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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639930/bradyrhizobium-mercantei-sp-nov-a-nitrogen-fixing-symbiont-isolated-from-nodules-of-deguelia-costata-syn-lonchocarpus-costatus
#1
Luisa Caroline Ferraz Helene, Jakeline Renata Marçon Delamuta, Renan Augusto Ribeiro, Mariangela Hungria
Some bacteria collectively known as rhizobia can establish symbiotic relationships and the N2-fixation process with several legumes used as green manure, in pastures and for wood production. Symbionts belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium are predominant in the tropics, and an increasing number of studies report high genetic diversity within the genus. We performed a polyphasic study with two strains belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium- SEMIA 6399T and SEMIA 6404-isolated from root nodules of Deguelia costata (syn...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636972/assessing-landowners-attitudes-toward-wild-hogs-and-support-for-control-options
#2
Carlotta A Caplenor, Neelam C Poudyal, Lisa I Muller, Chuck Yoest
Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629745/exposure-to-non-microbial-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid-protects-farmers-children-against-airway-inflammation-and-colitis
#3
Remo Frei, Ruth Ferstl, Caroline Roduit, Mario Ziegler Dipl-Ing, Elisa Schiavi, Weronika Barcik, Noelia Rodriguez-Perez, Oliver F Wirz, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Benoit Pugin, Dirk Nehrbass, Marek Jutel, Sylwia Smolinska, Patrycja Konieczna, Christian Bieli, Susanne Loeliger, Marco Waser, Göran Pershagen, Josef Riedler, Martin Depner, Bianca Schaub, Jon Genuneit, Harald Renz, Juha Pekkanen, Anne M Karvonen, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Marianne van Hage, Gert Doekes, Mübeccel Akdis, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Cezmi A Akdis, Erika von Mutius, Liam O'Mahony, Roger P Lauener
BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to a farm environment has been shown to protect against the development of inflammatory diseases such as allergy, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether besides exposure to microbes also exposure to structures of non-microbial origin such as the sialic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) may play a significant role. METHODS: Exposure to Neu5Gc was evaluated by quantifying anti-Neu5Gc antibody levels in the sera of children enrolled in two farm studies: the PARSIFAL study (n=299) and the PASTURE birth cohort (cord blood (n=836), 1 year (n=734), 4...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624912/sustainable-cattle-ranching-in-practice-moving-from-theory-to-planning-in-colombia-s-livestock-sector
#4
Amy M Lerner, Andrés Felipe Zuluaga, Julián Chará, Andrés Etter, Timothy Searchinger
A growing population with increasing consumption of milk and dairy require more agricultural output in the coming years, which potentially competes with forests and other natural habitats. This issue is particularly salient in the tropics, where deforestation has traditionally generated cattle pastures and other commodity crops such as corn and soy. The purpose of this article is to review the concepts and discussion associated with reconciling food production and conservation, and in particular with regards to cattle production, including the concepts of land-sparing and land-sharing...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#5
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624283/effect-of-pasture-versus-indoor-feeding-systems-on-quality-characteristics-nutritional-composition-and-sensory-and-volatile-properties-of-full-fat-cheddar-cheese
#6
Tom F O'Callaghan, David T Mannion, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Natasha Leeuwendaal, Tom P Beresford, Pat Dillon, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a TMR diet of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624273/temporal-and-spatial-water-use-on-irrigated-and-nonirrigated-pasture-based-dairy-farms
#7
C D Higham, D Horne, R Singh, B Kuhn-Sherlock, M R Scarsbrook
Robust information for water use on pasture-based dairy farms is critical to farmers' attempts to use water more efficiently and the improved allocation of freshwater resources to dairy farmers. To quantify the water requirements of dairy farms across regions in a practicable manner, it will be necessary to develop predictive models. The objectives of this study were to compare water use on a group of irrigated and nonirrigated farms, validate existing water use models using the data measured on the group of nonirrigated farms, and modify the model so that it can be used to predict water use on irrigated dairy farms...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624071/corrigendum-to-genetic-parameters-for-lactose-and-its-correlation-with-other-milk-production-traits-and-fitness-traits-in-pasture-based-production-systems-j-dairy-sci-100-3754-3766
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623883/no-consistent-effect-of-plant-species-richness-on-resistance-to-simulated-climate-change-for-above-or-below-ground-processes-in-managed-grasslands
#9
Carsten F Dormann, Lars von Riedmatten, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen
BACKGROUND: Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622788/a-questionnaire-study-of-associations-between-potential-risk-factors-and-salmonella-status-in-swedish-dairy-herds
#10
Estelle C C Ågren, Jenny Frössling, Helene Wahlström, Ulf Emanuelson, Susanna Sternberg Lewerin
In this study associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds were investigated. A case-control study design was used, including existing as well as new cases. Herds were assigned a salmonella status on the basis of antibody analysis of bulk milk samples. Information on potential risk factors was collected from registry data and from farmers via a questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between salmonella status and potential risk factors...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620364/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-s-aureus-l-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-spp-detection-in-raw-milk-with-pre-enrichment
#11
Tian Ding, Yuanjie Suo, Zhaohuan Zhang, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Yong Zhao
This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water) in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 10(2) CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616486/goat-farm-management-and-brucella-serological-test-among-goat-keepers-and-livestock-officers-2011-2012-nakhon-si-thammarat-province-southern-thailand
#12
Thanidtha Te-Chaniyom, Alan F Geater, Wandee Kongkaew, Usa Chethanond, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616180/sustained-functional-composition-of-pollinators-in-restored-pastures-despite-slow-functional-restoration-of-plants
#13
Marie Winsa, Erik Öckinger, Riccardo Bommarco, Regina Lindborg, Stuart P M Roberts, Johanna Wärnsberg, Ignasi Bartomeus
Habitat restoration is a key measure to counteract negative impacts on biodiversity from habitat loss and fragmentation. To assess success in restoring not only biodiversity, but also functionality of communities, we should take into account the re-assembly of species trait composition across taxa. Attaining such functional restoration would depend on the landscape context, vegetation structure, and time since restoration. We assessed how trait composition of plant and pollinator (bee and hoverfly) communities differ between abandoned, restored (formerly abandoned) or continuously grazed (intact) semi-natural pastures...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614739/assessment-of-soil-water-carbon-and-nitrogen-cycling-in-reseeded-grassland-on-the-north-wyke-farm-platform-using-a-process-based-model
#14
Yuefen Li, Yi Liu, Paul Harris, Hadewij Sint, Phil J Murray, Michael R F Lee, Lianhai Wu
The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) generates large volumes of temporally-indexed data that provides a valuable test-bed for agricultural mathematical models in temperate grasslands. In our study, we used the primary datasets generated from the NWFP (https://nwfp.rothamsted.ac.uk/) to validate the SPACSYS model in terms of the dynamics of water loss and forage dry matter yield estimated through cutting. The SPACSYS model is capable of simulating soil water, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere system...
