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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472452/group-size-in-social-ecological-systems
#1
Marco Casari, Claudio Tagliapietra
Cooperation becomes more difficult as a group becomes larger, but it is unclear where it will break down. Here, we study group size within well-functioning social-ecological systems. We consider centuries-old evidence from hundreds of communities in the Alps that harvested common property resources. Results show that the average group size remained remarkably stable over about six centuries, in contrast to a general increase in the regional population. The population more than doubled, but although single groups experienced fluctuations over time, the average group size remained stable...
February 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471977/effects-of-parity-on-productive-reproductive-metabolic-and-hormonal-responses-of-holstein-cows
#2
Jéssica Tatiana Morales Piñeyrúa, Santiago Rafael Fariña, Alejandro Mendoza
The objective of this study was to determine the effects that parity may have on production, reproduction and the metabolic status of Holstein cows managed in a production system based on total mixed ration and pasture. Primiparous (n = 22) and multiparous (n = 24) cows from a dairy farm research station in Uruguay were used in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT) were recorded weekly from -30 to 70 days postpartum. Milk production was measured daily, and milk composition was determined weekly...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471524/enteric-methane-production-and-ruminal-fermentation-of-forage-brassica-diets-fed-in-continuous-culture
#3
S Leanne Dillard, Ana I Roca-Fernández, Melissa D Rubano, Kyle R Elkin, Kathy J Soder
The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous culture. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7 d for adaptation and 3 d for collection. Diets were: 1) 50% orchardgrass + 50% annual ryegrass (ARG); 2) 50% orchardgrass + 50% canola (CAN); 3) 50% orchardgrass + 50% rapeseed (RAP); and 4) 50% orchardgrass + 50% turnip (TUR)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468318/how-grazing-affects-soil-quality-of-soils-formed-in-the-glaciated-northeastern-united-states
#4
Alissa H Cox, José A Amador
Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467042/effect-of-selected-plant-species-within-biodiverse-pasture-on-in-vitro-fatty-acid-biohydrogenation-and-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-of-lamb
#5
K E Kliem, A L Thomson, L A Crompton, D I Givens
The effect of botanical diversity on supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminants in vitro, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in lambs was investigated. Six plant species, commonly grown as part of UK herbal ley mixtures (Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Achillea millefolium, Centaurea nigra, Plantago lanceolata and Prunella vulgaris), were assessed for FA profile, and in vitro biohydrogenation of constituent PUFA, to estimate intestinal supply of PUFA available for absorption by ruminants...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466715/ovine-liver-proteome-assessing-mechanisms-of-seasonal-weight-loss-tolerance-between-merino-and-damara-sheep
#6
Blake Miller, Nathalie Selevsek, Jonas Grossman, Tanya Kilminster, Tim Scanlon, Matthew Daniels, Paolo Nanni, John Milton, Chris Oldham, Johan Greef, Aspinas Chapwanya, Don Bergfelt, André M de Almeida
The effect of feed restriction on the liver protein profiles of two different breeds of sheep was studied. We compared Merino with the Damara, breeds with respectively low and high tolerance to nutritional stress. Each breed was grouped into two nutritional treatments: restricted (12-14% loss of live weight) and control (maintenance). The trial lasted 42 days. Animals were sacrificed and liver samples subjected to label free shotgun proteomics. The resultant proteins had both their fold change and statistical significance in an unpaired t-test calculated to identify differential protein abundance...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466632/the-influence-of-habitat-structure-on-fish-assemblages-in-amazonian-streams-of-machado-river-basin
#7
Igor David da Costa, Vanessa Rocha
