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Philosophy of mind

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779187/dualism-and-its-place-in-a-philosophical-structure-for-psychiatry
#2
Hane Htut Maung
It is often claimed in parts of the psychiatric literature that neuroscientific research into the biological basis of mental disorder undermines dualism in the philosophy of mind. This paper shows that such a claim does not apply to all forms of dualism. Focusing on Kenneth Kendler's discussion of the mind-body problem in biological psychiatry, I argue that such criticism of dualism often conflates the psychological and phenomenal concepts of the mental. Moreover, it fails to acknowledge that there are different varieties of dualism, and so overlooks the important metaphysical insights of contemporary dualist philosophers...
May 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774797/-brain-disorders-by-henry-calderwood-1879
#3
G E Berrios
Henry Calderwood, a nineteenth-century Scottish philosopher interested in madness, published in 1879 an important work on the interaction between philosophy of mind, the nascent neurosciences and mental disease. Holding a spiritual view of the mind, he considered the phrase 'mental disease' (as Feuchtersleben had in 1845) to be but a misleading metaphor. His analysis of the research work of Ferrier, Clouston, Crichton-Browne, Maudsley, Tuke, Sankey, etc., is detailed, and his views are correct on the very limited explanatory power that their findings had for the understanding of madness...
June 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771221/hey-wait-i-just-thought-of-something-else-advaita-and-clinical-hypnosis
#4
Jon K Amundson, Marc W Ross, Debra Campbell
While much has been made of the value of Buddhist mindfulness in clinical treatment, little attention has been given over to its parallels, if not antecedents in Hindu philosophy. Buddhist traditions in the vipassana, ch'an and zen tradition, and the practices associated, find their roots in Advaita philosophy and practice. This article looks at the useful/effective nature of Advaita and its specific application in clinical hypnosis. The linkage between traditional wisdom sources, psychological investigations of the self and contemporary hypnosis is articulated in the article which follows, and a case example, regarding clinical application, is provided...
July 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727520/the-mind-body-problem
#5
REVIEW
Bryan Chambliss
The mind-body problem is the problem of explaining how the happenings of our mental lives are related to physical states, events and processes. Proposed solutions to the problem vary by whether and how they endorse physicalism, the claim that mental states are ultimately "nothing over and above" physical states, and by how they understand the interactions between mental and physical states. Physicalist solutions to the mind-body problem have been dominant in the last century, with the variety of physicalism endorsed (reductive or nonreductive) depending upon both the outcome of philosophical arguments and methodological developments in the cognitive and neural sciences...
May 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664886/history-of-the-development-of-anesthesia-for-the-dolphin-a-quest-to-study-a-brain-as-large-as-man-s
#6
James G McCormick, Sam H Ridgway
It is important for academic-minded human anesthesiologists to have an interdisciplinary perspective when engaging in cutting-edge research as well as the practice of human anesthesiology. This was a philosophy promoted by Dr. Robert Dripps, former pioneering Chairman of the Anesthesiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Many human and veterinary anesthesiologists as well as biomedical engineers and neuroscientists benefited from Dr. Dripps's constructive outlook personified in the quest to develop dolphin anesthesiology...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660642/mindfulness-based-interventions-and-their-effects-on-emotional-clarity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
David Cooper, Keong Yap, Luisa Batalha
BACKGROUND: An inability to identify or describe internal emotional experience has been linked to a range of affective disorders. Despite burgeoning research on mindfulness-based interventions and their possible effects on emotion regulation, the effects of such interventions on emotional clarity is unclear. This review examines the evidence for the effect of mindfulness-based interventions on self-reported emotional clarity. METHOD: Published studies indexed by PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus, as available in April 2017, were systematically reviewed...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609773/physicalism-realization-and-structure
#8
Gary Fuller
In the philosophy of mind and psychology, a central question since the 1960s has been that of how to give a philosophically adequate formulation of mind-body physicalism. A large quantity of work on the topic has been done in the interim. There have been, and continue to be, extensive discussions of the ideas of physicalism, identity, functionalism, realization, and constitution. My aim in this paper is a modest one: it is to get clearer about these ideas and some of their interrelations. After providing some background and history, I shall focus on two related topics: the distinction between a functional property and a structural one and the dispute over whether a realization account of the mental-physical relation provides a better physicalist account than a constitutional account...
April 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609724/did-ren%C3%A3-descartes-have-exploding-head-syndrome
#9
Abidemi Idowu Otaiku
René Descartes (1596-1650), "the Father of Modern Philosophy" and advocate of mind-body dualism, had three successive dreams on November 10, 1619 that changed the trajectory of his life and the trajectory of human thought. Descartes' influential dreams have been of interest to a number of commentators including the famous neurologist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Descartes' second dream in particular, in which he heard a loud noise in his head before seeing a bright flash of light upon awakening, has been discussed extensively...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504485/framing-the-mind-body-problem-in-contemporary-neuroscientific-and-sunni-islamic-theological-discourse
#10
Faisal Qazi, Don Fette, Syed S Jafri, Aasim I Padela
Famously posed by seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes, the mind-body problem remains unresolved in western philosophy and science, with both disciplines unable to move convincingly beyond the dualistic model. The persistence of dualism calls for a reframing of the problem through interdisciplinary modes of inquiry that include non-western points of view. One such perspective is Islamic theology of the soul, which, while approaching the problem from a distinct point of view, also adopts a position commensurate with (substance) dualism...
