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Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Xing Lu, Shuangyou Zhang, Xing Chen, Dohyeon Kwon, Chan-Gi Jeon, Zhigang Zhang, Jungwon Kim, Kebin Shi
Ultrahigh-resolution optical strain sensors provide powerful tools in various scientific and engineering fields, ranging from long-baseline interferometers to civil and aerospace industries. Here we demonstrate an ultrahigh-resolution fibre strain sensing method by directly detecting the time-of-flight (TOF) change of the optical pulse train generated from a free-running passively mode-locked laser (MLL) frequency comb. We achieved a local strain resolution of 18 pε/Hz(1/2) and 1.9 pε/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz and 3 kHz, respectively, with large dynamic range of >154 dB at 3 kHz...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fang-Xiang Wang, Wei Chen, Ya-Ping Li, Guo-Wei Zhang, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Shuang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an important resource in high-dimensional quantum information processing, as its quantum number can be infinite. Dove prism (DP) is a most common tool to manipulate OAM light. However, the Dove prism changes the polarization of the photon states and decreases the sorting fidelity of the interferometer. In this work, we analyze the polarization-dependent effect of the DP on OAM light manipulation in the normal single-path Sagnac interferometers (SPSIs) with beam splitter (BS) and polarizing beam splitter (PBS)...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Sergey Kravtsov, Paul Roebber, Vytaras Brazauskas
The most comprehensive continuous-coverage modern climatic data sets, known as reanalyses, come from combining state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with diverse available observations. These reanalysis products estimate the path of climate evolution that actually happened, and their use in a probabilistic context-for example, to document trends in extreme events in response to climate change-is, therefore, limited. Free runs of NWP models without data assimilation can in principle be used for the latter purpose, but such simulations are computationally expensive and are prone to systematic biases...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Data
Pierre Pichon, Adrien Barbet, Jean-Philippe Blanchot, Frédéric Druon, François Balembois, Patrick Georges
Taking advantage of light-emitting-diode (LED) performance breakthrough driven by the lighting market, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first LED-pumped chromium-doped crystal laser oscillator and amplifier based on alexandrite crystals (Cr(3+):BeAl2O4). We developed a Ce:YAG concentrator as the pumped source, illuminated by blue LEDs that can be easily power scaled. With 2200 LEDs (450 nm), the Ce:YAG concentrator can deliver to the gain medium up to 268 mJ at 10 Hz at 550 nm with a irradiance of 8...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Lorenzo Ferri, Marco Filardi, Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Stefano Vandi, Elena Antelmi, Francesco Toni, Mino Zucchelli, Giulia Pierangeli, Giuseppe Plazzi
We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with a wide non-compressive pineal cyst, associated with the inability to control her sleep-wake schedule. Actigraphic monitoring showed a 24-hour free-running disorder (tau 26.96 hours). A 24-hour serum melatonin curve assay, with concomitant video-polysomnographic and body-core temperature monitoring, was performed. Melatonin curve showed a blunted nocturnal peak, lower total quantity of melatonin, and prolonged melatonin secretion in the morning, with normal temperature profile and sleep parameters...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Cinthia Juárez-Tapia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya
Recently, the relationship between the circadian system and female reproduction has been of great interest; ovarian hormones can modify the amount and distribution of daily activity differently in rodent species. The volcano mouse Neotomodon alstoni is a species in which it is possible to study the circadian rhythm of locomotion, and it offers comparative information about the influence of ovaries on the circadian system. In this study, we used infrared crossings to compare free movement in intact and sham-operated or ovariectomized mice...
October 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Charlotte Bamberger, Andreas Rossmeier, Katharina Lechner, Liya Wu, Elisa Waldmann, Renée G Stark, Julia Altenhofer, Kerstin Henze, Klaus G Parhofer
Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet...
October 6, 2017: Nutrients
Seung-Hee Yoo, Shihoko Kojima, Kazuhiro Shimomura, Nobuya Koike, Ethan D Buhr, Tadashi Furukawa, Caroline H Ko, Gabrielle Gloston, Christopher Ayoub, Kazunari Nohara, Bryan A Reyes, Yoshiki Tsuchiya, Ook-Joon Yoo, Kazuhiro Yagita, Choogon Lee, Zheng Chen, Shin Yamazaki, Carla B Green, Joseph S Takahashi
We previously created two PER2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) circadian reporter knockin mice that differ only in the Per2 3'-UTR region: Per2::Luc, which retains the endogenous Per2 3'-UTR and Per2::LucSV, where the endogenous Per2 3'-UTR was replaced by an SV40 late poly(A) signal. To delineate the in vivo functions of Per2 3'-UTR, we analyzed circadian rhythms of Per2::LucSV mice. Interestingly, Per2::LucSV mice displayed more than threefold stronger amplitude in bioluminescence rhythms than Per2::Luc mice, and also exhibited lengthened free-running periods (∼24...
