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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#1
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301809/evaluation-of-drug-uptake-and-deactivation-in-plant-fate-of-albendazole-in-ribwort-plantain-plantago-laceolata-cells-and-regenerants
#2
Lucie Stuchlíková Raisová, Radka Podlipná, Barbora Szotáková, Eliška Syslová, Lenka Skálová
Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296930/seasonal-changes-in-the-digesta-adherent-rumen-bacterial-communities-of-dairy-cattle-grazing-pasture
#3
Samantha J Noel, Graeme T Attwood, Jasna Rakonjac, Christina D Moon, Garry C Waghorn, Peter H Janssen
The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only offer a 'snapshot' in time. We monitored the diversity of rumen bacteria in four New Zealand dairy cows, grazing a rye-grass and clover pasture over five consecutive seasons, using high throughput pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289202/intensified-agriculture-favors-evolved-resistance-to-biological-control
#4
Federico Tomasetto, Jason M Tylianakis, Marco Reale, Steve Wratten, Stephen L Goldson
Increased regulation of chemical pesticides and rapid evolution of pesticide resistance have increased calls for sustainable pest management. Biological control offers sustainable pest suppression, partly because evolution of resistance to predators and parasitoids is prevented by several factors (e.g., spatial or temporal refuges from attacks, reciprocal evolution by control agents, and contrasting selection pressures from other enemy species). However, evolution of resistance may become more probable as agricultural intensification reduces the availability of refuges and diversity of enemy species, or if control agents have genetic barriers to evolution...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288768/economic-modelling-of-grazing-management-against-gastrointestinal-nematodes-in-dairy-cattle
#5
M van der Voort, J Van Meensel, L Lauwers, M H A de Haan, A G Evers, G Van Huylenbroeck, J Charlier
Grazing management (GM) interventions, such as reducing the grazing time or mowing pasture before grazing, have been proposed to limit the exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in grazed livestock. However, the farm-level economic effects of these interventions have not yet been assessed. In this paper, the economic effects of three GM interventions in adult dairy cattle were modelled for a set of Flemish farms: later turnout on pasture (GM1), earlier housing near the end of the grazing season (GM2), and reducing the daily grazing time (GM3)...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288763/can-the-amount-of-digestible-undegraded-protein-offered-to-ewes-during-late-pregnancy-affect-the-performance-and-immune-response-of-their-offspring-to-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#6
Rocco S Sebastiano, Torres Sweeney, Barbara Good, James P Hanrahan, Timothy W J Keady
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a major environmental influence on foetal development with consequent effects on postnatal performance. We hypothesised that the level of intake of digestible undegraded protein (DUP) by the dam in late pregnancy would impact on the effectiveness of the immune response by offspring to gastrointestinal nematode infection. Eighty-five twin/triplet-bearing ewes, which were indoors from mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups for the final 6 weeks of pregnancy...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285856/seasonal-responses-of-soil-respiration-to-warming-and-nitrogen-addition-in-a-semi-arid-alfalfa-pasture-of-the-loess-plateau-china
#7
Chao Fang, Jian-Sheng Ye, Yanhong Gong, Jiuying Pei, Ziqiang Yuan, Chan Xie, Yusi Zhu, Yueyuan Yu
Responses of soil respiration (Rs) to increasing nitrogen (N) deposition and warming will have far-reaching influences on global carbon (C) cycling. However, the seasonal (growing and non-growing seasons) difference of Rs responses to warming and N deposition has rarely been investigated. We conducted a field manipulative experiment in a semi-arid alfalfa-pasture of northwest China to evaluate the response of Rs to nitrogen addition and warming from March 2014 to March 2016. Open-top chambers were used to elevate temperature and N was enriched at a rate of 4...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285661/colonization-and-beneficial-effects-on-annual-ryegrass-by-mixed-inoculation-with-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria
#8
Nádia L Castanheira, Ana Catarina Dourado, Isabel Pais, José Semedo, Paula Scotti-Campos, Nuno Borges, Gilda Carvalho, Maria Teresa Barreto Crespo, Paula Fareleira
Multi-strain inoculants have increased potential to accomplish a diversity of plant needs, mainly attributed to its multi-functionality. This work evaluated the ability of a mixture of three bacteria to colonize and induce a beneficial response on the pasture crop annual ryegrass. Pseudomonas G1Dc10 and Paenibacillus G3Ac9 were previously isolated from annual ryegrass and were selected for their ability to perform multiple functions related to plant growth promotion. Sphingomonas azotifigens DSMZ 18530(T) was included due to nitrogen fixing ability...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284698/genetic-parameters-for-lactose-and-its-correlation-with-other-milk-production-traits-and-fitness-traits-in-pasture-based-production-systems
