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Min Yuan, Susanne B Breitkopf, John M Asara
Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times...
2017: PloS One
Marina Solis, Carlos Bonetto, Natalia Marrochi, Ariel Paracampo, Hernán Mugni
Agriculture intensification in Argentina has increased agrochemicals consumption in the last decades and might represent an environmental risk for adjacent water bodies. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of land use on water quality and invertebrate assemblages in the Argentine Pampas streams. Eight streams were sampled on 4 occasions during the 2013/14 growing season. Three streams are located within a biosphere reserve, two drain basins with extensive livestock fields, and three run through intensively cultivated plots; one of them contained a 30m wide uncultivated grass-covered strip between the crop and the stream...
October 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aline Gomes da Silva, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Edenio Detmann, Henrique Jorge Fernandes, Lincoln da Silva Amorim, Román Enrique Maza Ortega, Victor Valério de Carvalho, Josilaine Aparecida da Costa Lima, Felipe Henrique de Moura, Mariana Benevides Monteiro, Jéssika Almeida Bitencourt
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of the most important factors that affect animal performance, and it therefore also impacts on financial results in beef systems. In this way, finding the best strategy for feeding supplements is of paramount importance. Aiming to evaluate the effect of supplement feeding strategies for beef cows in the last third of gestation, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, 35 pregnant Nellore cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments: control, which received no supplement; supplementation for the last 30 d of gestation (30-d; 3...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Conor J Strong, Niall G Burnside, Dan Llewellyn
The loss of unimproved grassland has led to species decline in a wide range of taxonomic groups. Agricultural intensification has resulted in fragmented patches of remnant grassland habitat both across Europe and internationally. The monitoring of remnant patches of this habitat is critically important, however, traditional surveying of large, remote landscapes is a notoriously costly and difficult task. The emergence of small-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) equipped with low-cost multi-spectral cameras offer an alternative to traditional grassland survey methods, and have the potential to progress and innovate the monitoring and future conservation of this habitat globally...
2017: PloS One
Tomas Kupcinskas, Inga Stadaliene, Algimantas Paulauskas, Pavelas Trusevicius, Saulius Petkevicius, Johan Höglund, Mindaugas Sarkunas
BACKGROUND: According to targeted treatment (TT), the whole flock is dewormed based on knowledge of the risk, or parameters that quantify the mean level of infection, whereas according to targeted selective treatment (TST), only individual animals within the grazing group are treated, based on parasitological, production and/or morbidity parameters. The aim of this study was to compare two different treatment protocols on sheep farms in Lithuania. The study was conducted from 15 April to 31 October 2014 on three sheep farms...
October 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Inês Santos Martins, Henrique Miguel Pereira
The species-area relationship (SAR) has been often used to project species extinctions as a consequence of habitat loss. However, recent studies have suggested that the SAR may overestimate species extinctions, at least in the short-term. We argue that the main reason for this overestimation is that the classic SAR ignores the persistence of species in human-modified habitats. We use data collected worldwide to analyse what is the fraction of bird and plant species that remain in different human-modified habitats at the local scale after full habitat conversion...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
C Gortázar, L M Fernández-Calle, J A Collazos-Martínez, O Mínguez-González, P Acevedo
Animal tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by infection with members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is a typical multi-host infection that flourishes at the livestock-wildlife interface. TB epidemiology is well characterized in the Mediterranean woodland habitats and Atlantic regions of southwestern Europe. However, much less is known about huge regions that do not form part of the two abovementioned settings, which have a low abundance of wild reservoirs. We hypothesized that MTC would be maintained in multi- rather than single-host communities in which wildlife would make a relatively low contribution to the maintenance of TB...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
S R Sechler, M K Mullenix, C M Holland, R B Muntifering
A 2-yr study was conducted to determine effects of N fertilization level on fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (T85). Six 0.76-ha pastures of stockpiled T85 were cut to a 10-cm stubble height on August 1 of each yr and fertilized with 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 pastures/treatment). Fiber digestion kinetics included the 72-hr potential extent of NDF digestion (PED), rate of NDF digestion, and lag time. In yr 1 and 2, PED decreased over the stockpile season...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A Jonker, S Hickey, C Pinares-Patiño, J McEwan, S Olinga, A Díaz, G Molano, S MacLean, E Sandoval, R Harland, D Birch, B Bryson, K Knowler, S Rowe
Selection lines of sheep with low and high CH yield (g/kg DMI; CH/DMI) are being developed on the basis of feeding pelleted alfalfa hay at 2.0 times maintenance ME requirements in respiration chambers, but their divergence under predominant grazing conditions, as in New Zealand, is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine CH emissions and rumen fermentation characteristics in sheep from low and high CH/DMI selection lines while grazing pasture. Two grazing experiments were conducted with 42 selection line ewes in March 2013 (Exp...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
R W McDowell, N Cox, T H Snelder
Catchment contaminant loads vary with stream order as catchment characteristics influence inputs and in-stream processing. However, the relative influence and policy significance of these characteristics across a number of contaminants and at a national scale is unclear. We modeled the significance of catchment characteristics (e.g., climate, topography, geology, land cover), as captured by a national-scale River Environment Classification (REC) system, and stream order in the estimation of contaminant yields...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
