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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821254/seasonal-fluctuations-in-body-weight-during-growth-of-thoroughbred-racehorses-during-their-athletic-career
#2
Yuji Takahashi, Toshiyuki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Domesticated horses adapt to environmental conditions through seasonal fluctuations in their metabolic rate. The seasonal change of metabolic rates of domesticated horses in pastures is documented. However, there are few investigations on seasonal body weight change of domesticated horses housed in stables, which are provided constant energy intake throughout the year. Both seasonal changes and gain in body weight of racehorses during their athletic career is known to a lesser extent because their body weight are not measured in most countries...
August 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819730/creep-feeding-effects-on-male-nellore-calves-influencing-behavior-and-performance-of-their-dams
#3
Leandro Soares Martins, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Edenio Detmann, Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Roman Maza Ortega, Deilen Paff Sotelo Moreno, Javier Enrique Garces Cárdenas
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days...
August 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813101/forage-potential-of-native-ecotypes-of-paspalum-notatum-and-p-guenoarum
#4
Marcelo G Steiner, Miguel Dall'agnol, Carlos Nabinger, Simone M Scheffer-Basso, Roberto L Weiler, Carine Simioni, Maria Teresa Schifino-Wittmann, Éder A M DA Motta
The Paspalum genus includes several species that are important for livestock in Rio Grande do Sul, such as P. notatum and P. guenoarum, typical of native pastures of the Pampa biome. The aim of this study was to investigate forage production and chemical composition of four ecotypes of these species in relation to the cv. 'Pensacola' (P. notatum). Ecotypes of P. guenoarum (Azulão and Baio) and P. notatum (André da Rocha and Bagual) and the cv. 'Pensacola' were evaluated for two years, during which four cuts/year were made...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813094/fatty-acid-profile-in-vertical-strata-of-elephant-grass-subjected-to-intermittent-stocking
#5
Kamila M Dias, Daniel Schmitt, Giselle R Rodolfo, Francisco C Deschamps, Guilherme N Camargo, Raphael S Pereira, André F Sbrissia
The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813093/where-is-sugarcane-cropping-expanding-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-and-why-a-case-study
#6
Murilo R DE Arruda, Ken E Giller, Maja Slingerland
Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806551/effects-of-agricultural-land-use-on-fluvial-carbon-dioxide-methane-and-nitrous-oxide-concentrations-in-a-large-european-river-the-meuse-belgium
#7
A V Borges, F Darchambeau, T Lambert, S Bouillon, C Morana, S Brouyère, V Hakoun, A Jurado, H-C Tseng, J-P Descy, F A E Roland
We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013, 2014 and 2015), from yearly cycles in four rivers of variable size and catchment land cover, and from 111 groundwater samples. Surface waters of the Meuse river network were over-saturated in CO2, CH4, N2O with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, acting as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, although the dissolved gases also showed marked seasonal and spatial variations...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805911/effects-of-post-weaning-growth-rate-and-puberty-induction-protocol-on-reproductive-performance-of-bos-indicus-influenced-beef-heifers
#8
P Moriel, P Lancaster, G C Lamb, J M B Vendramini, J D Arthington
A 3-yr study evaluated the effectiveness of puberty induction using exogenous reproductive hormones in beef heifers undergoing different post-weaning growth rates. On d 0 of each year, grazing Angus × Brahman heifers (60 heifers/yr) were stratified by initial BW and age (BW = 253 ± 30 kg; age = 310 ± 18 d), and randomly assigned, in a 3 × 2 factorial design, to achieve a low (LOW; 0.45 kg/d), medium (MED; 0.73 kg/d), or high (HIGH; 1.00 kg/d) growth rate from d 0 to 168 (5 heifers/pasture; 4 pastures/growth rate/yr)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805904/higher-dominance-position-does-not-result-in-higher-reproductive-success-in-female-beef-cattle
#9
R Šárová, M Špinka, F Ceacero
The aim of this study was to investigate whether beef cows that achieve higher dominance status than their age-mates have prolonged reproductive life, increased number of offspring born and weaned, and/or heavier BW of the offspring. We also assessed whether maternal dominance rank affects the offspring sex ratio. We recorded data on 309 potential deliveries of female beef cows with known dominance status in a seasonally pastured herd over a 14-yr period and linked them with yearly records of dominance status of the cows assessed around feeding...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805901/effect-of-stocking-density-on-performance-diet-selection-total-tract-digestion-and-nitrogen-balance-among-heifers-grazing-cool-season-annual-forages
#10
B R Brunsvig, A J Smart, E A Bailey, C L Wright, E E Grings, D W Brake
Grazing annual cool-season forages after oat grain harvest in South Dakota may allow an opportunity to increase efficient use of tillable land. However, data are limited regarding effects of stocking density on diet selection, nutrient digestion, performance, and N retention by cattle grazing annual cool-season forage. Heifers were blocked by initial BW (261 ± 11.7 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 paddocks (1.1 ha) to graze a mixture of grass and brassica for 48 d. Each paddock contained 3, 4, or 5 heifers to achieve 4 replicates of each stocking density treatment...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805020/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-control-strategies-in-dairy-herds-in-hokkaido-japan-using-stochastic-modelling
#11
S Sekiguchi, P Presi, R Omori, K Staerk, M Schuppers, N Isoda, Y Yoshikawa, T Umemura, H Nakayama, Y Fujii, Y Sakoda
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in cattle can result in growth retardation, reduced milk production, reproductive disorders and death. Persistently infected animals are the primary source of infection. In Hokkaido, Japan, all cattle entering shared pastures in summer are vaccinated before movement for disease control. Additionally, these cattle may be tested for BVDV and culled if positive. However, the effectiveness of this control strategy aiming to reduce the number of BVDV-infected animals has not been assessed...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803015/calf-and-replacement-heifer-mortality-from-birth-until-weaning-in-pasture-based-dairy-herds-in-new-zealand
#12
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, J McDermott, R A Laven, S McDougall, C V C Phyn
The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803007/associations-between-biosecurity-practices-and-bovine-digital-dermatitis-in-danish-dairy-herds
#13
Victor H S Oliveira, Jan T Sørensen, Peter T Thomsen
The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801856/the-effects-of-supplementing-acacia-mearnsii-tannin-extract-on-dairy-cow-dry-matter-intake-milk-production-and-methane-emission-in-a-tropical-pasture
#14
Tiago Pansard Alves, Aline Cristina Dall-Orsoletta, Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro-Filho
The study assessed the effect of Acacia mearnsii tannin extract supplementation grazing dairy cows on dry matter (DM) intake, enteric methane (CH4) emission, and performance. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two groups and subjected to two treatments that consisted of millet pasture (Pennisetum glaucum L.) plus supplementation with 6 kg of concentrate (750-g/kg ground corn and 250-g/kg soybean meal) including or excluding 120-g tannin extract. The trial design was a double reversal using three periods of 28 days each, with 21 days for the adaption period, and 7 days for sample collection...
