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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432760/determination-of-ochratoxin-a-in-black-and-white-pepper-nutmeg-spice-mix-cocoa-and-drinking-chocolate-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-fluorescence-detection-collaborative-study
#1
Elena Cubero-Leon, Katrien Bouten, Hamide Senyuva, Joerg Stroka
A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector...
April 22, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#2
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425931/chocolate-consumption-and-risk-of-heart-failure-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#3
Fei Gong, Shuyuan Yao, Jing Wan, Xuedong Gan
Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425898/compliance-with-school-nutrition-policies-in-ontario-and-alberta-an-assessment-of-secondary-school-vending-machine-data-from-the-compass-study
#4
Michelle M Vine, Daniel W Harrington, Alexandra Butler, Karen Patte, Katelyn Godin, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the extent to which a sample of Ontario and Alberta secondary schools are being compliant with their respective provincial nutrition policies, in terms of the food and beverages sold in vending machines. METHODS: This observational study used objective data on drinks and snacks from vending machines, collected over three years of the COMPASS study (2012/2013-2014/2015 school years). Drink (e.g., sugar-containing carbonated/non-carbonated soft drinks, sports drinks, etc...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421801/actitudes-de-escolares-chilenos-de-distinto-nivel-socioecon%C3%A3-mico-al-inicio-de-la-implementaci%C3%A3-n-de-la-ley-que-regula-la-venta-y-publicidad-de-alimentos-altos-en-nutrientes-cr%C3%A3-ticos
#5
Sonia Olivares Cortes, Jacqueline Araneda Flores, Gladys Morales Illanes, Bárbara Leyton Dinamarca, Nelly Bustos Zapata, María Angélica Hernández Moreno, María Teresa Oyarzún Macchiavello
Introducción: el 27 de junio de 2016 se implementó en Chile la Ley sobre Composición Nutricional de los Alimentos y su Publicidad, que implica rotular el envase de los alimentos procesados, altos en calorías, grasas saturadas, azúcares y sodio.Objetivo: determinar las actitudes de escolares de 8 a 12 años, de distinto nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y estado nutricional, ante el nuevo etiquetado de los alimentos.Métodos: se aplicó una encuesta validada previamente, agregando preguntas sobre los nuevos sellos en los envases de alimentos y bebidas...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403664/milk-options-observation-moo-a-mixed-methods-study-of-chocolate-milk-removal-on-beverage-consumption-and-student-staff-behaviors-in-a-rural-elementary-school
#6
Melinda M Davis, Margaret Spurlock, Katrina Ramsey, Jamie Smith, Beth Ann Beamer, Susan Aromaa, Paul B McGinnis
Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary school between May and June 2012. We measured beverage selection/consumption pre- and post-chocolate milk removal and collected observation field notes. We used linear and logistic mixed models to assess beverage waste and identified themes in staff and student reactions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402326/chocolate-intake-and-diabetes-risk-in-postmenopausal-american-women
#7
J A Greenberg, J E Manson, L Tinker, M L Neuhouser, L Garcia, M Z Vitolins, L S Phillips
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399864/predictors-of-dental-visits-among-primary-school-children-in-the-rural-australian-community-of-lithgow
#8
James Rufus John, Haider Mannan, Subrat Nargundkar, Mario D'Souza, Loc Giang Do, Amit Arora
BACKGROUND: Regular dental attendance is significant in maintaining and improving children's oral health and well-being. This study aims to determine the factors that predict and influence dental visits in primary school children residing in the rural community of Lithgow, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: All six primary schools of Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementing water fluoridation in 2014. Children aged 6-13 years (n = 667) were clinically examined for their oral health status and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on fluoride history, diet, last dental visit, and socio-demographic characteristics...
April 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399791/highly-palatable-food-access-during-adolescence-increased-anxiety-depression-like-behaviors-in-male-but-not-in-female-rats
#9
Jin Young Kim, Doyun Kim, Kyungpyo Park, Jong-Ho Lee, Jeong Won Jahng
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the sexual dimorphic effects of highly palatable food (HPF) access during adolescence on the neurochemistry and depression-/anxiety-like behaviors of rats. METHODS: Male and female Sprague-Dawley pups had free access to chocolate cookie rich in fat (HPF) from postnatal day 28 in addition to ad libitum chow, and the control groups received only chow. The food conditions were continued throughout the entire experimental period, and the neurochemical and behavioral measurements were performed during young adulthood...
