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Cai-Xia Zhang, Wei-Qing Long, Yan-Bin Ye, Min-Shan Lu, Nai-Qi Zhang, Ming Xu, Jing Huang, Yi-Xiang Su
This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
James Tsai, Kimp Walton, Blair N Coleman, Saida R Sharapova, Sarah E Johnson, Sara M Kennedy, Ralph S Caraballo
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. middle school and high school students in 2016 (1). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to assess self-reported reasons for e-cigarette use among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) student e-cigarette users. Among students who reported ever using e-cigarettes in 2016, the most commonly selected reasons for use were 1) use by "friend or family member" (39...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Amy Kunchok, Penelope J Spring, Michael W Hayes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tasuku Harada, Ikuko Ohta, Yusuke Endo, Hiroshi Sunada, Hisashi Noma, Fuminori Taniguchi
Background: SR-16234 is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) structurally different from approved SERM and has been reported to have estrogen receptor (ER) α antagonistic activity and strong affinity with a weak partial agonistic activity to ERβ receptor. SR-16234 showed strong inhibitory effects on transplanted endometrial cysts in the endometriosis model of rat and mouse. In this clinical trial, efficacy and safety of SR-16234 have been evaluated in endometriosis patients...
December 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
Mustafa M Farouk, Michelle J Y Yoo, Nazimah S A Hamid, Maryann Staincliffe, Briar Davies, Scott O Knowles
Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (p<0.05). Bread volume and spaghetti tensile strength increased and ice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (p<0.05). The overall acceptability/liking of bread, flavoured ice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0...
February 2018: Food Research International
Ana Cicvaric, Tanja Bulat, Daniel Bormann, Jiaye Yang, Bastian Auer, Ivan Milenkovic, Maureen Cabatic, Radoslav Milicevic, Francisco J Monje
While the consumption of caffeine and cocoa has been associated with a variety of health benefits to humans, some authors have proposed that excessive caffeine intake may increase the frequency of epileptic seizures in humans and reduce the efficiency of antiepileptic drugs. Little is known, however, about the proconvulsant potential of the sustained, excessive intake of cocoa on hippocampal neural circuits. Using the mouse as an experimental model, we examined the effects of the chronic consumption of food enriched in cocoa-based dark chocolate on motor and mood-related behaviours as well as on the excitability properties of hippocampal neurons...
February 12, 2018: Food & Function
Wenquan Zhang, John R Logan
The rapid growth of Asian and Hispanic populations in urban areas is superceding traditional classifications of neighborhoods (for example as white, transitional, or minority). The "global neighborhood" that includes all groups (white, black, Hispanic and Asian) is one important new category. We examine the emerging spatial pattern of racial/ethnic composition in the Chicago metropolis, documenting an expansion of all-minority neighborhoods in the city and just beyond its borders, a shrinking set of all-white neighborhoods in the outer suburbs, and more diverse neighborhoods including whites mainly in between...
July 2017: Spatial Demography
Sara H M C Monteiro, Eric Keven Silva, Verônica O Alvarenga, Jeremias Moraes, Mônica Q Freitas, Márcia C Silva, Renata S L Raices, Anderson S Sant'Ana, M Angela A Meireles, Adriano G Cruz
This study presents the emerging high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) processing as a non-thermal alternative to high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST). Chocolate milk beverage (CMB) was subjected to different ultrasound energy densities (0.3-3.0 kJ/cm3), as compared to HTST pasteurization (72 °C/15 s) aimed to verify the effect of the HIUS processing on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the beverage. The application of HIUS at an energy density of 3.0 kJ/cm3 was able to reduce 3...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Andrea Contini, Fabrizio Sanna, Paola Maccioni, Giancarlo Colombo, Antonio Argiolas
The existence of sex differences was studied in a rat model of operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB), which possesses strong reinforcing properties and is avidly consumed by rats. Whether these differences occurred concomitantly to changes in extracellular dopamine in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens, was assessed by intracerebral microdialysis. Male, ovariectomized and intact female rats showed similar self-administration profiles, with minor differences in both acquisition and maintenance phases...
