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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#1
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544996/temperate-bacteriophages-as-regulators-of-host-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Tal Argov, Gil Azulay, Anna Pasechnek, Olga Stadnyuk, Shai Ran-Sapir, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and affect most facets of life, from evolution of bacteria, through ecology and global biochemical cycling to human health. The interactions between phages and bacteria often lead to biological novelty and an important milestone in this process is the ability of phages to regulate their host's behavior. In this review article, we will focus on newly reported cases that demonstrate how temperate phages regulate bacterial gene expression and behavior in a variety of bacterial species, pathogenic and environmental...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#3
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542432/a-new-mesophotic-goby-palatogobius-incendius-teleostei-gobiidae-and-the-first-record-of-invasive-lionfish-preying-on-undescribed-biodiversity
#4
Luke Tornabene, Carole C Baldwin
A new species of deep-reef fish in the goby genus Palatogobius is described from recent submersible collections off Curaçao and Dominica. Video footage of schools of this species reveal predation by the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois spp.), the first record of undescribed fauna potentially being eaten by lionfish outside of its native range. We present molecular phylogenetic data for all valid species of Palatogobius and related genera, as well as a taxonomic key to the species of Palatogobius and a generic key to Palatogobius and related genera in the western Atlantic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537027/evaluation-of-the-sensitivity-spectrum-of-a-video-tracking-system-with-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-five-different-toxicants
#5
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Vitor Vasconcelos, Luis Oliva Teles
The aim of this study was to develop a biological early warning system for the detection of aquatic toxicity and test it with five toxicants with distinct chemical nature. This was done in order to verify the spectrum of sensitivities of the proposed system, as well as the potential identification capability of the tested contaminants, using only the analysis of zebrafish's behavior. Six experimental conditions were tested: negative control and five toxicants (bleach, lindane, tributyltin, mercury, and formaldehyde)...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536283/signal-integration-in-quorum-sensing-enables-cross-species-induction-of-virulence-in-pectobacterium-wasabiae
#6
Rita S Valente, Pol Nadal-Jimenez, André F P Carvalho, Filipe J D Vieira, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536200/modulation-of-sensory-information-processing-by-a-neuroglobin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Shigekazu Oda, Yu Toyoshima, Mario de Bono
Sensory receptor neurons match their dynamic range to ecologically relevant stimulus intensities. How this tuning is achieved is poorly understood in most receptors. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans avoids 21% O2 and hypoxia and prefers intermediate O2 concentrations. We show how this O2 preference is sculpted by the antagonistic action of a neuroglobin and an O2-binding soluble guanylate cyclase. These putative molecular O2 sensors confer a sigmoidal O2 response curve in the URX neurons that has highest slope between 15 and 19% O2 and approaches saturation when O2 reaches 21%...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535257/correlates-of-picky-eating-and-food-neophobia-in-young-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Natasha Chong Cole, Ruopeng An, Soo-Yeun Lee, Sharon M Donovan
Picky eating behavior is prevalent among toddlers and may negatively impact their growth and development. This article summarizes the correlates of picky eating and food neophobia in young children, which were identified using a socio-ecological framework. A literature search was conducted in 4 electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were English-language peer-reviewed publications that investigated correlate(s) of picky eating or food neophobia in children aged ≤30 months. Correlates were categorized into 4 levels: cell, child, clan (family), and community/country...
May 23, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533412/extraordinarily-rapid-speciation-in-a-marine-fish
#9
Paolo Momigliano, Henri Jokinen, Antoine Fraimout, Ann-Britt Florin, Alf Norkko, Juha Merilä
Divergent selection may initiate ecological speciation extremely rapidly. How often and at what pace ecological speciation proceeds to yield strong reproductive isolation is more uncertain. Here, we document a case of extraordinarily rapid speciation associated with ecological selection in the postglacial Baltic Sea. European flounders (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic exhibit two contrasting reproductive behaviors: pelagic and demersal spawning. Demersal spawning enables flounders to thrive in the low salinity of the Northern Baltic, where eggs cannot achieve neutral buoyancy...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529411/the-electronically-activated-recorder-ear-a-method-for-the-naturalistic-observation-of-daily-social-behavior
#10
Matthias R Mehl
This article reviews the Electronically Activated Recorder or EAR as an ambulatory ecological momentary assessment tool for the real-world observation of daily behavior. Technically, the EAR is an audio recorder that intermittently records snippets of ambient sounds while participants go about their lives. Conceptually, it is a naturalistic observation method that yields an acoustic log of a person's day as it unfolds. The power of the EAR lies in unobtrusively collecting authentic real-life observational data...
