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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#1
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637291/pediatric-to-adult-care-transition-perspectives-of-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Jerlym S Porter, Kimberly M Wesley, Mimi S Zhao, Rebecca J Rupff, Jane S Hankins
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634150/molecular-phylogenetics-and-biogeography-of-the-ambush-bugs-hemiptera-reduviidae-phymatinae
#3
Paul Masonick, Amy Michael, Sarah Frankenberg, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Christiane Weirauch
The ambush bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Phymatinae) are a diverse clade of predators known for their cryptic hunting behavior and morphologically diverse raptorial forelegs. Despite their striking appearance, role as pollinator predators, and intriguing biogeographic distribution, phylogenetic relationships within Phymatinae are largely unknown and the evolutionary history of the subfamily has remained in the dark. We here utilize the most extensive molecular phylogeny of ambush bugs to date, generated from a 3,328 base pair molecular dataset, to refine our understanding of phymatine relationships, estimate dates of divergence (BEAST 2), and uncover historical biogeographic patterns (S-DIVA and DEC)...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631838/aging-of-zn-added-to-soils-with-a-wide-range-of-different-properties-factors-and-modeling
#4
Xi Zhang, Bao Jiang, Yibing Ma
The aging of metals added to soil is significant in ecological risk assessment and the derivation of soil environmental quality criteria. Semi-mechanistic aging models have been developed for some metals, but not for zinc (Zn). In the present study, a published dataset detailing the changes in isotopic exchangeability with time, after water soluble Zn was added to 23 soils and incubated for 813 d, was used to analyze the effect of soil properties on aging and develop empirical and mechanistic models. Aging was mainly controlled by soil pH, probably due to precipitation, and was linearly correlated with the square root of incubation time, probably due to diffusion...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#5
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630904/participatory-adaptive-management-leads-to-environmental-learning-outcomes-extending-beyond-the-sphere-of-science
#6
Marie Fujitani, Andrew McFall, Christoph Randler, Robert Arlinghaus
Resolving uncertainties in managed social-ecological systems requires adaptive experimentation at whole-ecosystem levels. However, whether participatory adaptive management fosters ecological understanding among stakeholders beyond the sphere of science is unknown. We experimentally involved members of German angling clubs (n = 181 in workshops, n = 2483 in total) engaged in self-governance of freshwater fisheries resources in a large-scale ecological experiment of active adaptive management of fish stocking, which constitutes a controversial management practice for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning when conducted inappropriately...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630712/quantifying-drivers-of-wild-pig-movement-across-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales
#7
Shannon L Kay, Justin W Fischer, Andrew J Monaghan, James C Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A Campbell, Susan M Cooper, Stephen S Ditchkoff, Steve B Hartley, John C Kilgo, Samantha M Wisely, A Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
BACKGROUND: The movement behavior of an animal is determined by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that operate at multiple spatio-temporal scales, yet much of our knowledge of animal movement comes from studies that examine only one or two scales concurrently. Understanding the drivers of animal movement across multiple scales is crucial for understanding the fundamentals of movement ecology, predicting changes in distribution, describing disease dynamics, and identifying efficient methods of wildlife conservation and management...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628899/correlates-of-child-abuse-potential-among-african-american-and-latina-mothers-a-developmental-ecological-perspective
#8
Adriana Espinosa, Lesia M Ruglass, Naomi Dambreville, Alina Shevorykin, Ron Nicholson, Kelly M Sykes
The child victimization rate in the US has rapidly grown over the past five years. Today, nine out of every 1000 children are victims of some type of child maltreatment, and lifetime costs of child victimization exceed $100 billion per year. Effective policies promoting fairness and child safety must target the most salient indicators of child maltreatment. In this study, we examined three groups of risk factors for child abuse potential with the goal of identifying the most prominent indicators in a sample of 170 African-American and Latina mothers...
June 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626791/hiv-risk-reduction-prevention-interventions-targeting-african-american-adolescent-women
#9
C Emily Hendrick, Caitlin Canfield
African American young women are overwhelmingly disproportionately burdened by HIV/AIDS in the United States today. The purpose of the current systematic review was to identify the characteristics of efficacious HIV risk-reduction prevention interventions targeting African American adolescent women in order to inform future intervention development and expansion. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, and ProQuest databases for journal articles and dissertations published between 2000 and 2015 reporting the impacts of HIV risk-reduction prevention interventions in the U...
June 2017: Adolesc Res Rev
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626536/school-based-health-education-in-yucatan-mexico-about-the-chikungunya-virus-and-mosquito-illness-prevention
#10
Monica Seungah Choo, R Alexander Blackwood
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika breakout. We designed a school-based education module on CHIKV and mosquito prevention and presented it to the local students of ages of 6-18 in a rural town called Sudzal in Yucatan, Mexico. We distributed questionnaires before and after education to test the students' knowledge of CHIKV and mosquito prevention...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625896/lateralization-of-housekeeping-genes-in-the-brain-of-one-day-old-chicks
#11
Jacek Lenart, Klaudia Kogut, Elzbieta Salinska
Real-time quantitative PCR is an exceptionally sensitive method that can detect even very small differences in gene expression and, as such, it is essential to use suitable reference genes. Domestic chickens are used in a wide range of studies including neurobiology, behavior, ecology and disease transmission. In recent avian gene expression experiments, 18S (18S ribosomal RNA), beta actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) have frequently been used; however, there is not enough evidence that these reference genes are suitable for all types of experiments...
