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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729625/stable-isotopes-reveal-diet-shift-from-pre-extinction-to-reintroduced-przewalski-s-horses
#1
Petra Kaczensky, Martina Burnik Šturm, Mikhail V Sablin, Christian C Voigt, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Boglarka Balint, Chris Walzer, Natalia N Spasskaya
The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. However, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the Przewalski's horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the species' long term survival. We analyzed stable isotope chronologies from tail hair of pre-extinction and reintroduced Przewalski's horses from the Dzungarian Gobi and detected a clear difference in the isotopic dietary composition...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#2
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728363/effect-of-different-levels-of-protein-concentrates-supplementation-on-the-growth-performance-plasma-amino-acids-profile-and-mtor-cascade-genes-expression-in-early-weaned-yak-calves
#3
Quhani Peng, Nazir Ahmad Khan, B Xue, T H Yan, Z S Ahmad Wang
Objective: Yak is anone of the most important livestock species in the alpine-meadow grasslands of Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. WeThis study evaluated the effects of different levels of protein concentrate supplementation on the growth performance of yak calves, and correlated the growth rate to the changes occurring in the plasma- amino acids, and -insulin profile, and to the signaling activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade, in order to characterize the mechanism through which the protein synthesis can be improved in early weaned yaks...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728360/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-gossypol-degrading-bacteria-bacillus-subtilis-strain-rbs
#4
Yunhua Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Zhengyou Zhang, Li Dai, Ying Liu, Maoji Cheng
Objective: An experiment was conducted to isolate gossypol-degrading bacteria and assessed its potential for gossypol degradation. Methods: Rumen liquid was collected from the rumen of cows through fistula from the experimental pasture. Approximately 1 ml of the rumen liquid was spread onto basal medium plates containing 2 g/l gossypol as the only source of carbon and was then cultured at 39°C to isolate gossypol-degrading bacteria. The isolated colonies were cultured for 6 h and then observed their size and shape by the microscope and scanning electron microscope...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728358/tropical-plant-supplementation-effects-on-the-performance-and-parasite-burden-of-goats
#5
Juan Jose Romero, Miguel Augusto Zarate, Ibukun M Ogunade, Kathy G Arriola, Adegbola Tolulope Adesogan
Objective: Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods: In experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4 ± 5.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: 1) BG alone and BG plus 2) PEA; 3) LES; 4) MUC; and 5) PAP...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727089/the-use-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-live-animals-in-vivo-to-predict-meat-quality-deterioration-postmortem-in-vitro-caused-by-changes-in-muscle-biochemical-components
#6
E N Ponnampalam, D L Hopkins, K Giri, J L Jacobs, T Plozza, P Lewandowski, A Bekhit
This study was conducted to determine whether circulating concentrations of blood isoprostanes can be used as an effective biomarker in lambs to predict degradation of color and/or lipid stability in meat. Lambs ( = 84) were fed diets of either lucerne pasture, annual ryegrass pasture, a commercial feedlot pellet, or a combination of annual ryegrass and feedlot pellet for 8 wk, including a 2-wk adaptation period. Blood isoprostane concentration at wk 0, 4, 6 or 8 of feeding was determined. Blood isoprostane concentration for each animal was then correlated with muscle biochemical components that impact color and/or lipid oxidative status during retail display...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727080/management-of-native-warm-season-grasses-for-beef-cattle-and-biomass-production-in-the-mid-south-usa
#7
W M Backus, J C Waller, G E Bates, C A Harper, A Saxton, D W McIntosh, J Birckhead, P D Keyser
Native grasses, such as switchgrass (SG; L.), big bluestem (BB; Vitman), indiangrass (IG; Nash), and eastern gamagrass (EG; [L.] L.) may be capable of providing desirable summer forage for cattle as well as a source of biomass for renewable energy. To evaluate that potential, experiments were conducted at 2 locations in Tennessee comparing weaned beef () steers (268 ± 25 kg initial BW) during early-season grazing (Early; 30 d, typically corresponding to May, followed by postdormancy biomass harvest) and full-season grazing (Full, mean duration = 98 d)...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727009/effects-of-energy-supplementation-on-energy-losses-and-nitrogen-balance-of-steers-fed-green-chopped-wheat-pasture-i-calorimetry
#8
A L Shreck, P J Ebert, E A Bailey, J S Jennings, K D Casey, B E Meyer, N A Cole
Cattle grazing wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains are sometimes fed an energy supplement; however, the benefits of supplementation on nutrient balance, energy metabolism, and greenhouse gas emissions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we used 10 British crossbred steers (206 ± 10.7 kg initial BW) in a respiration calorimetry study to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation on energy losses, N balance, and nutrient digestibility of steers fed green-chopped wheat forage. The study design was an incomplete replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725395/reduced-aboveground-tree-growth-associated-with-higher-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-in-tropical-forest-restoration
#9
Ellen K Holste, Karen D Holl, Rakan A Zahawi, Richard K Kobe
Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species (Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725371/the-role-of-novel-forest-ecosystems-in-the-conservation-of-wood-inhabiting-fungi-in-boreal-broadleaved-forests