April 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528410/comparison-of-toxicities-of-metal-pyrithiones-including-their-degradation-compounds-and-organotin-antifouling-biocides-to-the-japanese-killifish-oryzias-latipes
#11
Madoka Ohji, Hiroya Harino
Japanese killifish Oryzias latipes were exposed to three levels (0, 1, and 10 µg l(-1)) of copper pyrithione (CuPT2), zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), six of their degradation products, and the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) for 48 h at 20 °C. All individual fish exposed to 1 and 10 µg l(-1) of CuPT2 or 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 were dead within 12 h, respectively, and at 24 h the survival rate of the fish exposed to 1 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 was 50%. All fish exposed to 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 showed morphological abnormalities in the form of vertebral deformity...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528392/habitat-quality-mediates-personality-through-differences-in-social-context
#12
Benjamin A Belgrad, Blaine D Griffen
Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m(-2)). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524023/the-mycelium-as-a-network
#13
Mark D Fricker, Luke L M Heaton, Nick S Jones, Lynne Boddy
The characteristic growth pattern of fungal mycelia as an interconnected network has a major impact on how cellular events operating on a micron scale affect colony behavior at an ecological scale. Network structure is intimately linked to flows of resources across the network that in turn modify the network architecture itself. This complex interplay shapes the incredibly plastic behavior of fungi and allows them to cope with patchy, ephemeral resources, competition, damage, and predation in a manner completely different from multicellular plants or animals...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520854/declines-in-hpv-associated-high-grade-cervical-lesions-after-introduction-of-hpv-vaccines-in-connecticut-us-2008-2015
#14
Linda M Niccolai, James I Meek, Monica Brackney, James L Hadler, Lynn E Sosa, Daniel M Weinberger
Background: Trends in HPV-associated cervical lesions can provide an indication of vaccine impact. Our purpose was to measure trends in cervical lesions during 2008-2015 and to consider possible explanations including vaccination coverage, changes in screening for cervical cancer, and risk behaviors for acquiring HPV. Methods: Connecticut (CT) implemented mandatory reporting of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) in 2008...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520796/a-hierarchical-model-for-estimating-the-spatial-distribution-and-abundance-of-animals-detected-by-continuous-time-recorders
#15
Robert M Dorazio, K Ullas Karanth
MOTIVATION: Several spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520484/fe-en-acci%C3%A3-n-promoting-physical-activity-among-churchgoing-latinas
#16
Elva M Arredondo, John P Elder, Jessica Haughton, Donald J Slymen, James F Sallis, Lilian G Perez, Natalicio Serrano, Maíra T Parra, Rodrigo Valdivia, Guadalupe X Ayala
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a faith-based intervention to promote physical activity in Latinas. METHODS: We randomized 16 churches in San Diego County, California, to a physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (n = 436). The intervention followed an ecological framework and involved promotoras. We examined 12-month intervention effects, including accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; primary outcome) and secondary outcomes...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518216/queen-presence-mediates-the-relationship-between-collective-behavior-and-disease-susceptibility-in-ant-colonies
#17
Carl N Keiser, Svjetlana Vojvodic, Imani O Butler, Elizabeth Sartain, Volker H W Rudolf, Julia B Saltz
The success of social living can be explained, in part, by a group's ability to execute collective behaviors unachievable by solitary individuals. However, groups vary in their ability to execute these complex behaviors, often because they vary in their phenotypic composition. Group membership changes over time due to mortality or emigration, potentially leaving groups vulnerable to ecological challenges in times of flux. In some societies, the loss of important individuals (e.g., leaders, elites, queens) may have an especially detrimental effect on groups' ability to deal with these challenges...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516354/characterization-partitioning-and-potential-ecological-risk-quantification-of-trace-elements-in-coal-fly-ash
#18
Zeba Usmani, Vipin Kumar
Coal-based thermal power plants are the major source of power generation in India. Combustion of coal gives rise to by-products such as fly ash (FA) in huge quantities. The current study focuses on physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization and risk evaluation of FA, generated from five thermal power plants (TPPs) of India. The coal, and corresponding FA and bottom ash (BA) were further analyzed for trace elements in order to observe the enrichment and partitioning behavior of elements. The environmental risk assessment of trace elements in FA was performed in accordance with geoaccumulation index (I geo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515781/evolutionary-restoration-potential-evaluated-through-the-use-of-a-trait-linked-genetic-marker
#19
Travis M Apgar, Devon E Pearse, Eric P Palkovacs
Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511354/occurrence-distribution-and-sources-of-bisphenol-analogues-in-a-shallow-chinese-freshwater-lake-taihu-lake-implications-for-ecological-and-human-health-risk
#20
Yanhua Liu, Shenghu Zhang, Ninghui Song, Ruixin Guo, Meihong Chen, Dina Mai, Zhengyu Yan, Zhihua Han, Jianqiu Chen
Since the production and use of BPA were regulated in China around 2008, several bisphenol analogues were widely used to substitute BPA in the manufacture of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, and plastics. However, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution, potential sources and risk assessment for those bisphenol analogues. In this study, seven bisphenol analogues were investigated in water and sediment samples from Taihu Lake, China. Compared to the same lake in 2013 (range: 5.4-87ng/L for waters and 0...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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