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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#1
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909309/hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-emission-control-by-aerobic-sulfate-reduction-in-landfill
#2
Yuyang Long, Yuan Fang, Dongsheng Shen, Huajun Feng, Ting Chen
H2S emissions from landfill sites resulting from sulfate reduction has become a serious human health and ecological safety issue. This study investigated H2S emission behavior and sulfate metabolism occurring in simulated landfills under different operating conditions. Under aerobic conditions, great attenuation of the original sulfate content (from around 6000 mg kg(-1) dropped to below 800 mg kg(-1)) with corresponding accumulation of sulfides and elemental sulfur were observed, indicating that sulfate reduction processes were intense under such conditions...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907812/the-impact-of-appearance-comparisons-made-through-social-media-traditional-media-and-in-person-in-women-s-everyday-lives
#3
Jasmine Fardouly, Rebecca T Pinkus, Lenny R Vartanian
Appearance comparisons are an important sociocultural factor influencing women's body image. These comparisons can occur in different contexts (e.g., through magazines, social media, in person). However, little is known about the frequency and outcome of appearance comparisons made in different contexts in women's everyday lives. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods, female undergraduate students (n=146) completed a brief online survey at random times every day for 5 days. They reported the frequency, direction (upward, lateral, downward), and context of appearance comparisons, and also reported their appearance satisfaction, mood, and diet and exercise thoughts and behaviors...
November 28, 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907248/mycobacterium-ulcerans-toxin-mycolactone-may-enhance-host-seeking-and-oviposition-behavior-by-aedes-aegypti-l-diptera-culicidae
#4
M L Sanders, H R Jordan, C Serewis-Pond, L Zheng, M E Benbow, P L Small, J K Tomberlin
The ecological functions of many toxins continue to remain unknown for those produced by environmental pathogens. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease, Buruli ulcer, produces a cytotoxic macrolide, mycolactone, whose function(s) in the environment remains elusive. Through a series of dual-choice behavior assays, we show that mycolactone may be an interkingdom cue for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seeking blood-meals as well as oviposition sites. Results provide novel insight into the evolution between bacteria and potential vectors...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#5
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#6
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#7
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903261/discrete-phenotypes-are-not-underpinned-by-genome-wide-genetic-differentiation-in-the-squat-lobster-munida-gregaria-crustacea-decapoda-munididae-a-multi-marker-study-covering-the-patagonian-shelf
#8
Chen Wang, Shobhit Agrawal, Jürgen Laudien, Vreni Häussermann, Christoph Held
BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has demonstrated that many discrete phenotypes are in fact genetically distinct (pseudo)cryptic species. Genetically identical, isogenic individuals, however, can also express similarly different phenotypes in response to a trigger condition, e.g. in the environment. This alternative explanation to cryptic speciation often remains untested because it requires considerable effort to reject the hypothesis that the observed underlying genetic homogeneity of the different phenotypes may be trivially caused by too slowly evolving molecular markers...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#9
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901107/how-a-life-like-system-emerges-from-a-simplistic-particle-motion-law
#10
Thomas Schmickl, Martin Stefanec, Karl Crailsheim
Self-structuring patterns can be observed all over the universe, from galaxies to molecules to living matter, yet their emergence is waiting for full understanding. We discovered a simple motion law for moving and interacting self-propelled particles leading to a self-structuring, self-reproducing and self-sustaining life-like system. The patterns emerging within this system resemble patterns found in living organisms. The emergent cells we found show a distinct life cycle and even create their own ecosystem from scratch...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896583/use-of-ultra-high-spatial-resolution-aerial-imagery-in-the-estimation-of-chaparral-wildfire-fuel-loads
#11
Ian T Schmidt, John F O'Leary, Douglas A Stow, Kellie A Uyeda, Phillip J Riggan
Development of methods that more accurately estimate spatial distributions of fuel loads in shrublands allows for improved understanding of ecological processes such as wildfire behavior and postburn recovery. The goal of this study is to develop and test remote sensing methods to upscale field estimates of shrubland fuel to broader-scale biomass estimates using ultra-high spatial resolution imagery captured by a light-sport aircraft. The study is conducted on chaparral shrublands located in eastern San Diego County, CA, USA...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896313/effects-of-paternal-predation-risk-and-rearing-environment-on-maternal-investment-and-development-of-defensive-responses-in-the-offspring
#12
Austin C Korgan, Elizabeth O'Leary, Jessica Bauer, Aidan Fortier, Ian C G Weaver, Tara S Perrot
Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother-infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894018/managing-mosquito-spaces-citizen-self-governance-of-disease-vectors-in-a-desert-landscape
#13
Nicolena vonHedemann, Paul Robbins, Melinda K Butterworth, Katheryn Landau, Cory W Morin
Public health agencies' strategies to control disease vectors have increasingly included "soft" mosquito management programs that depend on citizen education and changing homeowner behaviors. In an effort to understand public responses to such campaigns, this research assesses the case of Tucson, Arizona, where West Nile virus presents a serious health risk and where management efforts have focused on public responsibility for mosquito control. Using surveys, interviews, and focus groups, we conclude that citizens have internalized responsibilities for mosquito management but also expect public management of parks and waterways while tending to reject the state's interference with privately owned parcels...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893946/predicting-animal-home-range-structure-and-transitions-using-a-multistate-ornstein-uhlenbeck-biased-random-walk
#14
Greg A Breed, Emily A Golson, M Tim Tinker
The home-range concept is central in animal ecology and behavior, and numerous mechanistic models have been developed to understand home range formation and maintenance. These mechanistic models usually assume a single, contiguous home range. Here we describe and implement a simple home-range model that can accommodate multiple home-range centers, form complex shapes, allow discontinuities in use patterns, and infer how external and internal variables affect movement and use patterns. The model assumes individuals associate with two or more home-range centers and move among them with some estimable probability...
October 6, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891217/models-of-eucalypt-phenology-predict-bat-population-flux
#15
John R Giles, Raina K Plowright, Peggy Eby, Alison J Peel, Hamish McCallum
Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889916/precipitation-alters-interactions-in-a-grassland-ecological-community
#16
Nicolas Deguines, Justin S Brashares, Laura R Prugh
1.Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. 2.Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behavior or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884930/diet-modification-challenges-faced-by-marginalized-and-nonmarginalized-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Meredith Vanstone, Alex Rewegan, Francesca Brundisini, Mita Giacomini, Sujane Kandasamy, Deirdre DeJean
OBJECTIVES: Diet modification is an important part of the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but sustained dietary change remains elusive for many individuals. This paper describes and interprets the barriers to diet modification from the perspective of people with type 2 diabetes, paying particular attention to the experiences of people who experience social marginalization. METHODS: A systematic review of primary, empirical qualitative research was performed, capturing 120 relevant studies published between 2002 and 2015...
November 24, 2016: Chronic Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884521/the-consequences-of-landscape-change-on-fishing-strategies
#18
Tracy Van Holt, Beatrice Crona, Jeffrey C Johnson, Stefan Gelcich
We show how land-use change can affect fisher-harvesting behavior. We test whether fisher harvesting behavior can be predicted by landscape change patterns at local (~200km) and regional (~1200km) levels. Our data suggest that fishers harvesting in areas near tree plantations reduced benthic-invertebrate harvests in favor of demersal and pelagic finfish that are usually located further offshore. Fishers' management areas, which were near tree plantations, had higher chlorophyll-a values, and contained shellfish with more endobionts...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882649/impact-of-male-condition-on-his-spermatophore-and-consequences-for-female-reproductive-performance-in-the-glanville-fritillary-butterfly
#19
Anne Duplouy, Luisa Woestmann, Juan Gallego-Zamorano, Marjo Saastamoinen
In butterflies, male reproductive success is highly related to the quality and the size of the spermatophore transferred to the female. The spermatophore is a capsule produced by the male during copulation, which in many species contains sperm in addition to a nuptial gift, and which is digested by the female after copulation. The nuptial gift may contribute to egg production and offspring quality, and in some cases also to female body maintenance. The production of the spermatophore, however, represents a cost for the male and, in polyandrous species, ejaculates are sometimes allocated adaptively across matings...
November 24, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881970/the-potential-of-virtual-reality-for-the-investigation-of-awe
#20
Alice Chirico, David B Yaden, Giuseppe Riva, Andrea Gaggioli
The emotion of awe is characterized by the perception of vastness and a need for accommodation, which can include a positive and/or negative valence. While a number of studies have successfully manipulated this emotion, the issue of how to elicit particularly intense awe experiences in laboratory settings remains. We suggest that virtual reality (VR) is a particularly effective mood induction tool for eliciting awe. VR provides three key assets for improving awe. First, VR provides users with immersive and ecological yet controlled environments that can elicit a sense of "presence," the subjective experience of "being there" in a simulated reality...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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