Igarapés are Amazonian streams that are extremely susceptible to environmental changes. Due to the rapidly occurring riparian land use changes, and the several impacts these may have on fish assemblages, it is highly valuable to describe and understand the current relationships between these assemblages and the local environmental conditions, especially in barely know areas. In this research, we studied the taxonomic composition and fish assemblage attributes variation in three streams with different riparian conservation conditions: forest, intermediate and pasture...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466051/effect-of-a-syringe-aspiration-technique-versus-a-mechanical-suction-technique-and-use-of-n-butylscopolammonium-bromide-on-the-quantity-and-quality-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-samples-obtained-from-horses-with-the-summer-pasture-endophenotype-of-equine
#8
Jacquelyn E Bowser, Lais R R Costa, Alba U Rodil, Christine T Lopp, Melanie E Johnson, Robert W Wills, Cyprianna E Swiderski
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling techniques and the use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on the quantity and quality of BAL fluid (BALF) samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. ANIMALS 8 horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. PROCEDURES BAL was performed bilaterally (right and left lung sites) with a flexible videoendoscope passed through the left or right nasal passage. During lavage of the first lung site, a BALF sample was collected by means of either gentle syringe aspiration or mechanical suction with a pressure-regulated wall-mounted suction pump...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460962/glycosphingolipidomics-of-donkey-milk-by-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-electrospray-ionization-and-multistage-mass-spectrometry
#9
Cosima Damiana Calvano, Marco Glaciale, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray linear ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-MSn , n = 2,3) was used to characterize polar lipids occurring in donkey milk. Besides the detection of abundant phospholipids, the structural characterization and content evaluation of minor glycosphingolipids (GSL) was assessed. We report an unprecedented characterization of 11 hexosyl-ceramides (HexCer), 10 Hex2 Cer and 4 Hex3 Cer. Collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS/MS) spectra in negative ion mode mainly afford information on the monosaccharide number and ceramide constitution (i...
February 20, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460237/a-comparison-of-the-impacts-of-wind-energy-and-unconventional-gas-development-on-land-use-and-ecosystem-services-an-example-from-the-anadarko-basin-of-oklahoma-usa
#10
Kendall M Davis, Michael N Nguyen, Maureen R McClung, Matthew D Moran
The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457960/phylogenetic-relationships-and-acaricidal-effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-obtained-from-cattle-farm-soils-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#11
Agustin Fernández-Salas, Miguel Angel Alonso Díaz, Rogelio Alejandro Alonso Morales, Roberto Lezama-Gutierrez, José Antonio Cervantes-Chávez
The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454692/from-milk-to-cheese-evolution-of-flavor-fingerprint-of-milk-cream-curd-whey-ricotta-scotta-and-ripened-cheese-obtained-during-summer-alpine-pasture
#12
M Bergamaschi, G Bittante
The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445014/effect-of-on-farm-interventions-in-the-aftermath-of-an-outbreak-of-hypervirulent-verocytotoxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-sweden
#13
Lena-Mari Tamminen, Helena Fransson, Madeleine Tråvén, Anna Aspán, Stefan Alenius, Ulf Emanuelson, Ilmars Dreimanis, Mats Törnquist, Erik Eriksson
In 2007, human infections with a hypervirulent strain of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 increased in Sweden and especially in the Halland County. A connection between the cases and a local beef cattle farm with an on-farm abattoir and meat processing plant was established. In this observational study the control measures implemented on the infected farm and the dynamics of infection in the herd are described. In May 2008, when measures were initiated and animals put to pasture, the prevalence of positive individuals was 40 per cent and 18 carcasses out of 24 slaughtered animals were contaminated...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438928/trees-are-all-around-us-farmers-management-of-wood-pastures-in-the-light-of-a-controversial-policy
#14
Mattias Sandberg, Simon Jakobsson
