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Jong Hyun Jhee, Ki Heon Nam, Seong Yeong An, Min-Uk Cha, Misol Lee, Seohyun Park, Hyoungnae Kim, Hae-Ryong Yun, Youn Kyung Kee, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Ik Chang, Ea Wha Kang, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Seung Hyeok Han
BACKGROUND: Drinking coffee can raise public health problems, but the association between coffee and kidney disease is unknown. We studied whether coffee intake can affect the development of chronic kidney disease in the general population. METHODS: We analyzed 8717 subjects with normal renal function recruited from the KoGES cohort. Based on food frequency questionnaire, coffee consumption was categorized into five groups: 0/week, <1 cup/week, 1-6 cups/week, 1 cup/day, and ≥2 cups/day...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Sonia D Hudson, Charles A Sims, Asli Z Odabasi, Thomas A Colquhoun, Derek J Snyder, Jennifer J Stamps, Shawn C Dotson, Lorenzo Puentes, Linda M Bartoshuk
Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit...
June 14, 2018: Chemical Senses
Nicola Veronese, Jacopo Demurtas, Stefano Celotto, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Stefania Maggi, Francesco Bolzetta, Joseph Firth, Lee Smith, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Lin Yang, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The literature regarding the potential health benefits of chocolate consumption are unclear and the epidemiological credibility has not been systematically scrutinized, while the strength of the evidence is undetermined. We therefore aimed to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with chocolate consumption using an umbrella review of systematic reviews. METHODS: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies (randomized placebo-controlled trials, RCTs)...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Svenja Allkämper, Sarah Kösters, Amely Campe, Manfred Kietzmann, Lothar Kreienbrock
OBJECTIVE: Systematic survey of data from cases of suspected poisoning in small animal practices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 11 exemplary selected small animal practices, patient files from cases of suspected poisoning over 2006/2007, data entry forms of poisonings 2009-2010 and the contact group, which are all patients with at least one visit in 2007, were analysed. RESULTS: In 2007, approximately 1 in 200 dog and 1 in 500 cat patients were presented with poisoning...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L Stickford, Emily Dawkins, Alice K Lindeman, Joel M Stager
We investigated the influence of immediate post-exercise dietary supplementation on the subsequent food consumption pattern and endurance exercise performance in physically trained individuals. On two occasions, trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 2-hour nutritional supplementation period, 28 hours of free-living recovery, and a subsequent 40-km cycling time trial. During the 2-hour post-exercise supplementation, subjects consumed equal volumes of reduced-fat chocolate milk (CM) or a sports beverage (SB) in a single-blind, randomized design...
June 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Qi He, Filippo Bramante, Andrew Davies, Carole Elleman, Kelly Fourtouni, Bettina Wolf
The texture perception of chocolate products is a major driver for consumer liking and the popularity of this confectionary category. Whilst some texture attributes are clearly linked to the material properties of the chocolate bar itself, others are closer related to the properties of the chocolate bolus. However, little is known about the material properties of chocolate boluses. Hence the aim of this study was to gain more in-depth insights into this area and to evaluate how chocolate bolus material properties link to texture and mouthfeel perception...
June 12, 2018: Food & Function
Helen Bould, Rebecca Carnegie, Heather Allward, Emily Bacon, Emily Lambe, Megan Sapseid, Katherine S Button, Glyn Lewis, Andy Skinner, Matthew R Broome, Rebecca Park, Catherine J Harmer, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
Body dissatisfaction is prevalent among women and associated with subsequent obesity and eating disorders. Exposure to images of bodies of different sizes has been suggested to change the perception of 'normal' body size in others. We tested whether exposure to different-sized (otherwise identical) bodies changes perception of own and others' body size, satisfaction with body size and amount of chocolate consumed. In Study 1, 90 18-25-year-old women with normal BMI were randomized into one of three groups to complete a 15 min two-back task using photographs of women either of 'normal weight' (Body Mass Index (BMI) 22-23 kg m-2 ), or altered to appear either under- or over-weight...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jelena Panak Balentić, Đurđica Ačkar, Stela Jokić, Antun Jozinović, Jurislav Babić, Borislav Miličević, Drago Šubarić, Nika Pavlović
Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics...
June 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Ghada El-Zakhem Naous, Areej Merhi, Martine I Abboud, Mohamad Mroueh, Robin I Taleb
The present study aims to quantify acrylamide in caffeinated beverages including American coffee, Lebanese coffee, espresso, instant coffee and hot chocolate, and to determine their carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks. A survey was carried for this purpose whereby 78% of the Lebanese population was found to consume at least one type of caffeinated beverages. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed that the average acrylamide level in caffeinated beverages is 29,176 μg/kg sample. The daily consumption of acrylamide from Lebanese coffee (10...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Caleb Lewis, Adrian M Lennon, Gaius Eudoxie, Pathmanathan Umaharan
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to both plants and animals and chocolates have been identified as a contributor to the human dietary Cd intake. One hundred accessions representing the various genetic groups and hybrid populations in Theobroma cacao L. held at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were evaluated for leaf and bean cadmium levels with three tree replications. Representative samples of soil from the drip zone around each tree were evaluated for bioavailable cadmium...
