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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434200/land-use-for-animal-production-in-global-change-studies-defining-and-characterizing-a-framework
#1
Leanne N Phelps, Jed O Kaplan
Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22 - 26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change...
April 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428084/metabolomics-of-fescue-toxicosis-in-grazing-beef-steers
#2
Ryan S Mote, Nicholas S Hill, Karan Uppal, ViLinh T Tran, Dean P Jones, Nikolay M Filipov
Fescue toxicosis (FT) results from consumption of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) that produces ergot alkaloids (EA), which are considered key etiological agents of FT. Decreased weight gains, hormonal imbalance, circulating cholesterol disruption, and decreased volatile fatty acid absorption suggest toxic (E+) fescue-induced metabolic perturbations. Employing untargeted high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) to analyze E+ grazing-induced plasma and urine metabolome changes, fescue-naïve Angus steers were placed on E+ or non-toxic (Max-Q) fescue pastures and plasma and urine were sampled before, 1, 2, 14, and 28 days after pasture assignment...
April 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423414/discovery-development-and-evaluation-of-a-horn-fly-isolated-diptera-muscidae-beauveria-bassiana-hypocreales-cordyciptaceae-strain-from-florida-usa
#3
Christopher J Holderman, Lois A Wood, Christopher J Geden, Phillip E Kaufman
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420107/prepartum-lying-behavior-of-holstein-dairy-cows-housed-on-pasture-through-parturition
#4
Christa A Rice, Nicole L Eberhart, Peter D Krawczel
Utilizing pasture-based systems may increase cow comfort during late gestation and calving as it lacks the constraints of confinement housing. The objective of this study was to quantify lying behavior and activity of Holstein dairy cows housed on pasture during the 6 d before calving. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were moved to pasture 3 weeks before their projected calving date. Data loggers were attached 14 d prior to projected calving date. Behavior was evaluated 6 d before calving for all cows (n = 16) and 6 h prior to calving for a subset of cows (n = 6) with known calving times...
April 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412767/herbage-intake-and-milk-yield-in-comisana-ewes-as-effect-of-4-vs-7%C3%A2-h-of-grazing-during-late-lactation
#5
Bernardo Valenti, Donata Marletta, Anna De Angelis, Fortunato Di Paola, Salvatore Bordonaro, Marcella Avondo
Thirty-two Comisana ewes at late lactation were used in two trials carried out during late spring in 2 consecutive years, with the aim to evaluate the effect of the duration of grazing on herbage intake and performance. In each trial, 16 pluriparous Comisana lactating ewes were equally divided into two groups which grazed in two separate areas of natural pasture from 11:00 to 15:00 h (group 4H) or from 10:00 to 17:00 (group 7H). A concentrate mixture (500 g/day) was also offered to each ewe. The mean maximum temperature was, respectively, 23...
April 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409386/nocturnal-oviposition-behavior-of-blowflies-diptera-calliphoridae-in-the-southern-hemisphere-south-africa-and-australia-and-its-forensic-implications
#6
Kirstin A Williams, James F Wallman, Bryan D Lessard, Christopher R J Kavazos, D Nkosinathi Mazungula, Martin H Villet
Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval (minPMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas...
April 13, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408216/modelling-the-impacts-of-pasture-contamination-and-stocking-rate-for-the-development-of-targeted-selective-treatment-strategies-for-ostertagia-ostertagi-infection-in-calves
#7
Zoe Berk, Yan C S M Laurenson, Andrew B Forbes, Ilias Kyriazakis
A simulation study was carried out to assess whether variation in pasture contamination or stocking rate impact upon the optimal design of targeted selective treatment (TST) strategies. Two methods of TST implementation were considered: 1) treatment of a fixed percentage of a herd according to a given phenotypic trait, or 2) treatment of individuals that exceeded a threshold value for a given phenotypic trait. Four phenotypic traits, on which to base treatment were considered: 1) average daily bodyweight gain, 2) faecal egg count, 3) plasma pepsinogen, or 4) random selection...