April 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394838/an-alternate-egg-free-radiolabeled-meal-formulation-for-gastric-emptying-scintigraphy
#10
Philippe Garrigue, Aurore Bodin-Hullin, Sandra Gonzalez, Quentin Sala, Benjamin Guillet
Tc-radiolabeled scrambled eggs (SEs) are most often used as the ingested solid phase for gastric-emptying scintigraphy, leading egg-reluctant patients to avoid the examination. We formulated and validated 2 egg-free alternate meals, in the absence of any commercialized formulation: chocolate mug cake (MC) and scrambled tofu (ST). Six healthy volunteers underwent gastric-emptying scintigraphy after ingesting Tc-radiolabeled MC, ST, or SE. Gastric retention indexes did not change significantly between formulations (% of overtime variation to SE: MC 7...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389340/genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-affects-behavioural-traits-including-food-reward-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#11
Heike Vogel, Maria Kraemer, Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380097/changes-in-the-conjunctival-bacterial-flora-of-patients-hospitalized-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#12
Afsun Sahin, Nilgun Yildirim, Saadet Gultekin, Yurdanur Akgun, Abdurrahman Kiremitci, Martin Schicht, Friedrich Paulsen
Purpose: To identify the changes in aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora and to correlate culture results with physical health and the duration of patients' hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Patients hospitalized in the ICU were included in this study. Conjunctival cultures from all patients were obtained using a standard technique on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Swabs were plated on nonselective (blood agar) and enriched (chocolate agar) media within one hour...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376679/dopamine-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-dysregulation-in-the-brains-of-binge-eating-female-rats-possible-relevance-in-the-psychopathology-and-treatment-of-binge-eating-disorder
#13
David J Heal, Michelle Hallam, Michael Prow, Jane Gosden, Sharon Cheetham, Yong K Choi, Frank Tarazi, Peter Hutson
Adult, female rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate develop binge-eating behaviour with normal bodyweight and compulsive/perseverative and impulsive behaviours similar to those in binge-eating disorder. We investigated whether (a) dysregulated central nervous system dopaminergic and opioidergic systems are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating and (b) these neurotransmitter systems may mediate the actions of drugs ameliorating binge-eating disorder psychopathology. Binge-eating produced a 39% reduction of striatal D1 receptors with 22% and 23% reductions in medial and lateral caudate putamen and a 22% increase of striatal μ-opioid receptors...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373852/red-roses-and-gift-chocolates-are-judged-more-positively-in-the-u-s-near-valentine-s-day-evidence-of-naturally-occurring-cultural-priming
#14
Vivian Zayas, Gayathri Pandey, Joshua Tabak
Attitudes are not static, but constructed at the moment of the evaluation, incorporating temporary contextual influences. How do meaningful events that naturally occur within a culture, such as a national holiday, shape evaluative judgments of objects related to the holiday? We focused on evaluations of red roses and gift chocolates, which are everyday objects, but also iconic of Valentine's Day in the U.S. We reasoned that if cultural events shape evaluations, then roses and chocolates would be evaluated differently near Valentine's Day...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372478/investigation-of-impulsivity-in-binge-eating-rats-in-a-delay-discounting-task-and-its-prevention-by-the-d-amphetamine-prodrug-lisdexamfetamine
#15
Steven P Vickers, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, David J Heal
Freely-fed, female, rats were trained in a two-lever, delay-discounting task: one lever delivered a single chocolate-flavoured pellet immediately and the other a three-pellet reward after increasing delay (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 s). Rats were divided into two groups (i.e. binge-eating rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate in addition to normal chow and controls maintained on normal chow). Both groups exhibited increased preference for the immediate reward as the delay interval was lengthened. The discounting rate was significantly greater in binge-eating rats than non-binge-eating controls, especially as the behaviour became more established indicating that increased impulsivity and intolerance of delayed reward are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372222/effect-of-sweetener-combination-and-storage-temperature-on-physicochemical-properties-of-sucrose-free-white-chocolate
#16
Laura T Rodriguez Furlán, Yanina Baracco, Javier Lecot, Noemi Zaritzky, Mercedes E Campderrós
The influence of a combination of sweeteners (Stevia (St) and sucralose (Su)) and storage temperature on thermal properties, microstructure, water content, texture and Bloom of sucrose free white chocolate was investigated. A strong relationship between the microstructure and the highest percentage of Bloom was observed. The samples with 100%Su and 50%S+50%Su presented microstructures with channels through which solids and fat could more easily spread to the surface, increasing the fat and sugar Bloom formation...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370111/the-addition-effect-of-tunisian-date-seed-fibers-on-the-quality-of-chocolate-spreads
#17
Mohamed Ali Bouaziz, Fatma Abbes, Abir Mokni, Christophe Blecker, Hamadi Attia, Souhail Besbes
Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p < ...
April 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366814/extended-vs-brief-intermittent-access-to-palatable-food-differently-promote-binge-like-intake-rejection-of-less-preferred-food-and-weight-cycling-in-female-rats
#18
A D Kreisler, M G Garcia, S R Spierling, B E Hui, E P Zorrilla
BACKGROUND: Palatable food access promotes obesity leading some to diet. Here, we modeled the roles of duration, intermittency and choice of access in bingeing, escalation of daily intake, and underacceptance of alternatives. METHOD: Female rats with ("Choice") or without continuous chow access, received chow or continuous (Chocolate), intermittent (MWF) long (24h, Int-Long), or intermittent short (30min, Int-Short) access to a sucrose-rich, chocolate-flavored diet (CHOC)...
March 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362112/the-role-of-non-fat-ingredients-on-confectionery-fat-crystallization
#19
Ryan West, Dérick Rousseau
Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed non-fat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356040/the-relevance-of-dietary-polyphenols-in-cardiovascular-protection
#20
Ana Gabriela Murillo, Maria Luz Fernandez
The chemical structure of polyphenols consisting of aromatic rings, capable of quenching free radicals, makes them ideal candidates to protect against oxidation. Polyphenols are present in a variety of foods including grapes, berries, dark chocolate, coffee and tea to mention a few. A number of studies have shown that dietary polyphenols exert a protective effect against hypertension, dyslipidemias, inflammation, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, conditions associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease...
March 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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