February 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Roberto Biondi, Stefano Brancorsini, Giulia Poli, Maria Giulia Egidi, Enrico Capodicasa, Livio Bottiglieri, Sandro Gerli, Eleonora Brillo, Gian Carlo Di Renzo, Dragos Cretoiu, Romeo Micu, Nicolae Suciu
Hydroxyl radical (.OH) is highly reactive, and therefore very short-lived. Finding new means to accurately detect .OH, and testing the ability of known .OH scavengers to neutralize them in human biological fluids would leverage our ability to more effectively counter oxidative (.OH) stress-mediated damage in human diseases. To achieve this, we pursued the evaluation of secondary products resulting from .OH attack, using a detection system based on Fenton reaction-mediated D-phenylalanine (D-Phe) hydroxylation...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Simonetta Camandola, Natalie Plick, Mark P Mattson
Increasing evidence suggests that regular consumption of coffee, tea and dark chocolate (cacao) can promote brain health and may reduce the risk of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the complex array of phytochemicals in coffee and cacao beans and tea leaves has hindered a clear understanding of the component(s) that affect neuronal plasticity and resilience. One class of phytochemicals present in relatively high amounts in coffee, tea and cacao are methylxanthines. Among such methylxanthines, caffeine has been the most widely studied and has clear effects on neuronal network activity, promotes sustained cognitive performance and can protect neurons against dysfunction and death in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
February 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Joelle K Salazar, Vriddi M Bathija, Christina K Carstens, Sartaj S Narula, Arlette Shazer, Diana Stewart, Mary Lou Tortorello
This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. monocytogenes presented lower growth rates and shorter lag phases than the naturally contaminated populations at all temperatures except for 5°C, where the reverse was observed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Swapnil Verma, A K Sathpathy, U Srinivas, Sanath Reddy
Methaemoglobinaemia is a rare but potentially dangerous haemoglobinopathy that is often underdiagnosed. It is one of the causes for unexplained cyanosis with dark-coloured blood, especially in the absence of cardiac or pulmonary pathology. Not uncommonly so, it is an incidental perioperative finding in cases of dark-coloured blood not improving with oxygen in apparently acyanotic patients. The present case report is of a child with deaf-mutism posted for cochlear implant surgery who presented with 'chocolate-coloured blood' in the surgical field, despite blood gas analysis showing a normal partial pressure of oxygen...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Anja Lender, Adrian Meule, Mike Rinck, Timo Brockmeyer, Jens Blechert
Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor "away" or pull them near with a joystick that controls a corresponding image zoom. One version of the task couples movement direction with image content-independent features, for example, pulling blue-framed images and pushing green-framed images regardless of content ('irrelevant feature version')...
January 30, 2018: Appetite
Ralph Anthony Stidham, David B Freeman, Robert L von Tersch, Peter J Sullivan, Samantha D Tostenson
Introduction: Tularemia is a rare but potentially fatal disease that develops in numerous wild and domestic animals, including lagomorphs, rodents, cats, and humans.  Francisella tularensis bacterium, the causative agent of tularemia, was identified by veterinary personnel at Fort Riley, Kansas during a routine post-mortum evaluation of a domestic feline. However, before formal diagnosis was confirmed, the sample was sent and prepared for rabies testing at the Department of Defense (DoD) U...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Currents
Roberta Tolve, Nicola Condelli, Marisa Carmela Caruso, Diego Barletta, Fabio Favati, Fernanda Galgano
Chocolate is one of the most consumed delicacies in the world. Nowadays high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolates, probiotic chocolates, and prebiotic chocolates are getting more attention. In light of this, dark chocolate containing microencapsulated phytosterols (MPs) has been developed to reduce cholesterol in individuals. In particular, different dark chocolates containing 64, 72 and 85% of cocoa, fortified with 0, 5, 10 and 15% MP have been produced. The obtained chocolates were characterized by a particle size distribution lower than 30 μm and were stable from a chemical point of view...
February 2, 2018: Food & Function
Cristiano de Silva Souza, Jane Mara Block
The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Diogo N de Oliveira, Ana C B Camargo, Carlos F O R Melo, Rodrigo R Catharino
Chocolate is a popular food bearing a number of different classifications that are differentiated by proportions of cocoa solids, milk and cocoa butter. Literature brings evidence that chocolates with a high percentage of cocoa solids contribute to good health maintenance due to the presence of phenolic compounds. On the other hand, it is known that the productive process, including pre-processing, may influence the level of these substances in the finished product. Thus, accurate strategies to measure the levels of this class of molecules that can be highly adaptable throughout the manufacturing process are important to ensure high-quality products...
January 2018: Food Research International
Mitra Tabari, Homayoon Alaghemand, Durdi Qujeq, Elahe Mohammadi
Aims and Objectives: Dental erosion is a common disease in children. Food diets, due to high amounts of juice, soft drinks, chewing gum, and acidic chocolate, are one of the most important risk factors in erosive processes among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of candy and chocolate on the microhardness of tooth enamel. Materials and Methods: Two types of popping candy and one type of popping chocolate were used in this study. Thirty-three healthy permanent premolar teeth and 33 primary incisor teeth (A or B) were selected...
November 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
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