J M Martins, A Albuquerque, J A Neves, A B Freitas, R Charneca, J L Tirapicos
Data evaluating the effect of oleic-acid-enriched diets and outdoor rearing (with access to pasture) on the quality of Alentejano (AL) pork and fat are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of feeding low (LO) or high oleic acid (HO) diets to AL pigs reared in individual pens (IND) or outdoors (OUT) with access to pasture. Biceps femoris and dorsal subcutaneous fat (DSF) samples were collected to analyse chemical composition and lipids fatty acid (FA) profile. The expression of seven genes involved in lipogenesis, lipolysis and FA transport, as well as two transcription factors were also evaluated in the muscle...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
J Barca, M Carriquiry, L Olazabal, M Fajardo, P Chilibroste, A Meikle
Milk fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in Holstein cows (n = 27) fed total mixed rations (TMR) ad libitum (G0) or diet composed by TMR (50% dry matter [DM] offered) plus grazing of pasture with 6 hr of access time to paddock in one session (G1) or 9 hr in two sessions (G2) at 45 days in milk (DIM). Moreover, milk FA was determined at 65 DIM when G0 cows turned out to G1 diet without adaptation period (Post-G0), G1 remained as controls. Milk FA was quantified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
L K Whitfield, R A Laven
AIM: To compare, in cows treated with an internal teat sealant, the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts (SCC) after calving. METHODS: Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farm in the Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive either a short-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=291) or a long-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=288) at the end of lactation...
October 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
J Cebrino, J L García-Castaño, E Domínguez-Vilches, C Galán
This study focused on phenological timing and spatial patterns in 30 Poaceae species flowering in spring in different types of plant cover (scrub, riverbank and pasture). Grass community composition was studied, and the influence of species and plant cover on the start date and duration of flowering was assessed from March to June in both 2014 and 2015. Twenty-nine sampling sites were selected for phenological monitoring using the BBCH scale. Data were subjected to GLMM analyses. Binary discriminant analysis revealed differences in grass community composition as a function of plant cover type; scrub cover comprised a considerably larger number of species than those in riverbank and pasture...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
K Meusburger, P Porto, L Mabit, C La Spada, L Arata, C Alewell
The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Research
Nazanin Fallah, Khadijeh Rahmati, Mohammad Fallah
BACKGROUND: The reservoir and intermediate hosts of Echinococcus granulsus and human hydatidosis are more prevalent in the Alborz and Zagros Mountains slop due to rich pastures for sheep raising. Many cases of hydatid cysts operate in local hospitals annually. The present study aimed to review the epidemiologic characteristics of the hydatidosis patients. METHODS: In this descriptive study, the medical files of 182 hydatidosis patients from main public and private hospitals in Hamadan Province, western Iran from 2006 to 2013 were reviewed...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
J C F Moraes, C J H Souza
The magnitude of ovulation rate (OR) after hormonal induction in sheep should be considered when prolific genotypes are used. We investigated for the first time the effect of the Vacaria allele and its combined effect with the Booroola prolificacy mutation on OR after hormonal treatment during breeding and anoestrous season. A hundred forty-nine Ile de France crossbred ewes, raised in natural pastures in South Brazil, were used to evaluate the OR after treatment with progestagen (MAP) followed or not by equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment (MAP + eCG)...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Katharina May, Kerstin Brügemann, Sven König, Christina Strube
Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can lead to production losses and impacts on product quality in affected cows, which has mainly been demonstrated during deworming experiments or via herd-level measurements. Here, a field study was carried out to explore the association between GIN infection status and milk production as well as fertility parameters in individual dairy cows. Different selection lines of Black and White cows were included in the study, which were distributed among 17 small and medium-sized organic and conventional German grassland farms...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Márcia Cristina de S Oliveira, Maria Luiza F Nicodemo, Marcos R Gusmão, José Ricardo M Pezzopane, Talita B Bilhassi, Clarissa H Santana, Thuane C Gonçalves, Márcio D Rabelo, Rodrigo Giglioti
The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. One of the reasons for its scarce adoption is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the infestation by external parasites - the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus), horn fly (Haematobia irritans), and larvae of the botfly (Dermatobia hominis) - in beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system (CPS), evaluated for 24 months...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Anna Bajer, Anna Rodo, Mohammed Alsarraf, Dorota Dwużnik, Jerzy M Behnke, Ewa J Mierzejewska
The effect of agricultural activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe in recent years and the associated abandonment of crop fields, meadows and pastures may enable an increase in tick densities. In the present study we assessed whether regular mowing would have a negative effect on Dermacentor reticulatus populations and whether the cessation of regular mowing would cause an increase in abundance of D. reticulatus ticks. Two field experiments were conducted during a five-year period (2012-2016) in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) region of Central Poland...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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