-t-cell-activation-and-proliferation
#5
Imran Mohammad, Inna Starskaia, Tamas Nagy, Jitao Guo, Emrah Yatkin, Kalervo Väänänen, Wendy T Watford, Zhi Chen
It has long been appreciated that most autoimmune disorders are characterized by increased prevalence in females, suggesting a potential role for sex hormones in the etiology of autoimmunity. To study how estrogen receptor α (ERα) contributes to autoimmune diseases, we generated mice in which ERα was deleted specifically in T lymphocytes. We found that ERα deletion in T cells reduced their pathogenic potential in a mouse model of colitis and correlated with transcriptomic changes that affected T cell activation...
April 17, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666297/phase-ii-study-of-everolimus-in-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-ncctg-n0377-alliance
#6
Jesus Vera Aguilera, Ravi D Rao, Jacob B Allred, Vera J Suman, Harold E Windschitl, Judith S Kaur, William J Maples, Val J Lowe, Edward T Creagan, Lori A Erickson, Svetomir Markovic
LESSONS LEARNED: Everolimus does not have sufficient activity to justify its use as single agent in metastatic melanoma.Patients treated with 10 mg per day dose were most likely to require dose reductions.Everolimus appeared to reduce the numbers of regulatory T cells in approximately half of the treated patients; unfortunately, these effects were not correlated with clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND: Everolimus (RAD-001) is an orally active rapamycin analogue shown in preclinical data to produce cytostatic cell inhibition, which may be potentially beneficial in treating melanoma...
April 17, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666238/rapid-acquisition-and-model-based-analysis-of-cell-free-transcription-translation-reactions-from-nonmodel-bacteria
#7
Simon J Moore, James T MacDonald, Sarah Wienecke, Alka Ishwarbhai, Argyro Tsipa, Rochelle Aw, Nicolas Kylilis, David J Bell, David W McClymont, Kirsten Jensen, Karen M Polizzi, Rebekka Biedendieck, Paul S Freemont
Native cell-free transcription-translation systems offer a rapid route to characterize the regulatory elements (promoters, transcription factors) for gene expression from nonmodel microbial hosts, which can be difficult to assess through traditional in vivo approaches. One such host, Bacillus megaterium , is a giant Gram-positive bacterium with potential biotechnology applications, although many of its regulatory elements remain uncharacterized. Here, we have developed a rapid automated platform for measuring and modeling in vitro cell-free reactions and have applied this to B...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665919/-effect-and-clinical-significance-of-bortezomib-and-thalidomide-on-the-memory-t-cells-subsets-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#8
Ling-Ling Shi, Han-Qing Li, Jian-Gang Mei, Xiao-Gang Zhou, Feng Li, Ping Song, Yong-Ping Zhai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of bortezomib(BTZ) and thalidomide(TM) on peripheral blood memory T-cells (Tm ) and regulatory T cells(Tregs) in patients with multiple myeloma(MM). METHODS: Eighty-six MM patients received 2 courses of chemotherapy were divided into effective (partial response at least) group (63 cases) and ineffective (no partial response) group (17 cases) according to therapeutic efficacy; these 80 patients were divided into BTZ group (38 cases) and TM group (42 cases) yet according to therapeutic regimens, 20 newly diagnosed MM patients were used as baseline group, 30 healthy volunteers were used as healthy control group...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665817/elevated-il-17-levels-in-semi-immune-anaemic-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-berghei-anka
#9
Gideon Kofi Helegbe, Nguyen Tien Huy, Tetsuo Yanagi, Mohammed Nasir Shuaibu, Mihoko Kikuchi, Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inflammatory cytokines and genetic background of the host contribute to the outcome of malaria infection. Despite the promising protective role of IL-17 in infections, little attention is given to further understand its importance in the pathogenesis of severe malaria anaemia in chronic/endemic situations. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate IL-17 levels in anaemic condition and its association with host genetic factors. METHODS: Two mice strains (Balb/c and CBA) were crossed to get the F1 progeny, and were (F1, Balb/c, CBA) taken through 6 cycles of Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) infection and chloroquine/pyrimethamine treatment to generate semi-immune status...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665238/cp-25-alleviates-experimental-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-features-in-nod-ltj-mice-and-modulates-t-lymphocyte-subsets
#10
Fang Gu, Shixia Xu, Pengying Zhang, Xiaoyun Chen, Yujing Wu, Chun Wang, Mei Gao, Min Si, Xinming Wang, Korner Heinrich, Huaxun Wu, Wei Wei
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune illness of the moisture-producing glands such as salivary glands that is characterized by various immune abnormalities. The aetiology of pSS remains unclear and there is no curative agent. In this study, we investigated the putative therapeutic effects on a NOD/Ltj mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome-like disorders of an ester derivative of paeoniflorin, Paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene (termed CP-25). Our study showed that CP-25 alleviated effectively clinical manifestations in NOD/Ltj mice resulting for example in increased salivary flow and reduced histopathological scores...