June 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611224/random-subsets-of-structured-deterministic-frames-have-manova-spectra
#15
Marina Haikin, Ram Zamir, Matan Gavish
We draw a random subset of [Formula: see text] rows from a frame with [Formula: see text] rows (vectors) and [Formula: see text] columns (dimensions), where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are proportional to [Formula: see text] For a variety of important deterministic equiangular tight frames (ETFs) and tight non-ETFs, we consider the distribution of singular values of the [Formula: see text]-subset matrix. We observe that, for large [Formula: see text], they can be precisely described by a known probability distribution-Wachter's MANOVA (multivariate ANOVA) spectral distribution, a phenomenon that was previously known only for two types of random frames...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609462/effects-of-conversion-of-native-cerrado-vegetation-to-pasture-on-soil-hydro-physical-properties-evapotranspiration-and-streamflow-on-the-amazonian-agricultural-frontier
#16
Rodolfo L B Nóbrega, Alphonce C Guzha, Gilmar N Torres, Kristof Kovacs, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S S Amorim, Eduardo Couto, Gerhard Gerold
Understanding the impacts of land-use change on landscape-hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Northern Brazilian Cerrado biome, where the Amazon agricultural frontier is located. Motivated by the gap in literature assessing these impacts, we characterized the soil hydro-physical properties and quantified surface water fluxes from catchments under contrasting land-use in this region. We used data from field measurements in two headwater micro-catchments with similar physical characteristics and different land use, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606366/herd-level-seroprevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-for-bovine-cysticercosis-in-the-state-of-para%C3%A3-ba-northeastern-brazil
#17
Amanda R A Maia, Leise G Fernandes, Paulo S A Pinto, Rafaella P M Guimarães-Peixoto, Letícia F Silva, Carolina S A B Santos, Clebert J Alves, Inácio J Clementino, Sérgio S Azevedo
This study focused on estimating the herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and identifying risk factors associated with bovine cysticercosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling strata: Sertao, Borborema and Zona da Mata/Agreste. For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. First, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; second, within each herd a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24months were systematically selected (secondary sampling units)...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601905/effect-of-the-genetic-group-production-system-and-sex-on-the-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-beef-from-crossbred-animals
#18
R T Nassu, R R Tullio, A Berndt, V C Francisco, T A Diesel, M M Alencar
The crossbreeding of two or more breeds from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus species is an alternative for obtaining high-quality meat from animals adapted to tropical climates. Quality and sensory attributes of beef, mainly its tenderness and flavour, are very important with regard to the consumer's point of view. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of crossbred young bulls and heifers, the offspring of Angus or Limousin bulls and 1/2 Angus + 1/2 Nellore or 1/2 Simental + 1/2 Nellore cows that were finished on feedlot or pasture...
June 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601460/production-and-economic-responses-to-intensification-of-pasture-based-dairy-production-systems
#19
K A Macdonald, J W Penno, J A S Lancaster, A M Bryant, J M Kidd, J R Roche
Production from pasture-based dairy farms can be increased through using N fertilizer to increase pasture grown, increasing stocking rate, importing feeds from off farm (i.e., supplementary feeds, such as cereal silages, grains, or co-product feeds), or through a combination of these strategies. Increased production can improve profitability, provided the marginal cost of the additional milk produced is less than the milk price received. A multiyear production system experiment was established to investigate the biological and economic responses to intensification on pasture-based dairy farms; 7 experimental farmlets were established and managed independently for 3 yr...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601442/got-pasture-how-grazing-intensity-affects-the-environmental-impacts-of-dairy-systems
#20
H A Aguirre-Villegas, T H Passos-Fonseca, D J Reinemann, R Larson
Dairy products are major components of the human diet but are also important contributors to global environmental impacts. This study evaluated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy intensity (NEI), and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. A Wisconsin farm was modeled to represent practices adopted by dairy operations in a humid continental climate typical in the Great Lakes region and other climates that have large differences in seasonal temperatures. Five grazing scenarios (all of which contained some portion of confinement) were modeled based on different concentrations of dry matter intake from pasture and feed supplementation from corn grain, corn silage, and soybean meal...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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