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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536867/suppressing-effect-of-cor659-on-alcohol-sucrose-and-chocolate-self-administration-in-rats-involvement-of-the-gabab-and-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors
#1
Paola Maccioni, Giancarlo Colombo, Irene Lorrai, Alessandro Zaru, Mauro A M Carai, Gian Luigi Gessa, Antonella Brizzi, Claudia Mugnaini, Federico Corelli
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: COR659 [methyl2-(4-chlorophenylcarboxamido)-4-ethyl-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxylate] is a new, positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the GABAB receptor. This study evaluated whether COR659 shared with previously tested GABAB PAMs the capacity to reduce alcohol self-administration in rats. RESULTS: Treatment with non-sedative doses of COR659 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) suppressed lever-responding for alcohol (15% v/v) in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats under the fixed ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement; COR659 was more potent and effective than the reference GABAB PAM, GS39783...
May 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536115/chocolate-intake-and-risk-of-clinically-apparent-atrial-fibrillation-the-danish-diet-cancer-and-health-study
#2
Elizabeth Mostofsky, Martin Berg Johansen, Anne Tjønneland, Harpreet S Chahal, Murray A Mittleman, Kim Overvad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). METHODS: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55 502 participants (26 400 men and 29 102 women) aged 50-64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries...
May 23, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536114/chocolate-and-prevention-of-atrial-fibrillation-what-is-bad-for-the-pancreas-might-be-good-for-the-atria
#3
EDITORIAL
Sean D Pokorney, Jonathan P Piccini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#4
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523982/caffeine-intake-and-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-is-there-relationship
#5
Inés Sánchez-Sellero, Elena San-Román-Rodríguez, Sofía Santos-Pérez, Marcos Rossi-Izquierdo, Andrés Soto-Varela
OBJECTIVES: Although it is commonly recognized that dietary restrictions may improve the clinical course of Menière's disease, their effectiveness has not been definitely demonstrated. The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine consumption could be involved in Menière's disease. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, case-control study, comparing caffeine consumption (intake of coffee, tea, kola-type beverages, energy drinks, and chocolate-containing beverages or foods) between patients with Menière's disease (group A) and patients affected by vertigo with other origins (group B) and/or control subjects (group C)...
May 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521699/food-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#6
Teodora Surdea-Blaga, Dana E Negrutiu, Mariana Palage, Dan L Dumitrascu
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic condition with a high prevalence in western countries. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation episodes and a decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms involved. Currently used drugs are efficient on reflux symptoms, but only as long as they are administered, because they do not modify the reflux barrier. Certain nutrients or foods are generally considered to increase the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, therefore physicians recommend changes in diet and some patients avoid bothering foods...
May 15, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515836/college-students-knowledge-of-recovery-beverage-serving-sizes
#7
Stephanie Lewis, Victoria Baxter, Kim Spaccarotella, Walter Andzel
Previous research suggests that chocolate milk may be a beneficial recovery beverage, yet little is known about how athletes and students training for careers in sports science or health-related fields interpret recommended recovery beverage serving sizes. This study examined college students' ability to correctly apply serving size recommendations for chocolate milk and protein powder used during post-exercise recovery and assessed usual consumption of milk as a recovery beverage. College students (34 women, 39 men) poured the amount of chocolate milk they would consume within 90 minutes after exercise unaided and with the use of a serving size guide...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513635/the-impact-of-dark-chocolate-intake-on-arterial-elasticity-in-individuals-with-hiv-aids-undergoing-art-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial
#8
Andrea Mariana Nunes da Costa Teixeira, Liania Alves Luzia, Suelen Jorge de Souza, Aline de Almeida Petrilli, Patrícia de Moraes Pontilho, Jose Maria Pacheco de Souza, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim Segurado, Priscila Efraim, Camila de Melo Picone, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho Rondo
An increase in the frequency of cardiovascular diseases has been observed in the HIV/AIDS population. Studies involving healthy subjects or subjects with other diseases have shown benefits of chocolate supplementation on endothelial function and vasodilation. We evaluate the impact of chocolate consumption on arterial elasticity in people living with human immunodeficiency virus - PLHIV. A double-blind, crossover trial including 110 PLHIV (19 to 59 years) on antiretroviral therapy - ART for at least 6 months and with a viral load of <500 copies per mL was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493743/stimulus-selectivity-of-drug-purchase-tasks-a-preliminary-study-evaluating-alcohol-and-cigarette-demand
#9
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492490/the-association-between-parent-diet-quality-and-child-dietary-patterns-in-nine-to-eleven-year-old-children-from-dunedin-new-zealand
#10
Brittany Davison, Pouya Saeedi, Katherine Black, Harriet Harrex, Jillian Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Robin Quigg, Sheila Skeaff, Lee Stoner, Jyh Eiin Wong, Paula Skidmore
Previous research investigating the relationship between parents' and children's diets has focused on single foods or nutrients, and not on global diet, which may be more important for good health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parental diet quality and child dietary patterns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. Information on food consumption and related factors in children and their primary caregiver/parent were collected...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487245/appetitive-conditioning-to-specific-times-of-day
#11
Karolien van den Akker, Remco C Havermans, Anita Jansen
Human laboratory studies have shown that eating desires are easily learned through classical conditioning: after a few pairings of an initially neutral stimulus (e.g., a box) with the intake of palatable food (e.g., chocolate), the stimulus elicits increased eating expectancies and eating desires (acquisition). After repeated non-reinforced presentations of the chocolate-associated stimulus, eating expectancies and desires decrease again (extinction). It is commonly assumed that eating desires in daily life are acquired and extinguished in a similar manner, but to date, this has not been empirically tested...
