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Behavioral ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331042/the-effects-of-social-context-and-food-abundance-on-chimpanzee-feeding-competition
#1
Rebecca Koomen, Esther Herrmann
Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#2
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#3
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328512/economy-of-scale-third-partner-strengthens-a-keystone-ant-plant-mutualism
#4
Kirsten M Prior, Todd M Palmer
While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326985/use-of-an-autonomous-surface-vehicle-reveals-small-scale-diel-vertical-migrations-of-zooplankton-and-susceptibility-to-light-pollution-under-low-solar-irradiance
#5
Martin Ludvigsen, Jørgen Berge, Maxime Geoffroy, Jonathan H Cohen, Pedro R De La Torre, Stein M Nornes, Hanumant Singh, Asgeir J Sørensen, Malin Daase, Geir Johnsen
Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324661/protein-activity-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-rhodopsins-caro-and-opsa-and-their-relation-to-fungus-plant-interaction
#6
Alexander Adam, Stephan Deimel, Javier Pardo-Medina, Jorge García-Martínez, Tilen Konte, M Carmen Limón, Javier Avalos, Ulrich Terpitz
Fungi possess diverse photosensory proteins that allow them to perceive different light wavelengths and to adapt to changing light conditions in their environment. The biological and physiological roles of the green light-sensing rhodopsins in fungi are not yet resolved. The rice plant pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi exhibits two different rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. CarO was previously characterized as a light-driven proton pump. We further analyzed the pumping behavior of CarO by patch-clamp experiments. Our data show that CarO pumping activity is strongly augmented in the presence of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid and in sodium acetate, in a dose-dependent manner under slightly acidic conditions...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#7
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322321/polyphagy-by-omnivory-scavenging-improves-performance-of-a-polyphagous-caterpillar-on-marginal-hosts
#8
Eric F LoPresti
Few species of insect herbivores are highly polyphagous, but those few species are disproportionately ecologically and economically important and include many of the most destructive crop pests. Common correlates of extreme polyphagy across insects include the related behaviors of cannibalism and omnivory, though any functional consequences of these behaviors on the host range are unknown. I hypothesized that omnivory may allow these insects to exploit marginal hosts successfully (an expansion of realized niche)...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322053/insect-fauna-of-human-cadavers-in-tehran-district
#9
Fahimeh Talebzadeh, Masoud Ghadipasha, Jaber Gharedaghi, Naser Yeksan, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran district. Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identified using morphological characteristics. Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae), one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae), and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) and a beetle Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae) was observed on the human cadavers...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321916/a-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-acoustic-interactions-between-great-reed-warblers-acrocephalus-arundinaceus-using-microphone-arrays-and-robot-audition-software-hark
#10
Reiji Suzuki, Shiho Matsubayashi, Fumiyuki Saito, Tatsuyoshi Murate, Tomohisa Masuda, Koichi Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kojima, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Hiroshi G Okuno
Acoustic interactions are important for understanding intra- and interspecific communication in songbird communities from the viewpoint of soundscape ecology. It has been suggested that birds may divide up sound space to increase communication efficiency in such a manner that they tend to avoid overlap with other birds when they sing. We are interested in clarifying the dynamics underlying the process as an example of complex systems based on short-term behavioral plasticity. However, it is very problematic to manually collect spatiotemporal patterns of acoustic events in natural habitats using data derived from a standard single-channel recording of several species singing simultaneously...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321068/psychosocial-issues-discovered-through-reflective-group-dialogue-between-medical-students
#11
Shao-Yin Chu, Chi-Wei Lin, Meei-Ju Lin, Chin-Chen Wen
BACKGROUND: The biopsychosocial model is a comprehensive approach emphasizing holistic medical care. However, medical curricula that incorporate narrative reflective writing and group dynamic discussion of psychosocial issues among patients and their family members in reflective dialogue groups are currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to determine psychosocial issues among patients and their family members through medical students' reflective dialogue groups. METHODS: This study was completed as part of a pediatric clerkship...