#9
M Haile-Mariam, J E Pryce
Lactose is a major component of milk (typically around 5% of composition) that is not usually directly considered in national genetic improvement programs of dairy cattle. Daily test-day lactose yields and percentage data from pasture-based seasonal calving herds in Australia were analyzed to assess if lactose content can be used for predicting fitness traits and if an additional benefit is achieved by including lactose yield in selecting for milk yield traits. Data on lactose percentage collected from 2007 to 2014, from about 600 herds, were used to estimated genetic parameters for lactose percentage and lactose yield and correlations with other milk yield traits, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval (CIV), and survival...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275192/oral-prion-disease-pathogenesis-is-impeded-in-the-specific-absence-of-cxcr5-expressing-dendritic-cells
#10
Barry M Bradford, Boris Reizis, Neil A Mabbott
After oral exposure the early replication of certain prion strains upon stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the Peyer's patches in the small intestine is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. However, little is known of how prions are initially conveyed from the gut lumen to establish infection on FDC. Our previous data suggest that mononuclear phagocytes such as CD11c(+) conventional dendritic cells play an important role in the initial propagation of prions from the gut lumen into Peyer's patches...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274896/functional-proteomic-analyses-of-bothrops-atrox-venom-reveals-phenotypes-associated-with-habitat-variation-in-the-amazon
#11
Leijiane F Sousa, José A Portes-Junior, Carolina A Nicolau, Juliana L Bernardoni, Milton Y Nishiyama-Jr, Diana R Amazonas, Luciana A Freitas-de-Sousa, Rosa Hv Mourão, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Richard H Valente, Ana M Moura-da-Silva
Venom variability is commonly reported for venomous snakes including Bothrops atrox. Here, we compared the composition of venoms from B. atrox snakes collected at Amazonian conserved habitats (terra-firme upland forest and várzea) and human modified areas (pasture and degraded areas). Venom samples were submitted to shotgun proteomic analysis as a whole or compared after fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography. Whole venom proteomes revealed a similar composition among the venoms with predominance of SVMPs, CTLs, and SVSPs and intermediate amounts of PLA2s and LAAOs...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274885/molecular-identification-of-wild-triatomines-of-the-genus-rhodnius-in-the-bolivian-amazon-strategy-and-current-difficulties
#12
Simone Frédérique Brenière, Edwin Wily Condori, Rosio Buitrago, Luis Fernando Sosa, Catarina Lopes Macedo, Christian Barnabé
The Amazon region has recently been considered as endemic in Latin America. In Bolivia, the vast Amazon region is undergoing considerable human migrations and substantial anthropization of the environment, potentially renewing the danger of establishing the transmission of Chagas disease. The cases of human oral contamination occurring in 2010 in the town of Guayaramerín provided reasons to intensify research. As a result, the goal of this study was to characterize the species of sylvatic triatomines circulating in the surroundings of Yucumo (Beni, Bolivia), a small Amazonian city at the foot of the Andes between the capital (La Paz) and Trinidad the largest city of Beni...
March 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274492/design-and-evaluation-of-multi-indicator-profiles-for-targeted-selective-treatment-against-gastrointestinal-nematodes-at-housing-in-adult-dairy-cows
#13
Nadine Ravinet, Anne Lehebel, Nathalie Bareille, Carlos Lopez, Christophe Chartier, Alain Chauvin, Aurélien Madouasse
Targeted-selective treatments against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) in adult dairy cows require the identification of "cows to treat", i.e. cows whose milk production (MP) would increase after treatment. This study aimed at quantifying the ability of multi-indicator profiles to identify such cows. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at housing in 25 French pasturing dairy herds. In each herd, treated cows received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily MP was recorded and the MP variation between the pre- and post-visit periods was calculated (ΔMP) for each cow...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273429/variability-in-measurement-of-pithomyces-chartarum-spore-counts
#14
E L Cuttance, R A Laven, M Stevenson
AIMS: To examine the agreement between spore counts of Pithomyces chartarum measured in a single aliquot of wash water with counts from multiple aliquots from the same 60 g pasture sample, and between spore counts measured in an individual 60 g pasture sample with counts from three 60 g pasture samples selected from the same 200 g paddock sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four Waikato dairy farms were visited once weekly from early January to late May 2013. One paddock, with 40 sampling sites, was selected per farm...