#10
Katja Juutilainen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Heikki Kotiranta, Panu Halme
The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#11
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716201/a-matched-case-control-study-comparing-udder-health-production-and-fertility-parameters-in-dairy-farms-before-and-after-the-eradication-of-bovine-virus-diarrhoea-in-switzerland
#12
A Tschopp, R Deiss, M Rotzer, S Wanda, B Thomann, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Meylan
An obligatory eradication programme for Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) was implemented in Switzerland in 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, all bovines were tested for antigen or antibodies against BVDV. By the year 2012, eradication was completed in the majority of farms. A decrease of the prevalence of persistently infected (PI) newborn calves was observed from 1.4% in 2008 to <0.02% in 2012. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of BVD eradication on different parameters of animal health, production and fertility in Swiss dairy herds which had completed the eradication programme...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#13
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715676/modelling-the-impacts-of-altered-management-practices-land-use-and-climate-changes-on-the-water-quality-of-the-millbrook-catchment-reservoir-system-in-south-australia
#14
Hong Hanh Nguyen, Friedrich Recknagel, Wayne Meyer, Jacqueline Frizenschaf, Manoj Kumar Shrestha
Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires taking into account the potential effects of their catchments' development. This study is an attempt to estimate the daily patterns of nutrients transport in the catchment - reservoir systems through the application of the ensemble of complementary models SWAT-SALMO. SWAT quantifies flow, nitrate and phosphate loadings originating in catchments before entering downstream reservoirs meanwhile SALMO determines phosphate, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations within the reservoirs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712373/impact-of-animal-density-on-cattle-nutrition-in-dry-mediterranean-rangelands-a-faecal-near-ir-spectroscopy-aided-study
#15
S Y Landau, L Dvash, Y Yehuda, H Muklada, G Peleg, Z Henkin, H Voet, E D Ungar
In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711262/genetic-and-nongenetic-factors-associated-with-milk-color-in-dairy-cows
#16
S Scarso, S McParland, G Visentin, D P Berry, A McDermott, M De Marchi
Milk color is one of the sensory properties that can influence consumer choice of one product over another and it influences the quality of processed dairy products. This study aims to quantify the cow-level genetic and nongenetic factors associated with bovine milk color traits. A total of 136,807 spectra from Irish commercial and research herds (with multiple breeds and crosses) were used. Milk lightness ( Lˆ*) red-green index ( aˆ*) and yellow-blue index ( bˆ*) were predicted for individual milk samples using only the mid-infrared spectrum of the milk sample...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711254/effect-of-maternal-exercise-on-calf-dry-matter-intake-weight-gain-behavior-and-cortisol-concentrations-at-disbudding-and-weaning
#17
R A Black, B K Whitlock, P D Krawczel
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal physical activity during late gestation on calf dry matter intake, weight gain, behavior, and cortisol concentration during disbudding and weaning. Fifty-five Holstein and 5 Jersey × Holstein crossbred calves were enrolled into the study during gestation. Calves were born from pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey × Holstein crossbred (n = 2) dairy cows. Cows were assigned to either confinement (n = 20 cows; 13 female calves, 7 male calves), exercise (n = 20 cows; 8 female calves, 12 male calves), or pasture (n = 20 cows; 11 female calves, 9 male calves) treatments at dry-off from January to November 2015...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711246/temporal-and-spatial-heterogeneity-in-milk-and-immune-related-gene-expression-during-mammary-gland-involution-in-dairy-cows
#18
K Singh, C V C Phyn, M Reinsch, J M Dobson, K Oden, S R Davis, K Stelwagen, H V Henderson, A J Molenaar
The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in tissue morphology, milk protein and immune-related gene expression, and apoptosis of epithelial cells in the lactating and involuting mammary glands of the dairy cow. Mammary tissue from different regions of the gland (alveolar, cisternal, and peripheral) was collected postmortem from nonpregnant, pasture-fed, Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows in mid-lactation that were killed at different time points postmilking: 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 72 h (n = 6 per time point)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711241/analysis-of-farmers-willingness-to-participate-in-pasture-grazing-programs-results-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment-with-german-dairy-farmers
#19
M Danne, O Musshoff
Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708878/reforestation-induced-changes-of-landscape-composition-and-configuration-modulate-freshwater-supply-and-flooding-risk-of-tropical-watersheds
#20
Qiong Gao, Mei Yu
Impact of changes in land cover and land use on hydrological service of tropical watersheds is one of the focal research tropics in both hydrology and Land Cover Land Use Changes (LCLUC). Land fragmentation is an important feature of LCLUC, however, its impact on hydrological service of tropical watershed is unclear despite a few theoretical frameworks. In this paper, we described a simulation study of eight tropical watersheds in Puerto Rico using the Soil Water Assessment Tool. Annual average stream discharge was derived according to the simulations with the land cover maps in 1977, 1991, and 2000...
2017: PloS One
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