October 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shuai Wang, Xinyu Fan, Bingxin Xu, Zuyuan He
An electro-optic frequency comb enables frequency-agile comb-based spectroscopy without using sophisticated phase-locking electronics. Nevertheless, dense electro-optic frequency combs over broad spans have yet to be developed. In this Letter, we propose a straightforward and efficient method for electro-optic frequency comb generation with a small line spacing and a large span. This method is based on two-stage modulation: generating an 18 GHz line-spacing comb at the first stage and a 250 MHz line-spacing comb at the second stage...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Katsutaka Oishi, Saori Yamamoto, Hideaki Oike, Naoki Ohkura, Masahiko Taniguchi
Cinnamic acid (CA) derivatives have recently received focus due to their anticancer, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of cinnamic acid on the circadian clock, which is a cell-autonomous endogenous system that generates circadian rhythms that govern the behavior and physiology of most organisms. Cinnamic acid significantly shortened the circadian period of PER2::LUC expression in neuronal cells that differentiated from neuronal progenitor cells derived from PER2::LUC mouse embryos...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Masayuki Ohashi, Kei Watanabe, Kenta Furutani, Toru Hirano, Keiichi Katsumi, Hirokazu Shoji, Tatsuki Mizouchi, Naoto Endo
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial motor evoked potential (TcMEP) monitoring is the gold standard for intra-operative neurological monitoring (IOM) of motor pathways during complex spine surgery because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, although it is very low, the rate of false-negatives in TcMEP monitoring is not zero. Therefore, over-reliance on TcMEP monitoring can cause potentially preventable motor deficits. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of motor deficits due to nerve root stretch after surgical correction of a congenital lumbar kyphoscoliosis in a 56-year-old woman...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Shunsuke Tsuchiya, Ethan D Buhr, Tomomi Higashide, Kazuhisa Sugiyama, Russell N Van Gelder
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is known to have a strong circadian rhythm, yet how light/dark cycles entrain this rhythm is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess whether, like the retina, the mammalian ciliary body and IOP clocks have an intrinsic ability to entrain to light/dark cycles. METHODS: Iris-ciliary body complexes were obtained from period2:luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity. Pairs of the iris-ciliary body complex were exposed to antiphasic 9:15 h light/dark cycle in vitro...
2017: PloS One
Karen Holst, Martin Ugander, Andreas Sigfridsson
PURPOSE: To develop a 3-dimensional free-breathing cardiovascular MR technique for quantifying the variation in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) during the respiratory cycle. METHODS: A 3-dimensional radial trajectory with double golden-angle ordering was used for free-running data acquisition during free breathing in healthy volunteers (N = 8). A respiratory self-gating signal was extracted from the center of k-space, and data were retrospectively binned into eight respiratory phases in end-diastole...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mrwan Alayed, M Jamal Deen
Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated)...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
Luigi Consolino, Seungyong Jung, Annamaria Campa, Michele De Regis, Shovon Pal, Jae Hyun Kim, Kazuue Fujita, Akio Ito, Masahiro Hitaka, Saverio Bartalini, Paolo De Natale, Mikhail A Belkin, Miriam Serena Vitiello
Terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (THz DFG-QCLs) have recently emerged as the first monolithic electrically pumped semiconductor sources capable of operating at room temperature across the 1- to 6-THz range. Despite tremendous progress in power output, which now exceeds 1 mW in pulsed and 10 μW in continuous-wave regimes at room temperature, knowledge of the major figure of merits of these devices for high-precision spectroscopy, such as spectral purity and absolute frequency tunability, is still lacking...
September 2017: Science Advances
Yuta Kawasaki, Hitoshi Nishimura, Sakiko Shiga
Two-day rhythms referred to as circabidian rhythms were reported in humans and mosquitos. However, these rhythms only appear under constant conditions, and functional mechanisms of two-day rhythms have not been known. Here, we report clear circabidian rhythms of large black chafers (Holotrichia parallela, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in both the laboratory and field. Under 12 h light and 12 h dark conditions (LD 12:12) at 25°C, H. parallela appeared on the ground at the beginning of the dark phase every two days...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Shintaro Hisatake, Hikaru Nakajima, Hai Huy Nguyen Pham, Hirohisa Uchida, Makoto Tojyo, Yoichi Oikawa, Kunio Miyaji, Tadao Nagatsuma
Near-field mapping has proven to be a powerful technique for characterizing and diagnosing antennas in the microwave frequency range. However, conventional measurement methods based on a network analyzer cannot be applied to on-chip antenna devices extensively studied for future wireless communication in the millimeter wave (mm-wave) (30-300 GHz) and terahertz (THz) wave (0.1-10 THz) frequency regions. Here, we present a new asynchronous mapping technique to investigate the spatial distribution of not only the amplitude but also the phase of the electric field generated by free-running, self-oscillating generators including CMOS oscillators, Gunn oscillators, resonant tunneling diodes, and quantum cascaded lasers...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peicheng Liao, Changjing Bao, Arne Kordts, Maxim Karpov, Martin H P Pfeiffer, Lin Zhang, Yinwen Cao, Ahmed Almaiman, Amirhossein Mohajerin-Ariaei, Moshe Tur, Martin M Fejer, Tobias J Kippenberg, Alan E Willner
We experimentally demonstrate pump-linewidth-tolerant wavelength multicasting using microresonator-based soliton Kerr frequency combs. When Kerr comb lines serve as coherent pumps in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, the linewidth of the multicast signal almost remains that of the original signal at different linewidths of Kerr combs, ranging from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. However, in conventional multicasting where free-running (FR) pumps are used, the linewidth of the converted signal significantly increases...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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