March 28, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406532/endometrial-gene-expression-in-primiparous-dairy-cows-at-the-end-of-the-voluntary-waiting-period-is-affected-by-nutrition-total-mixed-ration-vs-increasing-levels-of-herbage-allowance
#8
A L Astessiano, M Carriquiry, D A Mattiauda, M L Adrien, P Chilibroste, A Meikle
The study postulated that differential nutritional management during the early lactation period would be reflected in endometrial expression of genes related to embryo growth at the end of the voluntary waiting period. Thus, the effect of the combined use of total mixed ration (TMR) and grazing under different herbage allowances during the first 75 days post-partum (DPP) on endometrial gene expression was evaluated in primiparous dairy cows. Cows were blocked by body weight, age and body condition score and randomly assigned to three grazing treatments: high (HA, 30 kg DM per cow per day), medium (MA, 15 kg DM per cow per day) and low (LA, 7...
April 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401672/multi-decadal-time-series-of-remotely-sensed-vegetation-improves-prediction-of-soil-carbon-in-a-subtropical-grassland
#9
Chris H Wilson, T Trevor Caughlin, Sami W Rifai, Elizabeth H Boughton, Michelle C Mack, S Luke Flory
Soil carbon sequestration in agroecosystems could play a key role in climate change mitigation but will require accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over spatial scales relevant to land management. Spatial variation in underlying drivers of SOC, such as plant productivity and soil mineralogy, complicates these predictions. Recent advances in the availability of remotely sensed data make it practical to generate multidecadal time series of vegetation indices with high spatial resolution and coverage...
April 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400702/application-of-a-wearable-gps-unit-for-examining-interindividual-distances-in-a-herd-of-thoroughbred-dams-and-their-foals
#10
Fumio Sato, Tomoki Tanabe, Harutaka Murase, Masataka Tominari, Masahito Kawai
Global positioning system (GPS) units are now lightweight and compact. They have proven useful for analyzing the behavioral characteristics of horses in pastures. Because the GPS records data in latitude and longitude, it may be feasible to calculate the distance between GPS units. The present study aimed to confirm the applicability of GPS units in behavioral studies on horses. For this, we analyzed the accuracy of the distances calculated from GPS units using Hubeny's distance formula and of the monthly changes in interindividual distances obtained from GPS units worn by Thoroughbred dams and their foals in a pasture until weaning...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397333/soil-carbon-sequestration-potential-of-permanent-pasture-and-continuous-cropping-soils-in-new-zealand
#11
S R McNally, M H Beare, D Curtin, E D Meenken, F Kelliher, R Calvelo Pereira, Q Shen, J Baldock
Understanding soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important to develop strategies to increase the SOC stock and, thereby, off-set some of the increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Although the capacity of soils to store SOC in a stable form is commonly attributed to the fine (clay + fine silt) fraction, the properties of the fine fraction that determine the SOC stabilisation capacity are poorly known. The aim of this study was to develop an improved model to estimate the SOC stabilisation capacity of Allophanic (Andisols) and non-Allophanic topsoils (0-15 cm) and, as a case study, to apply the model to predict the sequestration potential of pastoral soils across New Zealand...
April 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397034/comparison-of-milk-fatty-acid-profiles-measured-on-kouri-cows-near-lake-chad-and-on-dairy-cattle-as-reported-by-meta-analytical-data
#12
O Bada Algom, C Fabry, P L Leroy, J-L Hornick
Kouri (Bos taurus) is a breed aboriginal from Lake Chad and threatened with extinction. This study aimed to compare milk fatty acid profiles measured on Kouri cows and on high-yielding dairy cattle in Europe and elsewhere as reported by meta-analytical data (22 experimentations). Milk samples were collected from 14 Kouri dairy cows in dry season (March to June) and fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas chromatography. Overall, 32 FA have been identified. Kouri showed lower values (P < 0.001) in the sum of saturated FA (SFA, -10...