June 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Amy Sadek, Lee S Berk, Karen Mainess, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND- Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate a physiological imbalance between free radicals, resultant from oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathogenesis of this neurocognitive disorder. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effect of consumption of high concentration antioxidant cacao on behavior of children with ASD. METHODS- This was a 4-week pre-test post-test experimental pilot study of high antioxidant cacao and children with ASD...
June 5, 2018: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Damir D Torrico, Frank R Dunshea
Traditional methods to assess heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are intrusive and can affect results in sensory analysis of food as participants are aware of the sensors. This paper aims to validate a non-contact method to measure HR using the photoplethysmography (PPG) technique and to develop models to predict the real HR and BP based on raw video analysis (RVA) with an example application in chocolate consumption using machine learning (ML). The RVA used a computer vision algorithm based on luminosity changes on the different RGB color channels using three face-regions (forehead and both cheeks)...
June 3, 2018: Sensors
Victor H Hu, David Macleod, Patrick Massae, Isaac Afwamba, Helen A Weiss, David C W Mabey, Robin L Bailey, Matthew J Burton
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether non-chlamydial bacterial infection is associated with progression of trachomatous scarring in adults. Methods: This was a cohort study involving 800 participants in northern Tanzania who underwent clinical examination, photography, and conjunctival swab collection for microbiology over a 24-month period. Samples for microbiology were inoculated onto blood and chocolate agar, and Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by PCR...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Namhoon Kim, Changkyu Kim, Soyoung Jung, Youngae Park, Youngju Lee, Juyeon Jo, Misun Hong, Sangmi Lee, Younghee Oh, Kweon Jung
Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is a common and widespread food additive in many processed foods, personal care products, and other industrial categories as it boosts the brightness and whiteness of colors. Although it is generally recognized as safe for humans, there is a growing interest in the health risks associated with its oral intake. This study quantified and identified TiO2 nanoparticles present in confectionery foods, which are children's favorite foods, with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
May 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Eva Alblas, Frans Folkvord, Doeschka J Anschütz, Jonathan van 't Riet, Isabela Granic, Paul Ketelaar, Moniek Buijzen
Improving diets by stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption might be beneficial, in particular when they substitute energy-dense products. The aim of present study was to investigate whether a health game can be used to positively affect healthy implicit attitudes (IAs) towards food and subsequent food choice behaviour of young adults. A 2 (Time: baseline vs. post-test) x 2 (Condition: health game vs. control game) x 2 (Baseline IAs: healthy IAs vs. less healthy IAs) mixed-subjects design was used with 125 participants (age: M = 20...
May 25, 2018: Appetite
Rama Chaudhry, Prathyusha Kokkayil, Arnab Ghosh, Tej Bahadur, Kamala Kant, Tanu Sagar, Sunil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Aparajit Ballav Dey, Vimala Menon
Background & objectives: : Bartonella henselae causes infections which closely resemble febrile illness and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and haematological malignancies. There are not many studies on Bartonella infections from India. The present study was undertaken to diagnose B. henselae infection in diverse clinical conditions in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: A total of 145 patients including those with fever and lymphadenopathy, infective endocarditis and neuroretinitis were enrolled in the study...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni, Charles Rangga Tabbu, Sidna Artanto, Dwi Cahyo Budi Setiawan, Sadung Itha Rajaguguk
Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC) or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum . The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Sara R Jaeger, Sara Spinelli, Gastón Ares, Erminio Monteleone
Sensory product characterisation by consumers is increasingly supplemented by measurement of emotional associations. However, studies that link products' sensory perception and emotional associations are still scarce. Five consumer studies were conducted using cashew nuts, peanuts, chocolate, fruit and processed tomatoes as the product categories. Consumers (n = 685) completed check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions to obtain sensory product perceptions and associations with emotion words. The latter were conceptualised and interpreted through a circumplex emotion model spanned by the dimensions of valence (pleasure to displeasure) and arousal (activation to deactivation)...
July 2018: Food Research International
Roy N D'Souza, Anne Grimbs, Sergio Grimbs, Britta Behrends, Marcello Corno, Matthias S Ullrich, Nikolai Kuhnert
Degradation products of proteins produced during fermentation are believed to be the key precursors of a range of Maillard reactions that deliver the characteristic flavor and aroma of cocoa and chocolate. We have utilized UPLC-ESI-Q-q-TOF to identify and relatively quantify the largest collection of cocoa oligopeptides during a spontaneous fermentation time series using Ivory Coast cocoa beans. Peptides were identified, sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry and annotated based on their characteristic fragmentation pattern in the positive-ion mode...
July 2018: Food Research International
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