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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#1
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070591/-the-importance-of-conservation-of-rare-domestic-animal-breeds-using-the-example-of-arc-warder
#2
Kai Frölich, Anabell Jandowsky
The domestic animals descend from various wild ancestors. Thus, for example, of the wolf, the dog (15  000 BC), of the Bezoar goat the goat (10  000 BC), of the Asian mouflon the sheep (10  000 BC), of the wild boar the pig (8000 BC) and of the aurochs the cattle (7000 BC). Domestication has dramatically changed our culture and led to a great diversity of animal breeds. This is a unique cultural and historical treasure, which we have to preserve for future generations. The zoological park Arc Warder is Europe's largest center for rare and endangered domestic animal breeds...
January 10, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070308/the-seroprevalence-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cattle-in-xinjiang-northwest-china
#3
Xianxia Liu, Jianjun Li, Xueyun Yang, Dengfeng Wang, Jianmei Wang, Jianyong Wu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, wasting, and progressive enteritis in cattle, bringing significant economic losses in livestock industries. MAP has spread worldwide mainly due to movement of animals. The objective of this study was to determine the MAP seroprevalence in cattle in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China, and evaluate the difference between intensive farming herds (cattle number in a herd is more than 200, and the cattle cannot have access to pasture) and free-range herds (the cattle are bred by individual households, a herd is defined as the cattle are bred in a village or town in this study)...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070301/blood-serum-retinol-levels-in-asinara-white-donkeys-reflect-albinism-induced-metabolic-adaptation-to-photoperiod-at-mediterranean-latitudes
#4
Maria Grazia Cappai, Maria Grazia Antonietta Lunesu, Francesca Accioni, Massimo Liscia, Mauro Pusceddu, Lucia Burrai, Maria Nieddu, Corrado Dimauro, Gianpiero Boatto, Walter Pinna
Previous works on albinism form of Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) identified the mutation leading to the peculiar phenotype spread to all specimens of the breed. Inbreeding naturally occurred under geographic isolation, on Asinara Island, in the Mediterranean Sea. Albino individuals can be more susceptible to develop health problems when exposed to natural sun radiation. Alternative metabolic pathways involved in photoprotection were explored in this trial. Nutrition-related metabolites are believed to contribute to the conservation of Asinara donkeys, in which melanin, guaranteeing photoprotection, is lacking...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070282/the-database-of-the-predicts-projecting-responses-of-ecological-diversity-in-changing-terrestrial-systems-project
#5
Lawrence N Hudson, Tim Newbold, Sara Contu, Samantha L L Hill, Igor Lysenko, Adriana De Palma, Helen R P Phillips, Tamera I Alhusseini, Felicity E Bedford, Dominic J Bennett, Hollie Booth, Victoria J Burton, Charlotte W T Chng, Argyrios Choimes, David L P Correia, Julie Day, Susy Echeverría-Londoño, Susan R Emerson, Di Gao, Morgan Garon, Michelle L K Harrison, Daniel J Ingram, Martin Jung, Victoria Kemp, Lucinda Kirkpatrick, Callum D Martin, Yuan Pan, Gwilym D Pask-Hale, Edwin L Pynegar, Alexandra N Robinson, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Rebecca A Senior, Benno I Simmons, Hannah J White, Hanbin Zhang, Job Aben, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Gilbert B Adum, Virginia Aguilar-Barquero, Marcelo A Aizen, Belén Albertos, E L Alcala, Maria Del Mar Alguacil, Audrey Alignier, Marc Ancrenaz, Alan N Andersen, Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés, Inge Armbrecht, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Tom Aumann, Jan C Axmacher, Badrul Azhar, Adrián B Azpiroz, Lander Baeten, Adama Bakayoko, András Báldi, John E Banks, Sharad K Baral, Jos Barlow, Barbara I P Barratt, Lurdes