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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239596/genetic-diversity-of-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-in-the-mediterranean-sea-insights-from-genome-wide-snps-and-microsatellites
#1
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237863/structural-violence-and-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-etiology-in-sri-lanka
#2
M W Amarasiri de Silva, Steven M Albert, J M K B Jayasekara
Research published on Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka has been undertaken largely from biomedical and epidemiological perspectives. The main objective of these studies has been to identify the etiology of the disease, which affects as much as 15-21% of the population in some regions and is associated with kidney failure. Few studies have sought to address how CKDu is socially and behaviorally situated in the affected districts. The present study, informed by structural violence theory, utilized a mixed-method approach that analyzed primary and secondary data for Medawachchiya District Secretariat Division in Anuradhapura District for 2010 and 2015, and examined CKDu as a manifestation of social inequality and exclusion and the creation of a marginalized group of agricultural laborers...
February 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237053/race-ethnicity-education-and-age-are-associated-with-engagement-in-ecological-momentary-assessment-text-messaging-among-substance-using-msm-in-san-francisco
#3
Caitlin M Turner, Phillip Coffin, Deirdre Santos, Shannon Huffaker, Tim Matheson, Jason Euren, Anna DeMartini, Chris Rowe, Steven Batki, Glenn-Milo Santos
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) are data collection approaches that characterize behaviors in real-time. However, EMA is underutilized in alcohol and substance use research among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this analysis is to explore the correlates of engagement in EMA text messages among substance-using MSM in San Francisco. METHODS: The present analysis uses data collected from the Project iN pilot study (n=30). Over a two-month period, participants received and responded to EMA daily text messages inquiring about their study medication, alcohol, and methamphetamine use...
April 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235906/speed-dependent-modulation-of-wing-muscle-recruitment-intensity-and-kinematics-in-two-bat-species
#4
Nicolai Konow, Jorn A Cheney, Thomas J Roberts, Jose Iriarte-Díaz, Kenneth S Breuer, J Rhea S Waldman, Sharon M Swartz
Animals respond to changes in power requirements during locomotion by modulating the intensity of recruitment of their propulsive musculature, but many questions concerning how muscle recruitment varies with speed across modes of locomotion remain unanswered. We measured average muscle recruitment intensity (aEMG) for pectoralis major and biceps brachii at different flight speeds in two relatively distantly related bat species: the aerial insectivore Eptesicus fuscus, and the primarily fruit eating Carollia perspicillata These ecologically distinct species employ different flight behaviors but possess similar wing aspect ratio, wing loading and body mass...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235893/single-neurons-in-the-avian-auditory-cortex-encode-individual-identity-and-propagation-distance-in-naturally-degraded-communication-calls
#5
Solveig C Mouterde, Julie E Elie, Nicolas Mathevon, Frédéric E Theunissen
One of the most complex tasks performed by sensory systems is "scene analysis": the interpretation of complex signals as behaviorally relevant objects. The study of this problem, universal to species and sensory modalities, is particularly challenging in audition, where sounds from various sources and localizations, degraded by propagation through the environment, sum to form a single acoustical signal. Here we investigated in a songbird model, the zebra finch, the neural substrate for ranging and identifying a single source...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231480/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-post-hospitalization-ecological-momentary-assessment-in-patients-with-psychotic-spectrum-disorders
#6
Ethan Moitra, Brandon A Gaudiano, Carter H Davis, Dror Ben-Zeev
BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of patients with psychotic-spectrum disorders are medication nonadherent. The use of real-time assessment via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on mobile devices might offer important insights into adherence behaviors that cannot be measured in the clinic. However, existing EMA studies have only studied acutely ill patients during hospitalization or more stable patients in the community. METHODS: Feasibility and acceptability of EMA in 65 patients with psychotic-spectrum disorders who were recently discharged from the hospital were assessed...
