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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332613/hunting-promotes-spatial-reorganization-and-sexually-selected-infanticide
#1
M Leclerc, S C Frank, A Zedrosser, J E Swenson, F Pelletier
Harvest can affect the ecology and evolution of wild species. The removal of key individuals, such as matriarchs or dominant males, can disrupt social structure and exacerbate the impact of hunting on population growth. We do not know, however, how and when the spatiotemporal reorganization takes place after removal and if such changes can be the mechanism that explain a decrease in population growth. Detailed behavioral information from individually monitored brown bears, in a population where hunting increases sexually selected infanticide, revealed that adult males increased their use of home ranges of hunter-killed neighbors in the second year after their death...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331601/methods-to-identify-the-prey-of-invertebrate-predators-in-terrestrial-field-studies
#2
REVIEW
Klaus Birkhofer, Helena Bylund, Peter Dalin, Olga Ferlian, Vesna Gagic, Peter A Hambäck, Maartje Klapwijk, Laia Mestre, Eve Roubinet, Martin Schroeder, Johan A Stenberg, Mario Porcel, Christer Björkman, Mattias Jonsson
Predation is an interaction during which an organism kills and feeds on another organism. Past and current interest in studying predation in terrestrial habitats has yielded a number of methods to assess invertebrate predation events in terrestrial ecosystems. We provide a decision tree to select appropriate methods for individual studies. For each method, we then present a short introduction, key examples for applications, advantages and disadvantages, and an outlook to future refinements. Video and, to a lesser extent, live observations are recommended in studies that address behavioral aspects of predator-prey interactions or focus on per capita predation rates...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331589/complex-variation-in-habitat-selection-strategies-among-individuals-driven-by-extrinsic-factors
#3
Edward J Raynor, Hawthorne L Beyer, John M Briggs, Anthony Joern
Understanding behavioral strategies employed by animals to maximize fitness in the face of environmental heterogeneity, variability, and uncertainty is a central aim of animal ecology. Flexibility in behavior may be key to how animals respond to climate and environmental change. Using a mechanistic modeling framework for simultaneously quantifying the effects of habitat preference and intrinsic movement on space use at the landscape scale, we investigate how movement and habitat selection vary among individuals and years in response to forage quality-quantity tradeoffs, environmental conditions, and variable annual climate...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331583/surreptitious-sympatry-exploring-the-ecological-and-genetic-separation-of-two-sibling-species
#4
Line S Cordes, Gregory O'Corry-Crowe, Robert J Small
Climate change is having profound impacts on animal populations, and shifts in geographic range are predicted in response. Shifts that result in range overlap between previously allopatric congeneric species may have consequences for biodiversity through interspecific competition, hybridization, and genetic introgression. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and spotted seals (Phoca largha) are parapatric sibling species and areas of co-occurrence at the edges of their range, such as Bristol Bay, Alaska, offer a unique opportunity to explore ecological separation and discuss potential consequences of increased range overlap resulting from retreating sea ice...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328953/estimating-changes-in-lichen-mat-volume-through-time-and-related-effects-on-barren-ground-caribou-rangifer-tarandus-groenlandicus-movement
#5
Gregory J M Rickbeil, Txomin Hermosilla, Nicholas C Coops, Joanne C White, Michael A Wulder
Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328087/endophytic-fungi-alter-sucking-bug-responses-to-cotton-reproductive-structures
#6
Gregory A Sword, Ashley Tessnow, Maria Julissa Ek-Ramos
All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana...
March 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324161/thermal-ecology-of-three-coexistent-desert-lizards-implications-for-habitat-divergence-and-thermal-vulnerability
#7
Shu-Ran Li, Yang Wang, Liang Ma, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Jun-Huai Bi, Wei-Guo Du
How ectotherms exploit thermal resources has important implications for their habitat utilization and thermal vulnerability to climate warming. To address this issue, we investigated thermal relations of three sympatric lizard species (Eremias argus, Eremias multiocellata, and Phrynocephalus przewalskii) in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. We determined the thermoregulatory behavior, body temperature (T b), operative temperature (T e), selected body temperature (T sel), and critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of adult lizards...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324146/beliefs-about-the-potential-impacts-of-exploiting-non-timber-forest-products-predict-voluntary-participation-in-monitoring
#8
Alice Dantas Brites, Carla Morsello
Harvesting and trading non-timber forest products is advocated as a win-win strategy for conservation and development, yet it can produce negative ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Hence, monitoring exploitation outcomes is essential, and participatory monitoring has been suggested to be the most suitable approach. Among possible approaches, participatory monitoring is preferred because it is likely to increase people's awareness and beliefs regarding impacts or potential impacts, thus inducing behavioral changes, although the evidence in this regard is contradictory...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319182/the-viability-of-an-ecologically-valid-chronic-sleep-restriction-and-circadian-timing-protocol-an-examination-of-sample-attrition-compliance-and-effectiveness-at-impacting-sleepiness-and-mood
#9
David L Dickinson, Sean P A Drummond, Todd McElroy
Chronic sleep restriction (SR) increases sleepiness, negatively impacts mood, and impairs a variety of cognitive performance measures. The vast majority of work establishing these effects are tightly controlled in-lab experimental studies. Examining commonly-experienced levels of SR in naturalistic settings is more difficult and generally involves observational methods, rather than active manipulations of sleep. The same is true for analyzing behavioral and cognitive outcomes at circadian unfavorable times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299894/insights-on-food-webs-associated-with-the-south-american-tomato-pinworm
#10
Mario Naselli, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Nicolas Desneux, Agatino Russo, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà
BACKGROUND: Complexity of both natural and managed ecosystems involves various forms of interaction among organisms. Two or more species that exploit the same resource can engage in competitive behaviors, usually referred to as intra-guild interactions. These can be direct, i.e. one species feeds directly upon the competitor (intra-guild predation) or indirect, e.g. when the dominant organism competes for a food source which another organism is feeding on (kleptoparasitism). We investigated the potential for such interactions in a biological model composed by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, and three of its newly associated natural enemies: the zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis, and two idiobiont ectoparasitoids Bracon nigricans, and Necremnus tutae...