Barrico, Paola Bartolommei, Diane M Barton, Yves Basset, Péter Batáry, Adam J Bates, Bruno Baur, Erin M Bayne, Pedro Beja, Suzan Benedick, Åke Berg, Henry Bernard, Nicholas J Berry, Dinesh Bhatt, Jake E Bicknell, Jochen H Bihn, Robin J Blake, Kadiri S Bobo, Roberto Bóçon, Teun Boekhout, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Kevin J Bonham, Paulo A V Borges, Sérgio H Borges, Céline Boutin, Jérémy Bouyer, Cibele Bragagnolo, Jodi S Brandt, Francis Q Brearley, Isabel Brito, Vicenç Bros, Jörg Brunet, Grzegorz Buczkowski, Christopher M Buddle, Rob Bugter, Erika Buscardo, Jörn Buse, Jimmy Cabra-García, Nilton C Cáceres, Nicolette L Cagle, María Calviño-Cancela, Sydney A Cameron, Eliana M Cancello, Rut Caparrós, Pedro Cardoso, Dan Carpenter, Tiago F Carrijo, Anelena L Carvalho, Camila R Cassano, Helena Castro, Alejandro A Castro-Luna, Cerda B Rolando, Alexis Cerezo, Kim Alan Chapman, Matthieu Chauvat, Morten Christensen, Francis M Clarke, Daniel F R Cleary, Giorgio Colombo, Stuart P Connop, Michael D Craig, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Saul A Cunningham, Biagio D'Aniello, Neil D'Cruze, Pedro Giovâni da Silva, Martin Dallimer, Emmanuel Danquah, Ben Darvill, Jens Dauber, Adrian L V Davis, Jeff Dawson, Claudio de Sassi, Benoit de Thoisy, Olivier Deheuvels, Alain Dejean, Jean-Louis Devineau, Tim Diekötter, Jignasu V Dolia, Erwin Domínguez, Yamileth Dominguez-Haydar, Silvia Dorn, Isabel Draper, Niels Dreber, Bertrand Dumont, Simon G Dures, Mats Dynesius, Lars Edenius, Paul Eggleton, Felix Eigenbrod, Zoltán Elek, Martin H Entling, Karen J Esler, Ricardo F de Lima, Aisyah Faruk, Nina Farwig, Tom M Fayle, Antonio Felicioli, Annika M Felton, Roderick J Fensham, Ignacio C Fernandez, Catarina C Ferreira, Gentile F Ficetola, Cristina Fiera, Bruno K C Filgueiras, Hüseyin K Fırıncıoğlu, David Flaspohler, Andreas Floren, Steven J Fonte, Anne Fournier, Robert E Fowler, Markus Franzén, Lauchlan H Fraser, Gabriella M Fredriksson, Geraldo B Freire, Tiago L M Frizzo, Daisuke Fukuda, Dario Furlani, René Gaigher, Jörg U Ganzhorn, Karla P García, Juan C Garcia-R, Jenni G Garden, Ricardo Garilleti, Bao-Ming Ge, Benoit Gendreau-Berthiaume, Philippa J Gerard, Carla Gheler-Costa, Benjamin Gilbert, Paolo Giordani, Simonetta Giordano, Carly Golodets, Laurens G L Gomes, Rachelle K Gould, Dave Goulson, Aaron D Gove, Laurent Granjon, Ingo Grass, Claudia L Gray, James Grogan, Weibin Gu, Moisès Guardiola, Nihara R Gunawardene, Alvaro G Gutierrez, Doris L Gutiérrez-Lamus, Daniela H Haarmeyer, Mick E Hanley, Thor Hanson, Nor R Hashim, Shombe N Hassan, Richard G Hatfield, Joseph E Hawes, Matt W Hayward, Christian Hébert, Alvin J Helden, John-André Henden, Philipp Henschel, Lionel Hernández, James P Herrera, Farina Herrmann, Felix Herzog, Diego Higuera-Diaz, Branko Hilje, Hubert Höfer, Anke Hoffmann, Finbarr G Horgan, Elisabeth Hornung, Roland Horváth, Kristoffer Hylander, Paola Isaacs-Cubides, Hiroaki Ishida, Masahiro Ishitani, Carmen T Jacobs, Víctor J Jaramillo, Birgit Jauker, F Jiménez Hernández, McKenzie F Johnson, Virat Jolli, Mats Jonsell, S Nur Juliani, Thomas S Jung, Vena Kapoor, Heike Kappes, Vassiliki Kati, Eric Katovai, Klaus Kellner, Michael Kessler, Kathryn R Kirby, Andrew M Kittle, Mairi E Knight, Eva Knop, Florian Kohler, Matti Koivula, Annette Kolb, Mouhamadou Kone, Ádám Kőrösi, Jochen Krauss, Ajith Kumar, Raman Kumar, David J Kurz, Alex S Kutt, Thibault Lachat, Victoria Lantschner, Francisco Lara, Jesse R Lasky, Steven C Latta, William F Laurance, Patrick Lavelle, Violette Le Féon, Gretchen LeBuhn, Jean-Philippe Légaré, Valérie Lehouck, María V Lencinas, Pia E Lentini, Susan G Letcher, Qi Li, Simon A Litchwark, Nick A Littlewood, Yunhui Liu, Nancy Lo-Man-Hung, Carlos A López-Quintero, Mounir Louhaichi, Gabor L Lövei, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Victor H Luja, Matthew S Luskin, M Cristina MacSwiney G, Kaoru Maeto, Tibor Magura, Neil Aldrin Mallari, Louise A Malone, Patrick K Malonza, Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Salvador Mandujano, Inger E Måren, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Charles J Marsh, E J P