August 11, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800623/quantifying-immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-anthelmintic-exposure-on-ecosystem-functioning-supported-by-a-common-dung-beetle-species
#15
Paul Manning, Sarah A Beynon, Owen T Lewis
Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) support numerous ecosystem functions in livestock-grazed pastures. Exposure to veterinary anthelmintic residues in livestock dung can have lethal and sublethal effects on dung beetles, and can reduce rates of dung removal, but the immediate and longer-term consequences for other dung beetle mediated functions have rarely been studied. We investigated the consequences of anthelmintic exposure on survival of the dung beetle Aphodius fossor and its delivery of four ecosystems functions that underpin pasture production: dung removal, soil fauna feeding activity, primary productivity, and reduction of soil compaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794984/seasonality-richness-and-prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-of-three-neotropical-primates-alouatta-seniculus-ateles-hybridus-and-cebus-versicolor-in-a-fragmented-forest-in-colombia
#16
Silvia Rondón, Mario Ortiz, Cielo León, Nelson Galvis, Andrés Link, Camila González
Studies on parasites infecting non-human primates are essential to better understand the potential threat to humans of zoonoses transmission, particularly under the current processes of pervasive land use change and biodiversity loss. The natural ecosystems in the Middle Magdalena river basin in Colombia have suffered a dramatic reduction and transformation into pastures and agroindustrial monocultures, threatening their biodiversity, and probably affecting the dynamics between parasites and their hosts, as well as altering the disease transmission cycles between wild populations and humans...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793837/further-investigation-of-equine-fescue-oedema-induced-by-mediterranean-tall-fescue-lolium-arundinaceum-infected-with-selected-fungal-endophytes-epichlo%C3%A3-coenophiala
#17
S C Finch, J S Munday, B L Sutherland, J B Vlaming, L R Fletcher
AIMS: To determine if equine fescue oedema (EFO) induced by grazing Mediterranean-type tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) could be prevented by treatment with the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, and anti-histamine cetirizine, and to determine concentrations of lolines, specifically N-acetyl norloline (NANL), in grasses grazed by horses that did and did not develop EFO. METHODS: Four horses were grazed on AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue pasture (from Day 0) for 7 days prior to being subjected to euthanasia...
August 9, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792887/the-genetic-basis-for-the-selection-of-dairy-goats-with-enhanced-resistance-to-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#18
Felix Heckendorn, Anna Bieber, Steffen Werne, Anastasios Saratsis, Veronika Maurer, Chris Stricker
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) severely affect small ruminant production worldwide. Increasing problems of anthelmintic resistance have given strong impetus to the search for alternative strategies to control GIN. Selection of animals with an enhanced resistance to GIN has been shown to be successful in sheep. In goats, the corresponding information is comparatively poor. Therefore, the present study was designed to provide reliable data on heritabilities of and genetic correlations between phenotypic traits linked to GIN and milk yield in two major dairy goat breeds (Alpine and Saanen)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791504/the-effects-of-grazing-intensity-on-soil-processes-in-a-mediterranean-protected-area
#19
Evaggelia Panayiotou, Maria Dimou, Nikolaos Monokrousos
We investigated the temporal and among-site differentiation of soil functionality properties in fields under different grazing intensities (heavy and light) and compared them to those found in their adjacent hedgerows, consisting either of wooden shrubs (Rubus canescens) or of high trees (Populus sp.), during the cold and humid seasons of the year. We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would result in higher degradation of the soil system. The grazing factor had a significant effect on soil organic C and N, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial activity, and β-glucosidase, while acid phosphatase and urease activity were not found to differ significantly among the management systems...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790450/seasonal-changes-in-energy-expenditure-body-temperature-and-activity-patterns-in-llamas-lama-glama
#20
Alexander Riek, Lea Brinkmann, Matthias Gauly, Jurcevic Perica, Thomas Ruf, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman, Martina Gerken
Mammals typically keep their body temperature (Tb) within a narrow limit with changing environmental conditions. There are indications that some wild ungulates can exhibit certain forms of energy saving mechanisms when ambient temperatures are low and/or food is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine if the llama, one of the most extensively kept domestic livestock species, exhibits seasonal adjustment mechanisms in terms of energy expenditure, Tb and locomotion. For that purpose llamas (N = 7) were kept in a temperate habitat on pasture...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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