April 17, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665000/increased-killer-b-cells-in-chronic-hcv-infection-may-lead-to-autoimmunity-and-increased-viral-load
#11
Nasren Eiza, Eli Zuckerman, Matthias Carlebach, Tova Rainis, Yair Goldberg, Zahava Vadasz
BACKGROUND: B regulatory (Breg) cells are characterized by various membrane markers, and the secretion of different inhibitory cytokines. A new subset of Breg cells was identified as CD5hi Fas-ligand (FasL)hi. Their main reported role is to suppress anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses and hence, they have been dubbed "killer" B cells. In this study, we aim to assess the role of these cells in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and determine if they contribute to the increased viral load and persistence of HCV and its related autoimmunity...
April 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664568/the-role-of-cytokines-in-t-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Miro E Raeber, Yves Zurbuchen, Daniela Impellizzieri, Onur Boyman
Upon stimulation with their cognate antigen, naive T cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into effector cells, followed by apoptosis or survival as precursors of long-lived memory cells. These phases of a T-cell response and the ensuing maintenance of memory T cells are shaped by cytokines, most notably interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 that share the common γ chain (γc ) cytokine receptor. Steady-state production of IL-7 and IL-15 is necessary for background proliferation and homeostatic survival of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664397/computer-guided-design-of-optimal-microbial-consortia-for-immune-system-modulation
#13
Richard R Stein, Takeshi Tanoue, Rose L Szabady, Shakti K Bhattarai, Bernat Olle, Jason M Norman, Wataru Suda, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Georg K Gerber, Chris Sander, Kenya Honda, Vanni Bucci
Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of diseases. However, a major challenge is the identification of therapeutically potent microbial consortia that colonize the host effectively while maximizing immunologic outcome. Here, we propose a novel workflow to select optimal immune-inducing consortia from microbiome composition and immune effectors measurements. Using published and newly generated microbial and regulatory T-cell (Treg ) data from germ-free mice, we estimate the contribution of twelve Clostridia strains with known immune-modulating effect to Treg induction...
April 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663372/regulatory-t-and-t-helper-17-cells-their-roles-in-preeclampsia
#14
REVIEW
Arezoo Hosseini, Sanam Dolati, Vida Hashemi, Meghdad Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Mehdi Yousefi
Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been identified as key immune regulators and are important to fetal survival within the maternal uterus. T helper 17 (Th17) cells have also emerged as a new subset of effector helper T cells and play significant roles in host defense against extracellular pathogens, autoimmune conditions, and inflammatory chronic diseases. Recent findings have provided strong support for the contribution of Th17 and Treg cells to successful pregnancy. Disorders of pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PE) and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are associated with low frequencies of Treg cells and high levels of Th17 cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663162/functional-defects-of-treg-cells-new-targets-in-rheumatic-diseases-including-ankylosing-spondylitis
#15
REVIEW
Jinlin Miao, Ping Zhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to review the advances of Treg cell biology, the functional defects of Treg cells, and the potential strategies for the experimental, preclinical or clinical application of Treg cell therapy in the context of autoimmune/immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are a phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous subset of lymphocytes that prevent a variety of autoimmune diseases. As in many autoimmune diseases, the functional defects of Treg cells are supposed to play relevant roles in the pathogenesis and development of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other autoimmune/immune-mediated rheumatic diseases...