March 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264752/diet-selection-and-performance-of-horses-grazing-on-different-heathland-types
#15
C López López, L M M Ferreira, U García, J Moreno-Gonzalo, M A M Rodrigues, K Osoro, I Ferre, R Celaya
The number of horses in northern Spanish mountains has increased in recent decades, but little is known about their grazing behaviour, performance and potential for foal meat production. This research aimed to study the diet selection, liveweight (LW) changes and parasitic status of dry and lactating mares, and foals' LW gains, grazing on heathlands with different botanical composition. The experimental design consisted of three vegetation types: dominated by heather (Ericaceae) species (H), dominated by gorse (Ulex gallii; G) and co-dominated by gorse and heath-grasses (G-G), with four replicates per treatment (12 paddocks of 1...
March 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264360/new-species-of-the-damselfly-genus-i-argia-i-from-mexico-central-america-and-ecuador-with-an-emphasis-on-costa-rica-insecta-odonata-coenagrionidae
#16
Rosser W Garrison, Natalia VON Ellenrieder
Seven new species of Argia are described, five of which occur in Costa Rica: Argia calverti n. sp. (Holotype ♂, Costa Rica, Cartago Prov., Tapantí Reserve, 1,310 m, 6 vii 1963, F. G. Thompson leg., in FSCA); Argia carolus n. sp. (Holotype ♂, Costa Rica, San José Prov., El Rodeo Biological Reserve, 7 km W of Villa Colón, 9°54' N, 84°16' W, 561 m, 10-13 vii 1990, T. W. Donnelly leg., in FSCA); Argia elongata n. sp. (Holotype ♂, Costa Rica, Cartago Prov., Reventazón river, SE of Turrialba by highway 10, 9°52'56'' N, 83°38'49'' W, 561 m, 10 viii 1979, R...
February 20, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261329/soil-carbon-and-belowground-carbon-balance-of-a-short-rotation-coppice-assessments-from-three-different-approaches
#17
Gonzalo Berhongaray, Melanie S Verlinden, Laura S Broeckx, Ivan A Janssens, Reinhart Ceulemans
Uncertainty in soil carbon (C) fluxes across different land-use transitions is an issue that needs to be addressed for the further deployment of perennial bioenergy crops. A large-scale short-rotation coppice (SRC) site with poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) was established to examine the land-use transitions of arable and pasture to bioenergy. Soil C pools, output fluxes of soil CO 2, CH 4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile organic compounds, as well as input fluxes from litter fall and from roots, were measured over a 4-year period, along with environmental parameters...
February 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259414/citizens-views-on-the-practices-of-zero-grazing-and-cow-calf-separation-in-the-dairy-industry-does-providing-information-increase-acceptability
#18
Maria J Hötzel, Clarissa S Cardoso, Angélica Roslindo, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The primary aim of this study was to assess the influence of provision of information on lay citizens' opinions regarding 2 common management practices, zero-grazing and cow-calf separation. To aid in the interpretation of the findings, our secondary aim was to explore the awareness and opinions of Brazilian citizens about these practices. We surveyed a convenience sample of Brazilian citizens (192 men and 208 women), recruited in a public place, with the majority stating that they were largely unfamiliar with animal production and lived in urban environments...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257869/calving-distributions-of-individual-bulls-in-multiple-sire-pastures
#19
Kaitlynn M Abell, Miles E Theurer, Robert L Larson, Brad J White, David K Hardin, Richard F Randle, Robert A Cushman
The objective of this project was to quantify patterns in the calving rate of sires in multiple-sire pastures over seven years at a large-scale cow-calf operation. Data consisted of reproductive and genomic records from multiple-sire breeding pastures (n = 33) at the United States Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) from 2007 to 2013. Calving intervals were analyzed in 21-day periods. A ranking system for each bull was developed based on the calving rate per pasture over the breeding season, with Rank 1 = the bull with greatest calving rate, Rank 3 = the bull with the least calving rate, and Rank 2 = all other bulls...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257860/the-effect-of-housing-condition-on-the-performance-of-two-types-of-activity-meters-to-detect-estrus-in-dairy-cows
#20
J B Roelofs, C Krijnen, E van Erp-van der Kooij
When the daily routine of a cow is disturbed, it may have a detrimental effect on the performance of activity meters to detect estrus. It is possible that during the pasture period, the daily routine of cows is disturbed, adversely affecting the performance of activity meters to detect estrus which does not happen when the cows are housed indoors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether housing conditions (pasture or indoor) affected the performance of activity meters to detect estrus in dairy cows...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
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