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Regulatory t cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092672/bpgap1-spatially-integrates-jnk-erk-signaling-crosstalk-in-oncogenesis
#1
T Jiang, C Q Pan, B C Low
Simultaneous hyperactivation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling cascades has been reported in carcinogenesis. However, how they are integrated to promote oncogenesis remains unknown. By analyzing breast invasive carcinoma database (The Cancer Genome Altas), we found that the mRNA expression levels of both JNK1 and ERK2 are positively correlated with the mRNA level of EEA1, an endosome associated protein, indicating the potential JNK/ERK crosstalk at endosome...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092463/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-mediates-the-killing-of-toxoplasma-gondii-by-inducing-autophagy-in-nonhematopoietic-cells
#2
Yanhui Yu, Na Zhao, Jiaqi An, Xichen Zhang
Autophagy is a main defense strategy by which infected host cells can virtually induce the killing of parasite, including Toxoplasma gondii. However, the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in T. gondii-infected nonhematopoietic cells are still unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β) is associated with the regulation of autophagy. Herein, we hypothesized that C/EBP β plays roles in inducing autophagy in nonhematopoietic cells. Expression of C/EBP β was aberrantly regulated in endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells challenged by T...
January 16, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#3
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091781/a-semifluorinated-alkane-f4h5-as-novel-carrier-for-cyclosporine-a-a-promising-therapeutic-and-prophylactic-option-for-topical-treatment-of-dry-eye
#4
Uta Gehlsen, Tobias Braun, Maria Notara, Sonja Krösser, Philipp Steven
PURPOSE: Cyclosporine A (Cs) has been used as effective topical therapy for inflammatory dry eye disease since more than a decade. However, due to its lipophilic character, Cs is formulated as emulsions or oily solutions for topical application. This experimental study aimed to test if the use of semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) as a preservative-free, well-tolerated non-stinging or burning vehicle maintains or even improves the benefits of Cs in the topical therapy of dry-eye disease. METHODS: Desiccating stress was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 14 consecutive days to induce experimental dry-eye...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091550/imbalance-of-th17-treg-cells-in-pathogenesis-of-patients-with-human-leukocyte-antigen-b27-associated-acute-anterior-uveitis
#5
Zhenchao Zhuang, Yuqin Wang, Gejing Zhu, Yunfeng Gu, Liping Mao, Meng Hong, Yali Li, Meiqin Zheng
Th17 and regulatory T cells, involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, are new lineages of CD4+ T helper cells. However, the role of their imbalance in human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis has not been elucidated. In our study, the percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, their molecular markers and related factors in peripheral blood of patients and healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. We observed a remarkable increase of CD4+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#6
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090323/high-thioredoxin-1-levels-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-diminish-binding-and-signalling-of-the-monoclonal-antibody-tregalizumab
#7
Katharina Heim, Benjamin Dälken, Stefanie Faust, Faiza Rharbaoui, Andre Engling, Holger Wallmeier, Theodor Dingermann, Heinfried H Radeke, Jörg Schüttrumpf, Marcus Gutscher
The humanized non-depleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody Tregalizumab (BT-061) is able to selectively activate the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and has been investigated up to phase IIb in clinical trials in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model based on clinical data from RA and healthy volunteers, which used the cell surface CD4 downmodulation as marker of activity, confirmed a stronger effect in healthy volunteers compared with RA patients...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090296/endotoxin-and-mechanical-stress-induced-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulation-of-the-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promoter
#8
Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi Elangovan, Sara M Camp, Gabriel T Kelly, Ankit A Desai, Djanybek Adyshev, Xiaoguang Sun, Stephen M Black, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia
Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as well as its direct binding to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of this devastating syndrome; however, regulation of this critical gene in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is not well characterized...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088964/-the-influence-of-depression-degree-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-non-m3-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
J Cao, B Yuan, P X Guo, H Q Zhu, Z Z Huang, Y He, Q Ding, Z Z Feng
Objective: To investigate the influence of depression levels on regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: A total of 63 patients with primarily diagnostic non-M3 AML and 25 healthy controls were enrolled, and the levels of depression by using HADM score and the percentages of Tregs by flow cytometry were evaluated in pre-treatment and post-treatment, respectively. Results: After every course of chemotherapy, the percentages of Tregs of PBMNC in AML showed the higher level of (6...
