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Philosophy of mind

Faisal Qazi, Don Fette, Syed S Jafri, Aasim I Padela
Famously posed by seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes, the mind-body problem remains unresolved in western philosophy and science, with both disciplines unable to move convincingly beyond the dualistic model. The persistence of dualism calls for a reframing of the problem through interdisciplinary modes of inquiry that include non-western points of view. One such perspective is Islamic theology of the soul, which, while approaching the problem from a distinct point of view, also adopts a position commensurate with (substance) dualism...
March 5, 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Crystal L Park, A Rani Elwy, Meghan Maiya, Andrew J Sarkin, Kristen E Riley, Susan V Eisen, Ian Gutierrez, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Sharon Y Lee, Danielle Casteel, Tosca Braun, Erik J Groessl
Yoga interventions are heterogeneous and vary along multiple dimensions. These dimensions may affect mental and physical health outcomes in different ways or through different mechanisms. However, most studies of the effects of yoga on health do not adequately describe or quantify the components of the interventions being implemented. This lack of detail prevents researchers from making comparisons across studies and limits our understanding of the relative effects of different aspects of yoga interventions...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Blaine Reeder, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Nancy K Lowe, Paula Meek
BACKGROUND: Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients' narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Svend Brinkmann
Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena...
February 26, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Andreas Demetriou, Nikolaos Makris, Smaragda Kazi, George Spanoudis, Michael Shayer
This paper summarizes research on how cognizance, that is, awareness of mental processes, interacts with executive control and reasoning from childhood to adolescence. Central positions are that (a) cognizance changes extensively with age; (b) it contributes to the formation of executive control, and (c) mediates between executive control and reasoning. Cognizance recycles with changes in executive and inferential possibilities in four developmental cycles: it registers their present state, yielding insight into their operation, allowing their better management; this catalyzes their transformation into the next level...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
E I Müller
background Research on body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) shows that many debates in the field of psychology, sociology and philosophy already focus on the ways 'ideals of the perfect body' influence this disorder. However, more work needs to be done on the question in what ways bdd is culturally, historically and technologically mediated. AIM: To argue that norms and values of the perfect body and the ways a society prescribes how body and mind should be related, are technologically mediated through different time frames, which influence disorders of disturbances of the body image...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Luigi Santacroce, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Davide Crivelli, Michela Balconi
According to philosophy of mind and neuroscientific models, the sense of agency can be defined as the sense that I am the one that is generating an action and causing its effects. Such ability to sense ourselves as causal agents is critical for the definition of intentional behavior and is a primary root for human interaction skills. The present mini-review aims at discussing evidences from non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) studies targeting functional correlates of different aspects of agency and evidences on the way stimulation techniques affect such core feature of human subjective experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Martin Riemer
The existence of a free will is fiercely debated in neuroscience and philosophy. The debate has great impact on society and our self-understanding as human beings. Behavioral and electrophysiological data have challenged the intuitive assumption that human behavior is the result of conscious intentions. This notion has important implications for delusions of control in schizophrenia, where patients experience bodily movements as not being controlled by themselves. Current theories explain control delusions as a deficit to perceive certain aspects of motor control, but many findings are inconsistent with this idea...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Anette Langås-Larsen, Anita Salamonsen, Agnete Egilsdatter Kristoffersen, Torunn Hamran, Bjørg Evjen, Trine Stub
People with Sami and Norwegian background are frequent users of traditional folk medicine (TM). Traditional healing, such as religious prayers of healing (reading) and the laying on of hands, are examples of commonly used modalities. The global aim of this study is to examine whether health personnel's knowledge, attitudes and experiences of traditional healing affect their clinical practice. Semi-structured individual interviews (n=32) and focus group interviews (n=2) were conducted among health personnel in two communities in Northern Norway...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Joel G Anderson, Carol E Rogers, Ann Bossen, Ingelin Testad, Karen M Rose
Mind-body therapies frequently derive from Eastern philosophies and are becoming increasingly popular. These therapies, such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, qigong, biofield therapies, and guided imagery, have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with various chronic diseases. However, clinical research data concerning the effectiveness of these practices in individuals with dementia have not been evaluated using a synthesis approach. Thus, an integrative review was conducted to evaluate studies examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of symptoms experienced by individuals with dementia...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
Karla T Washington, George Demiris, Debra Parker Oliver, Gemille Purnell, Paul Tatum
OBJECTIVES: Older adults in need of residential services are increasingly spending their final days in small, domestic-style care settings such as adult family homes. In this study, we sought to identify processes that facilitated the provision of quality hospice care to seriously ill residents of adult family homes and their family members. DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected as part of a randomized clinical trial of a problem-solving intervention for family members of hospice patients...
September 30, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Søren Brier
Charles S. Peirce developed a process philosophy featuring a non-theistic agapistic evolution from nothingness. It is an Eastern inspired alternative to the Western mechanical ontology of classical science also by the American transcendentalists. Advaitism and Buddhism are the two most important Eastern philosophical traditions that encompass scientific knowledge and the idea of spontaneous evolutionary development. This article attempts to show how Peirce's non-mechanical triadic semiotic process theory can embrace the quantum field view better than the mechanical and information views in a theory of the emergence of consciousness...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Sven Nyholm, Elizabeth O'Neill
In this article, we engage in dialogue with Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen, and Julian Savulescu about how to best interpret the potential impacts of deep brain stimulation on the self. We consider whether ordinary peoples' convictions about the true self should be interpreted in essentialist or existentialist ways. Like Pugh, Maslen, and Savulescu, we argue that it is useful to understand the notion of the true self as having both essentialist and existentialist components. We also consider two ideas from existentialist philosophy-Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir's ideas about "bad faith" and "ambiguity"-to argue that there can be value to patients in regarding themselves as having a certain amount of freedom to choose what aspects of themselves should be considered representative of their true selves...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
Jordi Vallverdú
The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the existence of differences and within these levels may be pragmatically combined in fruitful ways. At this point, I remark that there is not a single way to connect biology and culture, but at least we need to admit that brains allow the existence of minds and that these create languages, which also organize the world symbolically following a long set of (sometimes interconnected) heuristics...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Jonathan Toms
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND's campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation's origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement...
October 2017: Medical History
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