April 10, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396679/lignification-of-sheepgrass-internodes-at-different-developmental-stages-and-associated-alteration-of-cell-wall-saccharification-efficiency
#13
Jianli Wang, Lichao Ma, Zhongbao Shen, Dequan Sun, Peng Zhong, Zetao Bai, Hailing Zhang, Yingping Cao, Yan Bao, Chunxiang Fu
Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) is a high-quality cool-season forage crop used as pasture and hay for livestock feeds. The presence of lignin in cell walls, however, impairs forage digestibility of such lignocellulosic feedstock. Here, the structural characterization and cell wall composition of sheepgrass internodes were studied, and a progressive increase in cell wall lignification was observed with internode maturation. Lignin composition analysis further revealed a gradual accumulation of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units during internode development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393102/effect-of-vegetated-filter-strips-on-transport-and-deposition-rates-of-escherichia-coli-in-overland-flow-in-the-eastern-escarpments-of-the-mau-forest-njoro-river-watershed-kenya
#14
C O Olilo, J O Onyando, W N Moturi, A W Muia, P Ombui, W A Shivoga, A F Roegner
The fate and transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lotic waters through vegetated filter strips (VFSs) was evaluated in a field model pasture, utilizing VFSMOD Windows along with direct pathogen testing. This study assessed effects of VFS on transport and deposition rates of E. coli in lotic overland flow waters. The VFS measured 44 m long by 40 m wide, covering an area of 1584 m(2) and land slope of 15 %. Cowpat was applied onto the model pasture and washed by overland flow into the VFS. The 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide substrate confirmed the identity of E...
June 2016: Energy, Ecology & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392980/variegated-tropical-landscapes-conserve-diverse-dung-beetle-communities
#15
Cristiane Costa, Victor Hugo F Oliveira, Rafaella Maciel, Wallace Beiroz, Vanesca Korasaki, Julio Louzada
BACKGROUND: Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. METHODS: The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes-LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392308/effects-of-grazing-tall-fescue-containing-ergot-alkaloids-on-bull-sperm-cryopreservation
#16
C R Burnett, W C Bridges, S L Pratt
There are many positive agronomic traits that make tall fescue a desirable forage, however, reduced fertility rates are reported for beef cattle grazing pasture containing the ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of consumption tall fescue containing ergot alkaloids on sperm physiology as measured by survival of sperm following cryopreservation. Yearling Angus bulls (n=25), having passed a breeding soundness exam (BSE), were assigned to one of two treatments accounting for body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS)...
March 28, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390027/insects-associated-with-pig-carrion-in-two-environments-of-the-brazilian-savanna
#17
L S de Faria, M L Paseto, M S Couri, C A Mello-Patiu, J Mendes
Studies of carrion fauna have increased in Brazil and have contributed to the knowledge of this fauna in the national territory. Brazil has continental dimensions and presents various biomes in its territorial area. Most of the carrion fauna have seldom been studied, and this is especially true for the Savanna or "Cerrado." The present research examined the fauna visiting carrion in two environments and two seasons in a rural area situated in a region of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. The two environments studied were a pasture and a fragment of semi-deciduous forest...
April 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389982/the-assessment-and-the-farmers-perceived-ranking-of-feed-resources-and-coping-strategies-with-feed-scarcity-in-smallholder-dairy-farming-in-selected-district-towns-of-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#18
Belay Duguma, Veronique Dermauw, Geert Janssens
Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations...
April 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386903/long-term-broiler-litter-amendments-can-alter-the-soil-s-capacity-to-sorb-monensin
#19
Sarah A Doydora, Peizhe Sun, Miguel Cabrera, Nehru Mantripragada, John Rema, Spyros G Pavlostathis, Ching-Hua Huang, Aaron Thompson
Monensin is a common antiparasitic drug given to poultry that contaminates poultry manure and bedding material (broiler litter). As broiler litter is commonly applied to agricultural fields as fertilizer, monensin could be released beyond the farm if it is not retained or degraded in the soil. This study aimed to assess the impact of long-term surface application of broiler litter (i.e., 17 years) on the capacity of pasture soil to sorb monensin. The soils were exposed to a range of monensin concentrations (0...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385538/the-prevalence-and-development-of-digenean-parasites-within-their-intermediate-snail-host-galba-truncatula-in-a-geographic-area-where-the-presence-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-has-recently-been-confirmed
#20
Rhys Aled Jones, Hefin Wyn Williams, Sarah Dalesman, Ayodeji Sinmidele, Rowan K Thomas, Peter M Brophy
During the past decade, rumen fluke (Calicophoron daubneyi) has established as a prominent parasite of livestock within numerous European countries. Its development and spread is enabled by the presence of its intermediate snail host G. truncatula. However, the dynamics of this stage of the C. daubneyi lifecycle is yet to be recorded in numerous northern European countries including the UK. Here, the prevalence of C. daubneyi along with F. hepatica, H. cylindracea and other parasites infecting G. truncatula snails on 10 Welsh farms was recorded using morphological and PCR techniques...
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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