Wood pastures are some of the most species-rich environments found in Europe and therefore essential habitats for biodiversity conservation. Society also puts faith in multiple values of trees, ranging from climate change mitigation to socio-cultural traditions. Therefore, the seemingly arbitrary tree density limit for pasture environments imposed by the EU through its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) threatened both biological and societal values. In this study on farmers' perspectives, we target the effects of the CAP tree density limit on management of wood pastures in a low-intensively managed agricultural landscape of southern Sweden...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438533/implication-of-nilgai-antelope-artiodactyla-bovidae-in-reinfestations-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-acari-ixodidae-in-south-texas-a-review-and-update
#15
Kimberly H Lohmeyer, Melinda A May, Donald B Thomas, Adalberto A Pérez de León
The Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program was the first parasite eradication program of veterinary importance in the United States and is considered to be one of the greatest disease eradication programs of all time. The program's utilization of pasture vacation and dipping of cattle in acaricide has been extremely successful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) and R. (B.) annulatus (Say), collectively known as cattle fever ticks, on cattle along the Texas border with Mexico for decades...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433483/control-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-herds-in-a-region-with-raw-milk-cheese-production-farmers-attitudes-knowledge-behaviour-and-belief-in-self-efficacy
#16
Marie-Eve Cousin, Maria Christina Härdi-Landerer, Verena Völk, Michèle Bodmer
BACKGROUND: Contagious mastitis is an important disease in dairy cattle, and the causative agent S. aureus can also impair raw milk cheese quality. In a confined region in eastern Switzerland attitude, knowledge and behaviour towards S. aureus und S. aureus control was assessed in 90 dairy farmers with communal alpine pasturing including raw milk cheese production with the aid of a questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-three out of 90 questionnaires were returned (48% return rate)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432036/effects-of-a-meal-feeding-regimen-and-the-availability-of-fresh-alfalfa-on-growth-performance-and-meat-and-bone-quality-of-broiler-genotypes
#17
B Koçer, M Bozkurt, G Ege, A E Tüzün, R Konak, O Olgun
1. The aim of this study was to identify a feeding regimen that encourages good pasture use in slow (SG) and fast (FG) growing broiler genotypes under free-range management. 2. SG and FG birds fed on either an ad libitum (ADB) or a meal feeding (MEF) programme was given free outdoor access with or without fresh alfalfa from d 22 to 72 and from d 22 to 45, respectively. In two consecutive trials, 800 birds of each genotype were included in a factorial design using groups of 40 birds replicated 5 times. 3. Fresh alfalfa consumption did not improve growth performance and meat quality attributes, whereas the feeding regimen had significant implications...
February 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430650/competition-driven-niche-segregation-on-a-landscape-scale-evidence-for-escaping-from-syntopy-toward-allotopy-in-two-coexisting-sibling-passerine-species
#18
Jiří Reif, Radka Reifová, Anna Skoracka, Lechosław Kuczyński
1.The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species' distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where only one species occurs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428885/occurrence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-swine-and-swine-workplace-environments-on-industrial-and-antibiotic-free-hog-operations-in-north-carolina-usa-a-one-health-pilot-study
#19
Meghan F Davis, Nora Pisanic, Sarah M Rhodes, Alexis Brown, Haley Keller, Maya Nadimpalli, Andrea Christ, Shanna Ludwig, Carly Ordak, Kristoffer Spicer, David C Love, Jesper Larsen, Asher Wright, Sarah Blacklin, Billy Flowers, Jill Stewart, Kenneth G Sexton, Ana M Rule, Christopher D Heaney
Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428749/effect-of-altering-the-type-of-dietary-carbohydrate-early-postpartum-on-reproductive-performance-and-milk-production-in-pasture-grazed-dairy-cows
#20
S McDougall, S Leane, S T Butler, J R Roche, C R Burke
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of increasing dietary starch for approximately 30 d postpartum on reproduction outcomes in pasture-grazed, seasonal-calving dairy cows. Cows (n = 948) from 3 commercial herds were blocked by age (2, 3, and >3 yr), breed, and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 postpartum treatment groups: high starch (34.7 ± 1.9% nonstructural carbohydrate; mean ± SD) or low starch (22.5 ± 0.4% nonstructural carbohydrate). The high-starch group in all 3 farms received 4...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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