June 15, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625354/foraging-cognition-reviving-the-ecological-intelligence-hypothesis
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624676/predictors-of-daily-life-suicidal-ideation-in-adults-recently-discharged-after-a-serious-suicide-attempt-a-pilot-study
#13
Mathilde Husky, Joel Swendsen, Adela Ionita, Isabelle Jaussent, Catherine Genty, Philippe Courtet
The aims of the study are to examine the predictive role of fluctuations in daily life mood, social contexts, and behavior on subsequent suicidal ideation (SI); and to identify clinical and psychological factors associated with the general frequency of SI in a high-risk sample. The sample comprised 42 adults (73.8% female) hospitalized for a suicide attempt. Immediately following hospital discharge, they used Ecological Momentary Assessment for seven consecutive days, providing repeated measures of SI, environmental, contextual, and behavioral factors...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622933/evaluating-the-potential-for-tactical-hunting-in-the-middle-stone-age-insights-from-a-bonebed-of-the-extinct-bovid-rusingoryx-atopocranion
#14
Kirsten E Jenkins, Sheila Nightingale, J Tyler Faith, Daniel J Peppe, Lauren A Michel, Steven G Driese, Kieran P McNulty, Christian A Tryon
The foraging behaviors of Middle Stone Age (MSA) early modern humans have largely been based on evidence from well-stratified cave sites in South Africa. Whereas these sites have provided an abundance of data for behavioral reconstruction that are unmatched elsewhere in Africa, they are unlikely to preserve evidence of the diversity of foraging strategies employed by MSA hunters who lived in a variety of ecological and landscape settings across the African continent. Here we describe the results of recent excavations at the open-air site of Bovid Hill at Wakondo, Rusinga Island, Kenya, which yielded 24 in situ MSA artifacts within an assemblage of bones comprised exclusively of the extinct alcelaphin bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#15
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618584/model-of-the-best-of-n-nest-site-selection-process-in-honeybees
#16
Andreagiovanni Reina, James A R Marshall, Vito Trianni, Thomas Bose
The ability of a honeybee swarm to select the best nest site plays a fundamental role in determining the future colony's fitness. To date, the nest-site selection process has mostly been modeled and theoretically analyzed for the case of binary decisions. However, when the number of alternative nests is larger than two, the decision-process dynamics qualitatively change. In this work, we extend previous analyses of a value-sensitive decision-making mechanism to a decision process among N nests. First, we present the decision-making dynamics in the symmetric case of N equal-quality nests...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617639/genetic-correlations-among-developmental-and-contextual-behavioral-plasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Julia B Saltz, Seana Lymer, Jessica Gabrielian, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Correlations among traits, including behaviors, are important because traits that are genetically correlated may not evolve independently. Recently, behavioral-correlations research has expanded to include correlations not only in mean-level behaviors but also in behavioral plasticity, that is, the degree to which individuals change their behavior in response to environmental stimuli. Positive correlations among behavioral plasticities would imply that individuals or genotypes that are behaviorally plastic in one way may also be plastic in other ways; negative correlations could imply trade-offs...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#18
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616186/at-sea-distribution-and-habitat-use-in-king-penguins-at-sub-antarctic-marion-island
#19
Pierre Pistorius, Mark Hindell, Robert Crawford, Azwianewi Makhado, Bruce Dyer, Ryan Reisinger
King penguins make up the bulk of avian biomass on a number of sub-Antarctic islands where they have a large functional effect on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The same applies at Marion Island where a substantial proportion of the world population breeds. In spite of their obvious ecological importance, the at-sea distribution and behavior of this population has until recently remained entirely unknown. In addressing this information deficiency, we deployed satellite-linked tracking instruments on 15 adult king penguins over 2 years, April 2008 and 2013, to study their post-guard foraging distribution and habitat preferences...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616174/spatial-overlap-of-shark-nursery-areas-and-the-salmon-farming-industry-influences-the-trophic-ecology-of-squalus-acanthias-on-the-southern-coast-of-chile
#20
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Daniela Gómez, Alistair J Hobday, Ross Daley, Julio Lamilla, Leyla Cárdenas
Potential interactions between marine predators and humans arise in the southern coast of Chile where predator feeding and reproduction sites overlap with fisheries and aquaculture. Here, we assess the potential effects of intensive salmon aquaculture on food habits, growth, and reproduction of a common predator, the spiny dogfish-identified as Squalus acanthias via genetic barcoding. A total of 102 (89 females and 13 males) individuals were collected during winter and summer of 2013-2014 from the Chiloé Sea where salmon aquaculture activities are concentrated...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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