January 10, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320525/seabird-parents-provision-their-chick-in-a-coordinated-manner
#12
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Marcelo Araya-Salas, Dariusz Jakubas
Pair collaborative behavior may play an important role in avian reproduction. However, evidence for this mainly comes from certain ecological groups (e.g. passerines). We studied the coordination of parents in foraging and its effect on food provisioning rate and chick growth in a small seabird, the Dovekie (Little auk, Alle alle). The species exhibits a dual foraging strategy, where provisioning adults make foraging trips of short (mean ~2 h; to provide food for the chick) and long duration (mean ~ 13 h; mainly for adults self-maintenance, although the food is also brought to the chick)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318509/friend-versus-foe-neural-correlates-of-prosocial-decisions-for-liked-and-disliked-peers
#13
Elisabeth Schreuders, Eduard T Klapwijk, Geert-Jan Will, Berna Güroğlu
Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316859/biocultural-predictors-of-motor-coordination-among-prepubertal-boys-and-girls
#14
Leonardo G O Luz, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Tatiana D D Luz, Paulo Sousa-E-Silva, João P Duarte, Aristides Machado-Rodrigues, André Seabra, Rute Santos, Sean P Cumming, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M)...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316493/transmission-of-morbilliviruses-within-and-among-marine-mammal-species
#15
REVIEW
Wendy K Jo, Albert Dme Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Transmission of morbilliviruses within and among marine mammal species has been documented in a variety of marine habitats. Cetacean morbillivirus spreads between cetacean species in the aquatic environment whereas both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus have been associated with transmission within and between pinniped and terrestrial carnivore species in their natural habitat and at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Periodically these viruses have caused large epizootics involving thousands of animals, due to sustained intra-species virus transmission...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316302/oxygen-supply-did-not-affect-how-lizards-responded-to-thermal-stress
#16
Agustin Camacho Guerrero, John M VandenBrooks, Angela Riley, Rory S Telemeco, Michael J Angilletta
Zoologists rely on mechanistic niche models of behavioral thermoregulation to understand how animals respond to climate change. These models predict that species will need to disperse to higher altitudes to persist in a warmer world. However, thermal stress and thus thermoregulatory behavior may depend on atmospheric oxygen as well as environmental temperatures. Severe hypoxia causes animals to prefer lower body temperatures, which could be interpreted as evidence that oxygen supply limits heat tolerance. Such a constraint could prevent animals from successfully dispersing to high elevations during climate change...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#17
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315522/predation-risk-and-patch-size-jointly-determine-perceived-patch-quality-in-ovipositing-treefrogs-hyla-chrysoscelis
#18
William J Resetarits, Jason R Bohenek, Tyler Breech, Matthew R Pintar
Two of the most important factors determining community structure and diversity within and among habitat patches are patch size and patch quality. Despite the importance of patch size in existing paradigms in island biogeography, metapopulation biology, landscape ecology, and metacommunity ecology, and growing conservation concerns with habitat fragmentation, there has been little investigation into how patch size interacts with patch quality. We crossed three levels of patch size (1.13 m2 , 2.54 m2 and 5.73 m2 ) with two levels of patch quality [fish presence/absence - green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and golden shiners (Notemigonus chrysoleucus) in 6 replicate experimental landscapes (3 x 2 x 6 = 36 patches)...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315395/comparative-genomic-analyses-reveal-the-features-for-adaptation-to-nematodes-in-fungi
#19
Ruizhen Wang, Leiming Dong, Ran He, Qinghua Wang, Yuequ Chen, Liangjian Qu, Yong-An Zhang
Nematophagous (NP) fungi are ecologically important components of the soil microbiome in natural ecosystems. Esteya vermicola (Ev) has been reported as a NP fungus with a poorly understood evolutionary history and mechanism of adaptation to parasitism. Furthermore, NP fungal genomic basis of lifestyle was still unclear. We sequenced and annotated the Ev genome (34.2 Mbp) and integrated genetic makeup and evolution of pathogenic genes to investigate NP fungi. The results revealed that NP fungi had some abundant pathogenic genes corresponding to their niche...
January 5, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315339/bioeconomic-modeling-for-a-small-scale-sea-cucumber-fishery-in-yucatan-mexico
#20
Alvaro Hernández-Flores, Alfonso Cuevas-Jiménez, Alicia Poot-Salazar, Alfonso Condal, Juan Carlos Espinoza-Méndez
Due to the heavy exploitation of holothurians over the last few decades, it is necessary to implement fishing regulations aimed at reversing this situation. Holothurians require specific regulations that take into account their biology and ecology. Their behavior to group and form patches as a strategy for feeding, defense and reproduction, makes them vulnerable to overfishing. The higher the population density, the higher the catchability coefficient, and because they are sedentary organisms, the catchability does not change significantly until the density is very low...
2018: PloS One
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