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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034852/comparison-of-direct-plating-and-broth-enrichment-culture-methods-for-detection-of-potential-bacterial-pathogens-in-respiratory-secretions
#1
Ravinder Kaur, Jareth Wischmeyer, Matthew Morris, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVE: We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. METHODS: Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034240/dark-chocolate-opportunity-for-an-alliance-between-medical-science-and-the-food-industry
#2
Ivan M Petyaev, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Dark chocolate (DC) was originally introduced in human nutrition as a medicinal product consumable in a liquid form. Century-long efforts of food industry transformed this hardly appealing product into a valuable modern culinary delight with clear predominance of confectionery brands of DC on the market. However, current epidemiological data as well as multiple experimental and clinical observations reveal that DC consumption may have a profound effect on cardiovascular, central nervous systems, hemostasis, and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033932/from-cocoa-to-chocolate-the-impact-of-processing-on-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-the-effects-of-chocolate-on-antioxidant-markers-in-vivo
#3
REVIEW
Carla D Di Mattia, Giampiero Sacchetti, Dino Mastrocola, Mauro Serafini
Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032689/characterization-and-degradation-of-pectic-polysaccharides-in-cocoa-pulp
#4
Esther Meersman, Nore Struyf, Clare Kyomugasho, Zahra Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Jihan Santanina Santiago, Eline Baert, Sami Hemdane, Gino Vrancken, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin, Marc Hendrickx, Jan Steensels
Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030866/characterization-of-sensory-differences-in-mixing-and-premium-rums-through-the-use-of-descriptive-sensory-analysis
#5
Chelsea M Ickes, Keith R Cadwallader
This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026472/clinical-features-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-bacterial-agents-of-ventilator-associated-tracheobronchitis-in-hamedan-iran
#6
Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Naeimeh Hashemi, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari, Abbas Taher, Arash Dehghan
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. METHODS: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#7
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985014/cacao-biotechnology-current-status-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Anushka M Wickramasuriya, Jim M Dunwell
Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984506/manipulating-affective-state-influences-conditioned-appetitive-responses
#9
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards...
October 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979213/taurine-a-potential-ergogenic-aid-for-preventing-muscle-damage-and-protein-catabolism-and-decreasing-oxidative-stress-produced-by-endurance-exercise
#10
Flávia G De Carvalho, Bryan S M Galan, Priscila C Santos, Kelly Pritchett, Karina Pfrimer, Eduardo Ferriolli, Marcelo Papoti, Júlio S Marchini, Ellen C de Freitas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc), or a placebo (chocolate milk) (CHOC) was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974811/cocoa-butter-symmetrical-monounsaturated-triacylglycerols-separation-by-solvent-fractionation-and-application-as-crystallization-modifier
#11
Monise Helen Masuchi Buscato, Renato Grimaldi, Theo Guenter Kieckbusch
Symmetrical monounsaturated triacylglycerols-also known as SUS (saturated unsaturated saturated triacylglycerols)-are the main triacylglycerols present in cocoa butter (CB), exhibiting decisive influence in the tempering process conditions and sensorial characteristics in chocolate products. CBs with lower amounts of SUS do not crystallize adequately in chocolate processing, generating a low quality product with higher susceptibility to fat bloom formation. In this context, fractions with higher contents of SUS triacylglycerols were obtained by solvent fractionation of cocoa butter, under four operating conditions varying crystallization temperatures (17, 18, 20 and 22 °C) and sample/acetone solvent ratios (1:7 and 1:5, in w/v)...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974054/the-availability-of-slow-and-fast-calories-in-the-dutch-diet-the-current-situation-and-opportunities-for-interventions
#12
Janet van den Boer, Melanie Werts, Els Siebelink, Cees de Graaf, Monica Mars
Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk)...
October 2, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967213/effects-of-chicken-by-product-gelatin-on-the-physicochemical-properties-and-texture-of-chocolate-spread
#13
Poliana Fernandes Almeida, Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes
Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density...
October 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965970/a-test-of-the-reward-contrast-hypothesis
#14
Stefan J Dalecki, Danielle E Panoz-Brown, Jonathon D Crystal
Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965176/influence-of-rice-pea-and-oat-proteins-in-attenuating-glycemic-response-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages
#15
Sze-Yen Tan, Phei Ching Siow, Elaine Peh, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: Liquids have higher ingestion and gastric-emptying rates, resulting in rapid glycemic response. They are also less satiating than solid foods. This study examined if the addition of plant proteins alter postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glycogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and appetitive responses to a sugar-sweetened beverage. METHODS: This was a randomized, crossover acute feeding study consisting of four treatments: chocolate beverage alone (50 g carbohydrate), or added with 24 g oat, pea or rice proteins...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955287/effects-of-chocolate-deprivation-on-implicit-and-explicit-evaluation-of-chocolate-in-high-and-low-trait-chocolate-cravers
#16
Anna Richard, Adrian Meule, Malte Friese, Jens Blechert
Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947887/link-between-diet-and-chemotherapy-related-gastrointestinal-side-effects
#17
Marcin Mardas, Radosław Madry, Marta Stelmach-Mardas
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate an association between food products consumption, dietary intake and the incidence of selected gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty six women receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer were eligible for the study. Anthropometrical measurements were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hours food records. The association between the consumption of selected food products and gastrointestinal symptoms incidences was assessed by modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 77-different food items that was developed and applied in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946374/from-beans-to-bar-a-life-cycle-assessment-towards-sustainable-chocolate-supply-chain
#18
Francesca Recanati, Davide Marveggio, Giovanni Dotelli
The environmental sustainability has emerged as a crucial aspect in the agri-food sector, nevertheless environmental assessments and certifications of cocoa and chocolate are still missing. Given this gap and the increasing global demand for cocoa derivatives, this study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of an Italian dark chocolate through a holistic cradle-to-grave Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed are acidification potential (AC), eutrophication potential (EU), global warming potential (GW), photochemical ozone creation potential (POC), ozone layer depletion potential (OD), abiotic depletion (AD) and cumulative energy demand (CED)...
September 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946331/a-rapid-method-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-13-sugars-and-sugar-alcohols-in-food-products-by-uplc-elsd
#19
Dong-Wan Koh, Jae-Woong Park, Jung-Hoon Lim, Myeong-Jai Yea, Dae-Young Bang
A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935809/impact-of-chocolate-liquor-on-vascular-lesions-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#20
Narges Yazdekhasti, Corinna Brandsch, Frank Hirche, Julia Kühn, Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeygolu, Patricia Huebbe, Siegfried Wolffram, Gerald Rimbach, Gabriele I Stangl
Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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