April 16, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662491/regulatory-t-cells-potential-regulator-of-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Jiatao Li, Jean Tan, Mikaël M Martino, Kathy O Lui
The identification of stem cells and growth factors as well as the development of biomaterials hold great promise for regenerative medicine applications. However, the therapeutic efficacy of regenerative therapies can be greatly influenced by the host immune system, which plays a pivotal role during tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, understanding how the immune system modulates tissue healing is critical to design efficient regenerative strategies. While the innate immune system is well known to be involved in the tissue healing process, the adaptive immune system has recently emerged as a key player...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662489/immunological-approaches-towards-cancer-and-inflammation-a-cross-talk
#17
REVIEW
Xinglong Qu, Ying Tang, Shucheng Hua
The inflammation is the protective response of the body against various harmful stimuli; however, the aberrant and inappropriate activation tends to become harmful. The acute inflammatory response tends to resolved once the offending agent is subside but this acute response becomes chronic in nature when the body is unable to successfully neutralized the noxious stimuli. This chronic inflammatory microenvironment is associated with the release of various pro-inflammatory and oncogenic mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines [IL-1β, IL-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], growth factor, and chemokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662170/c-maf-controls-immune-responses-by-regulating-disease-specific-gene-networks-and-repressing-il-2-in-cd4-t-cells
#18
Leona Gabryšová, Marisol Alvarez-Martinez, Raphaëlle Luisier, Luke S Cox, Jan Sodenkamp, Caroline Hosking, Damián Pérez-Mazliah, Charlotte Whicher, Yashaswini Kannan, Krzysztof Potempa, Xuemei Wu, Leena Bhaw, Hagen Wende, Michael H Sieweke, Greg Elgar, Mark Wilson, James Briscoe, Vicki Metzis, Jean Langhorne, Nicholas M Luscombe, Anne O'Garra
The transcription factor c-Maf induces the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in vitro. However, the global effects of c-Maf on diverse immune responses in vivo are unknown. Here we found that c-Maf regulated IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells in disease models involving the TH 1 subset of helper T cells (malaria), TH 2 cells (allergy) and TH 17 cells (autoimmunity) in vivo. Although mice with c-Maf deficiency targeted to T cells showed greater pathology in TH 1 and TH 2 responses, TH 17 cell-mediated pathology was reduced in this context, with an accompanying decrease in TH 17 cells and increase in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661827/oral-nahco-3-activates-a-splenic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-evidence-that-cholinergic-signals-are-transmitted-via-mesothelial-cells
#19
Sarah C Ray, Babak Baban, Matthew A Tucker, Alec J Seaton, Kyu Chul Chang, Elinor C Mannon, Jingping Sun, Bansari Patel, Katie Wilson, Jacqueline B Musall, Hiram Ocasio, Debra Irsik, Jessica A Filosa, Jennifer C Sullivan, Brendan Marshall, Ryan A Harris, Paul M O'Connor
We tested the hypothesis that oral NaHCO3 intake stimulates splenic anti-inflammatory pathways. Following oral NaHCO3 loading, macrophage polarization was shifted from predominantly M1 (inflammatory) to M2 (regulatory) phenotypes, and FOXP3+ CD4+ T-lymphocytes increased in the spleen, blood, and kidneys of rats. Similar anti-inflammatory changes in macrophage polarization were observed in the blood of human subjects following NaHCO3 ingestion. Surprisingly, we found that gentle manipulation to visualize the spleen at midline during surgical laparotomy (sham splenectomy) was sufficient to abolish the response in rats and resulted in hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the capsular mesothelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661826/tumor-tolerance-promoting-function-of-regulatory-t-cells-is-optimized-by-cd28-but-strictly-dependent-on-calcineurin
#20
Francesco Marangoni, Ruan Zhang, Vinidhra Mani, Martin Thelen, Noor J Ali Akbar, Ross D Warner, Tarmo Äijö, Valentina Zappulli, Gustavo J Martinez, Laurence A Turka, Thorsten R Mempel
Regulatory T cells (Treg) restrain immune responses against malignant tumors, but their global depletion in cancer patients will likely be limited by systemic autoimmune toxicity. Instead, approaches to "tune" their activities may allow for preferential targeting of tumor-reactive Treg. Although Ag recognition regulates Treg function, the roles of individual TCR-dependent signaling pathways in enabling Treg to promote tumor tolerance are not well characterized. In this study, we examined in mouse tumor models the role of calcineurin, a key mediator of TCR signaling, and the role of the costimulatory receptor CD28 in the differentiation of resting central Treg into effector Treg endowed with tumor tropism...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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