December 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088772/thrombospondin-immune-regulation-and-the-kidney
#10
Claudio Ponticelli, Hans-Joachim Anders
Most therapeutic attempts to prevent the progression of kidney diseases have been based on interventions to inhibit the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Thrombospondins (TSPs) play an important role in activating TGF-β. In the healthy kidney, two TSPs are expressed, TSP1 and TSP2, which exert contrasting effects. While TSP1 is a major activator of TGF-β in renal cells and exerts pro-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo, TSP2 lacks the ability for TGF-β activation but regulates matrix remodeling and inflammation in experimental kidney disease...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088235/the-sense-behind-retroviral-anti-sense-transcription
#11
Mamneet Manghera, Alycia Magnusson, Renée N Douville
Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes is gaining research attention, due to their clinical significance. This report will discuss what is known about antisense transcription in Retroviridae, and provide new information about antisense transcriptional regulation through a comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1) and endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) long terminal repeats (LTRs)...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088065/methionine-enkephalin-menk-mounts-antitumor-effect-via-regulating-dendritic-cells-dcs
#12
Yiming Meng, Xinghua Gao, Wenna Chen, Nicolas P Plotnikoff, Noreen Griffin, Guirong Zhang, Fengping Shan
MENK, an endogenous opioid peptide has been reported to have many immunological and antitumor activities. So far the detailed mechanisms of antitumor through regulating DCs by MENK have not been elucidated yet. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumor mechanisms of MENK via regulating DC. The monitoring methods, such as ELISA, MTS assay, CFSE, Real-time PCR and Western blot were included in our research. We found bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in 36 female C57BL/6 mice treated with MENK enhanced expression of key surface molecules, increased production of critical cytokines reduced endocytosis of FITC-dextran, upregulated TLR4 through MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and mounted higher antitumor activity...
January 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088061/galectins-emerging-regulatory-checkpoints-linking-tumor-immunity-and-angiogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ada G Blidner, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Immune checkpoints, a plethora of inhibitory pathways aimed at maintaining immune cell homeostasis, may be co-opted by cancer cells to evade immune destruction. Therapies targeting immune checkpoints have reached a momentum yielding significant clinical benefits in patients with various malignancies by unleashing anti-tumor immunity. Galectins, a family of glycan-binding proteins, have emerged as novel regulatory checkpoints that promote immune evasive programs by inducing T-cell exhaustion, limiting T-cell survival, favoring expansion of regulatory T cells, de-activating natural killer cells and polarizing myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#14
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#15
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087671/induction-and-differentiation-of-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-from-healthy-blood-donors-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#16
Zsuzsanna Bankó, Judit Pozsgay, Dániel Szili, Mária Tóth, Tamás Gáti, György Nagy, Bernadette Rojkovich, Gabriella Sármay
The most important feature of B cells is the production of Abs upon activation; additionally, B cells produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to certain stimuli. IL-10-producing B cells represent a major subset of regulatory B cells (Bregs) that suppress autoimmune and inflammatory responses. B cells play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial data are available on IL-10- producing Bregs in RA...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087664/human-blood-cd1c-dendritic-cells-encompass-cd5high-and-cd5low-subsets-that-differ-significantly-in-phenotype-gene-expression-and-functions
#17
Xiangyun Yin, Haisheng Yu, Xiaoyang Jin, Jingyun Li, Hao Guo, Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Yong Xu, Xuefei Wang, Rong Liu, Shouli Wang, Liguo Zhang
There are three major dendritic cell (DC) subsets in both humans and mice, that is, plasmacytoid DCs and two types of conventional DCs (cDCs), cDC1s and cDC2s. cDC2s are important for polarizing CD4(+) naive T cells into different subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, and regulatory T cells. In mice, cDC2s can be further divided into phenotypically and functionally distinct subgroups. However, subsets of human cDC2s have not been reported. In the present study, we showed that human blood CD1c(+) cDCs (cDC2s) can be further separated into two subpopulations according to their CD5 expression status...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#18
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087292/loss-of-cd28-within-cd4-t-cell-subsets-from-cervical-cancer-patients-is-accompanied-by-the-acquisition-of-intracellular-perforin-and-is-further-enhanced-by-nkg2d-expression
#19
Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Miriam Ruth Bueno-Topete, Luis Felipe Jave-Suarez, Eduardo Gomez-Bañuelos, Jorge Gutierrez-Franco, Natali Vega-Magaña, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Ana Laura Pereira-Suarez, Jesse Haramati, Susana Del Toro-Arreola
CD28 is well characterized as an essential co-stimulatory receptor critical for activation, proliferation and survival processes in CD4(+) T cells. Populations of CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells, with apparently contradictory physiological roles, have recently been reported, along with the co-expression of the NK activating receptor NKG2D, in autoimmune diseases and chronic viral inflammation. Paradoxically, studies in cancer suggest that an expanded CD4(+)NKG2D(+) population may be armed with immunosuppressive properties...
January 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#20
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
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