March 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299588/chemical-cues-which-include-amino-acids-mediate-species-specific-feeding-behavior-in-invasive-filter-feeding-bigheaded-carps
#11
Aaron W Claus, Peter W Sorensen
This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298264/ecological-momentary-assessment-in-behavioral-research-addressing-technological-and-human-participant-challenges
#12
Lora E Burke, Saul Shiffman, Edvin Music, Mindi A Styn, Andrea Kriska, Asim Smailagic, Daniel Siewiorek, Linda J Ewing, Eileen Chasens, Brian French, Juliet Mancino, Dara Mendez, Patrick Strollo, Stephen L Rathbun
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals' current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297860/evolution-of-correlated-multiplexity-through-stability-maximization
#13
Sanjiv K Dwivedi, Sarika Jalan
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296131/the-reproductive-strategy-and-the-vibrational-duet-of-the-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the
#14
Rachele Nieri, Valerio Mazzoni
The recent description of a new vibrational mating disruption method to control the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball opened questions about its possible application to other leafhopper pests. Since the prerequisite for the method's successful application is a deep knowledge of the species mating behavior and the exact role of associated signals, we conducted behavioral assays on the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Göthe, a pest of grapevine and other crops in Europe and Asia. Laser vibrometer recordings of single and paired individuals (male and female) during a 24-hour period enabled us to detect and describe two male and one female signal...
March 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295329/anatomy-of-the-lobula-complex-in-the-brain-of-the-praying-mantis-compared-to-the-lobula-complexes-of-the-locust-and-cockroach
#15
Ronny Rosner, Joss von Hadeln, Tobias Salden, Uwe Homberg
The praying mantis is an insect which relies on vision for capturing prey, avoiding being eaten and for spatial orientation. It is well known for its ability to use stereopsis for estimating the distance of objects. The neuronal substrate mediating visually driven behaviors, however, is not very well investigated. To provide a basis for future functional studies, we analyzed the anatomical organization of visual neuropils in the brain of the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea and provide supporting evidence from a second species, Rhombodera basalis, with particular focus on the lobula complex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295286/predicting-coastal-algal-blooms-in-southern-california
#16
John A McGowan, Ethan R Deyle, Hao Ye, Melissa L Carter, Charles T Perretti, Kerri D Seger, Alain de Verneil, George Sugihara
The irregular appearance of planktonic algae blooms off the coast of southern California has been a source of wonder for over a century. Although large algal blooms can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems and human health, a predictive understanding of these events has eluded science, and many have come to regard them as ultimately random phenomena. However, the highly nonlinear nature of ecological dynamics can give the appearance of randomness and stress traditional methods-such as model fitting or analysis of variance-to the point of breaking...
March 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294524/spatially-explicit-bioaccumulation-modeling-in-aquatic-environments-results-from-two-demonstration-sites
#17
Katherine von Stackelberg, Marc A Williams, Jonathan Clough, Mark S Johnson
Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms, and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway...
March 11, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293199/the-science-of-racing-against-opponents-affordance-competition-and-the-regulation-of-exercise-intensity-in-head-to-head-competition
#18
Florentina J Hettinga, Marco J Konings, Gert-Jan Pepping
Athlete-environment interactions are crucial factors in understanding the regulation of exercise intensity in head-to-head competitions. Previously, we have proposed a framework based on the interdependence of perception and action, which allows us to explore athletic behavior in the more complex pacing situations occurring when athletes need to respond to actions of their opponents. In the present perspective we will further explore whether opponents, crucial external factors in competitive sports, could indeed be perceived as social invitations for action...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290065/does-stress-result-in-you-exercising-less-or-does-exercising-result-in-you-being-less-stressed-or-is-it-both-testing-the-bi-directional-stress-exercise-association-at-the-group-and-person-n-of-1-level
#19
Matthew M Burg, Joseph E Schwartz, Ian M Kronish, Keith M Diaz, Carmela Alcantara, Joan Duer-Hefele, Karina W Davidson
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress contributes to heart disease in part by adversely affecting maintenance of health behaviors, while exercise can reduce stress. Assessing the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise has been limited by lack of real-time data and theoretical and statistical models. This lack may hinder efforts to promote exercise maintenance. PURPOSE: We test the bi-directional relationship between stress and exercise using real-time data for the average person and the variability-individual differences-in this relationship...
March 13, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289772/firewalls-in-bee-nests-survival-value-of-propolis-walls-of-wild-cape-honeybee-apis-mellifera-capensis
#20
Geoff Tribe, Jürgen Tautz, Karin Sternberg, Jenny Cullinan
The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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