March 5, 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498893/the-essential-properties-of-yoga-questionnaire-epyq-psychometric-properties
#11
Crystal L Park, A Rani Elwy, Meghan Maiya, Andrew J Sarkin, Kristen E Riley, Susan V Eisen, Ian Gutierrez, Lucy Finkelstein-Fox, Sharon Y Lee, Danielle Casteel, Tosca Braun, Erik J Groessl
Yoga interventions are heterogeneous and vary along multiple dimensions. These dimensions may affect mental and physical health outcomes in different ways or through different mechanisms. However, most studies of the effects of yoga on health do not adequately describe or quantify the components of the interventions being implemented. This lack of detail prevents researchers from making comparisons across studies and limits our understanding of the relative effects of different aspects of yoga interventions...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498174/the-mind-brain-gap-and-the-neuroscience-psychiatry-gap
#12
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489632/temporal-immediacy-a-two-system-theory-of-mind-for-understanding-and-changing-health-behaviors
#13
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Blaine Reeder, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Nancy K Lowe, Paula Meek
BACKGROUND: Health promotion and chronic disease management both require behavior change, but people find it hard to change behavior despite having good intentions. The problem arises because patients' narratives about experiences and intentions are filtered through memory and language. These narratives inaccurately reflect intuitive decision-making or actual behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We propose a principle-temporal immediacy-as a moderator variable that explains which of two mental systems (narrative or intuitive) will be activated in any given situation...
March 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479655/general-psychological-implications-of-the-human-capacity-for-grief
#14
Svend Brinkmann
Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena...
June 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350832/the-developmental-trinity-of-mind-cognizance-executive-control-and-reasoning
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Demetriou, Nikolaos Makris, Smaragda Kazi, George Spanoudis, Michael Shayer
This paper summarizes research on how cognizance, that is, awareness of mental processes, interacts with executive control and reasoning from childhood to adolescence. Central positions are that (a) cognizance changes extensively with age; (b) it contributes to the formation of executive control, and (c) mediates between executive control and reasoning. Cognizance recycles with changes in executive and inferential possibilities in four developmental cycles: it registers their present state, yielding insight into their operation, allowing their better management; this catalyzes their transformation into the next level...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251748/-disturbances-of-the-body-image-a-cultural-and-historical-comparison-between-the-glass-delusion-and-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#16
E I Müller
background Research on body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) shows that many debates in the field of psychology, sociology and philosophy already focus on the ways 'ideals of the perfect body' influence this disorder. However, more work needs to be done on the question in what ways bdd is culturally, historically and technologically mediated. AIM: To argue that norms and values of the perfect body and the ways a society prescribes how body and mind should be related, are technologically mediated through different time frames, which influence disorders of disturbances of the body image...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231878/greek-medicine-practice-at-ancient-rome-the-physician-molecularist-asclepiades
#17
Luigi Santacroce, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209181/the-agent-brain-a-review-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-studies-on-sensing-agency
#18
REVIEW
Davide Crivelli, Michela Balconi
According to philosophy of mind and neuroscientific models, the sense of agency can be defined as the sense that I am the one that is generating an action and causing its effects. Such ability to sense ourselves as causal agents is critical for the definition of intentional behavior and is a primary root for human interaction skills. The present mini-review aims at discussing evidences from non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) studies targeting functional correlates of different aspects of agency and evidences on the way stimulation techniques affect such core feature of human subjective experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208423/delusions-of-control-in-schizophrenia-resistant-to-the-mind-s-best-trick
#19
Martin Riemer
The existence of a free will is fiercely debated in neuroscience and philosophy. The debate has great impact on society and our self-understanding as human beings. Behavioral and electrophysiological data have challenged the intuitive assumption that human behavior is the result of conscious intentions. This notion has important implications for delusions of control in schizophrenia, where patients experience bodily movements as not being controlled by themselves. Current theories explain control delusions as a deficit to perceive certain aspects of motor control, but many findings are inconsistent with this idea...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147898/-don-t-mind-the-gap-reflections-on-improvement-science-as-a-paradigm
#20
Trenholme Junghans
Responding to this issue's invitation to bring new disciplinary insights to the field of improvement science, this article takes as its starting point one of the field's guiding metaphors: the imperative to "mind the gap". Drawing on insights from anthropology, history, and philosophy, the article reflects on the origins and implications of this metaphoric imperative, and suggests some ways in which it might be in tension with the means and ends of improvement. If the industrial origins of improvement science in the twentieth century inform a metaphor of gaps, chasms, and spaces of misalignment as invariably imperfect and potentially dangerous, and therefore requiring bridging or closure, other currents that feed the discipline of improvement science suggest the potential value and uses of spaces of openness and ambiguity...
November 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
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