February 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#7
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229539/appetite-self-regulation-environmental-and-policy-influences-on-eating-behaviors
#8
Marlene B Schwartz, David R Just, Jamie F Chriqui, Alice S Ammerman
OBJECTIVE: Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." METHODS: In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229247/achieving-population-level-change-through-a-system-contextual-approach-to-supporting-competent-parenting
#9
REVIEW
Matthew R Sanders, Kylie Burke, Ronald J Prinz, Alina Morawska
The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229026/spawning-aggregation-of-white-streaked-grouper-epinephelus-ongus-spatial-distribution-and-annual-variation-in-the-fish-density-within-a-spawning-ground
#10
Atsushi Nanami, Taku Sato, Yuuki Kawabata, Junichi Okuyama
White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre-and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228732/c-terminus-methionene-specifically-involved-in-binding-corn-odorants-to-odorant-binding-protein4-in-macrocentrus-cingulum
#11
Tofael Ahmed, Tiantao Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai
The soluble carrier proteins, OBPs carry odor components through sensilium lymph to specific receptors within the antennal sensilla to trigger behavioral responses. Herein, McinOBP4 was characterized from the Macrocentrus cingulum, which is the specialist parasitic insect of Ostrinia furnacalis for better understanding of olfactory recognition mechanism of this wasp. The classical odorant binding protein McinOBP4 showed good binding affinity to corn green leaf volatiles. RT-qPCR results showed that the McinOBP4 was primarily expressed in male and female wasp antennae, with transcripts levels differing by sex...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226007/hospitalization-and-hospital-mortality-of-elderly-people-with-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-in-brazil-2008-2014
#12
Vanessa Cruz Santos, Karla Ferraz Dos Anjos, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery, Ramon Missias Moreira, Diego Pires Cruz, Eduardo Nagib Boery
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the evolution of hospitalizations and hospital mortality of elderly people with mental and behavioral disorders in Brazil, from 2008 to 2014. METHODS: this is a time series ecological study, with data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian National Health System (SIH/SUS), and analyzed through Prais-Winsten regression. RESULTS: during the studied period, 139,941 hospitalizations and 2,962 deaths were recorded; the hospitalization coefficient for mental and behavioral disorders decreased in Brazil, from 122...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223924/insect-like-organization-of-the-stomatopod-central-complex-functional-and-phylogenetic-implications
#13
Hanne H Thoen, Justin Marshall, Gabriella H Wolff, Nicholas J Strausfeld
One approach to investigating functional attributes of the central complex is to relate its various elaborations to pancrustacean phylogeny, to taxon-specific behavioral repertoires and ecological settings. Here we review morphological similarities between the central complex of stomatopod crustaceans and the central complex of dicondylic insects. We discuss whether their central complexes possess comparable functional properties, despite the phyletic distance separating these taxa, with mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) belonging to the basal branch of Eumalacostraca...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222542/ecologically-relevant-outcome-measure-for-post-inpatient-rehabilitation
#14
Carlos Marquez de la Plata, Devin Qualls, Patrick Plenger, James F Malec, Mary Ellen Hayden
BACKGROUND: Transfer of skills learned within the clinic environment to patients' home or community is important in post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR). Outcome measures used in PBIR assess level of independence during functional tasks; however, available functional instruments do not quantitate the environment in which the behaviors occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of an instrument used to assess patients' functional abilities while quantifying the amount of structure and distractions in the environment...
January 31, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222339/everyday-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis
#15
Patrícia Rzezak, Ellen Marise Lima, Ana Carolina Gargaro, Erica Coimbra, Silvia de Vincentiis, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, João Pereira Leite, Geraldo F Busatto, Kette D Valente
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) have episodic memory impairment. Memory has rarely been evaluated using an ecologic measure, even though performance on these tests is more related to patients' memory complaints. We aimed to measure everyday memory of patients with TLE-HS to age- and gender-matched controls. METHODS: We evaluated 31 patients with TLE-HS and 34 healthy controls, without epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, using the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Visual Reproduction (WMS-III) and Logical Memory (WMS-III)...
February 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221835/social-information-on-fear-and-food-drives-animal-grouping-and-fitness
#16
Michael A Gil, Zachary Emberts, Harrison Jones, Colette M St Mary
Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217889/co-occurring-trajectory-of-mothers-substance-use-and-psychological-control-and-children-s-behavior-problems-the-effects-of-a-family-systems-intervention
#17
Jing Zhang, Natasha Slesnick, Xin Feng
This study examined the effects of a family systems therapy (Ecologically-Based Family Therapy [EBFT]) on the co-occurring trajectory of mothers' substance use and psychological control, and its association with children's problem behaviors. Participants included 183 mothers with a substance use disorder who had at least one biological child in their care. Mothers were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: EBFT-home, n = 62; EBFT-office, n = 61; or Women's Health Education, n = 60...
February 19, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217036/applying-psychological-theories-to-promote-long-term-maintenance-of-health-behaviors
#18
Rodney P Joseph, Casey L Daniel, Herpreet Thind, Tanya J Benitez, Dori Pekmezi
Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation...
November 2016: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215555/intertidal-pool-fish-girella-laevifrons-kyphosidae-shown-strong-physiological-homeostasis-but-shy-personality-the-cost-of-living-in-hypercapnic-habitats
#19
S Benítez, C Duarte, T Opitz, N A Lagos, J M Pulgar, C A Vargas, M A Lardies
Tide pools habitats are naturally exposed to a high degree of environmental variability. The consequences of living in these extreme habitats are not well established. In particular, little it is known about of the effects of hypercanic seawater (i.e. high pCO2 levels) on marine vertebrates such as intertidal pool fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased pCO2 on the physiology and behavior in juveniles of the intertidal pool fish Girella laevifrons. Two nominal pCO2 concentrations (400 and 1600μatm) were used...
February 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214009/trophic-magnification-of-dechlorane-plus-in-the-marine-food-webs-of-fildes-peninsula-in-antarctica
#20
Guangshui Na, Yao Yao, Hui Gao, Ruijing Li, Linke Ge, Ivan A Titaley, Lisandra Santiago-Delgado, Staci L Massey Simonich
The food web composition, assimilation efficiency of Dechlorane Plus (DP) in food web components, and even extrinsic conditions can affect the trophic biomagnification potentials of DP isomers in food webs. Antarctica ecological system is characterized by the presence of few consumers and simple trophic levels (TLs), which are crucial in discussing the behavior of contaminants. To assess the biomagnification potential of DP in the Antarctic food web, nine representative species were sampled and analyzed from the Fildes Peninsula...
February 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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