May 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486419/impact-of-a-microbial-cocktail-used-as-a-starter-culture-on-cocoa-fermentation-and-chocolate-flavor
#12
Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Leonardo de Figueiredo Vilela, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Cledir Santos, Nelson Lima, Rosane Freitas Schwan
Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization...
May 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465182/from-the-children-s-perspective-what-are-candy-snacks-and-meals
#13
Elizabeth L Adams, Jennifer S Savage
OBJECTIVE: There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. METHODS: Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit)...
April 29, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465162/effect-of-caffeine-caffeic-acid-and-their-various-combinations-on-enzymes-of-cholinergic-monoaminergic-and-purinergic-systems-critical-to-neurodegeneration-in-rat-brain-in-vitro
#14
S F Akomolafe, A J Akinyemi, O B Ogunsuyi, S I Oyeleye, G Oboh, O O Adeoyo, Y R Allismith
Caffeine and caffeic acid are two bioactive compounds that are present in plant foods and are major constituent of coffee, cocoa, tea, cola drinks and chocolate. Although not structurally related, caffeine and caffeic acid has been reported to elicit neuroprotective properties. However, their different proportional distribution in food sources and possible effect of such interactions are not often taken into consideration. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of caffeine, caffeic acid and their various combinations on activities of some enzymes [acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO) ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPase), ecto-5(1)-nucleotidase (E-NTDase) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase relevant to neurodegeneration in vitro in rat brain...
April 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460977/aseptic-artificial-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-can-be-fashioned-to-replicate-the-peptide-profile-of-commercial-cocoa-bean-fermentations
#15
Warren A John, Neha Kumari, Nina L Böttcher, Kouame Jean Koffi, Sergio Grimbs, Gino Vrancken, Roy N D'Souza, Nikolai Kuhnert, Matthias S Ullrich
The fermentation of cocoa beans is essential for the generation of flavour precursors that are required later on to form the flavour components of chocolate. From the many different precursors that are generated, oligopeptides and free amino acids comprise a significant proportion as some of them form Maillard reaction products during the roasting process. Therefore, the diversity of peptides is an important contributing factor to the quality of a fermentation which is in turn controlled by proteolytic activity within the cocoa bean, and is driven by changes in the presence of fermentation by-products as a result of microbial activity outside the bean...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460937/difference-thresholds-for-added-sugar-in-chocolate-flavoured-milk-recommendations-for-gradual-sugar-reduction
#16
Denize Oliveira, Felipe Reis, Rosires Deliza, Amauri Rosenthal, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
Reducing the concentration of added sugar in processed foods is one of the most realistic strategies to reduce the intake of this nutrient in the short-term. In order to be effective, gradual sugar reduction strategies need to determine the maximum sugar reduction that can be unnoticed by consumers. In this context, the present work aimed at providing recommendations for gradual sugar reduction in chocolate-flavoured milk by determining difference thresholds for added sugar and evaluating consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of reduced-sugar products...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450844/stimulus-control-over-action-for-food-in-obese-versus-healthy-weight-individuals
#17
Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Victor E A Gerdes, Sanne de Wit
In the current study we examined an associative learning mechanism by which food cues (signaling low- versus high-calorie food) can bias instrumental responses directed toward those foods. To investigate the clinical relevance of this mechanism, we used a computerized Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task and compared performance of 19 severely obese individuals to that of 19 healthy-weight controls matched for age, education and gender. During the response-priming test we exposed participants to both food pictures and to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, and examined their biasing effect on instrumental choice...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450331/yonder-fibromyalgia-dentists-cancer-survivorship-and-chocolate
#18
Ahmed Rashid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450018/interaction-between-natural-antioxidants-derived-from-cinnamon-and-cocoa-in-binary-and-complex-mixtures
#19
Dimas Rahadian Aji Muhammad, Danar Praseptiangga, Davy Van de Walle, Koen Dewettinck
Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439881/effect-of-cocoa-on-blood-pressure
#20
REVIEW
Karin Ried, Peter Fakler, Nigel P Stocks
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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