Marshall, Eliana Martínez, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, David Moreno Mateos, Margaret M Mayfield, Vicente Mazimpaka, Jennifer L McCarthy, Kyle P McCarthy, Quinn S McFrederick, Sean McNamara, Nagore G Medina, Rafael Medina, Jose L Mena, Estefania Mico, Grzegorz Mikusinski, Jeffrey C Milder, James R Miller, Daniel R Miranda-Esquivel, Melinda L Moir, Carolina L Morales, Mary N Muchane, Muchai Muchane, Sonja Mudri-Stojnic, A Nur Munira, Antonio Muoñz-Alonso, B F Munyekenye, Robin Naidoo, A Naithani, Michiko Nakagawa, Akihiro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Nakashima, Shoji Naoe, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Dario A Navarrete Gutierrez, Luis Navarro-Iriarte, Paul K Ndang'ang'a, Eike L Neuschulz, Jacqueline T Ngai, Violaine Nicolas, Sven G Nilsson, Norbertas Noreika, Olivia Norfolk, Jorge Ari Noriega, David A Norton, Nicole M Nöske, A Justin Nowakowski, Catherine Numa, Niall O'Dea, Patrick J O'Farrell, William Oduro, Sabine Oertli, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Christopher Omamoke Oke, Vicencio Oostra, Lynne M Osgathorpe, Samuel Eduardo Otavo, Navendu V Page, Juan Paritsis, Alejandro Parra-H, Luke Parry, Guy Pe'er, Peter B Pearman, Nicolás Pelegrin, Raphaël Pélissier, Carlos A Peres, Pablo L Peri, Anna S Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Marcell K Peters, Rohan S Pethiyagoda, Ben Phalan, T Keith Philips, Finn C Pillsbury, Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Eduardo Pineda, Joan Pino, Jaime Pizarro-Araya, A J Plumptre, Santiago L Poggio, Natalia Politi, Pere Pons, Katja Poveda, Eileen F Power, Steven J Presley, Vânia Proença, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Romina Rader, B R Ramesh, Martha P Ramirez-Pinilla, Jai Ranganathan, Claus Rasmussen, Nicola A Redpath-Downing, J Leighton Reid, Yana T Reis, José M Rey Benayas, Juan Carlos Rey-Velasco, Chevonne Reynolds, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Miriam H Richards, Barbara A Richardson, Michael J Richardson, Rodrigo Macip Ríos, Richard Robinson, Carolina A Robles, Jörg Römbke, Luz Piedad Romero-Duque, Matthias Rös, Loreta Rosselli, Stephen J Rossiter, Dana S Roth, T'ai H Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, André V Rubio, Jean-Claude Ruel, Jonathan P Sadler, Szabolcs Sáfián, Romeo A Saldaña-Vázquez, Katerina Sam, Ulrika Samnegård, Joana Santana, Xavier Santos, Jade Savage, Nancy A Schellhorn, Menno Schilthuizen, Ute Schmiedel, Christine B Schmitt, Nicole L Schon, Christof Schüepp, Katharina Schumann, Oliver Schweiger, Dawn M Scott, Kenneth A Scott, Jodi L Sedlock, Steven S Seefeldt, Ghazala Shahabuddin, Graeme Shannon, Douglas Sheil, Frederick H Sheldon, Eyal Shochat, Stefan J Siebert, Fernando A B Silva, Javier A Simonetti, Eleanor M Slade, Jo Smith, Allan H Smith-Pardo, Navjot S Sodhi, Eduardo J Somarriba, Ramón A Sosa, Grimaldo Soto Quiroga, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Brian M Starzomski, Constanti Stefanescu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Philip C Stouffer, Jane C Stout, Ayron M Strauch, Matthew J Struebig, Zhimin Su, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Shinji Sugiura, Keith S Summerville, Yik-Hei Sung, Hari Sutrisno, Jens-Christian Svenning, Tiit Teder, Caragh G Threlfall, Anu Tiitsaar, Jacqui H Todd, Rebecca K Tonietto, Ignasi Torre, Béla Tóthmérész, Teja Tscharntke, Edgar C Turner, Jason M Tylianakis, Marcio Uehara-Prado, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Denis Vallan, Adam J Vanbergen, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Kiril Vassilev, Hans A F Verboven, Maria João Verdasca, José R Verdú, Carlos H Vergara, Pablo M Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Massimiliano Virgilio, Lien Van Vu, Edward M Waite, Tony R Walker, Hua-Feng Wang, Yanping Wang, James I Watling, Britta Weller, Konstans Wells, Catrin Westphal, Edward D Wiafe, Christopher D Williams, Michael R Willig, John C Z Woinarski, Jan H D Wolf, Volkmar Wolters, Ben A Woodcock, Jihua Wu, Joseph M Wunderle, Yuichi Yamaura, Satoko Yoshikura, Douglas W Yu, Andrey S Zaitsev, Juliane Zeidler, Fasheng Zou, Ben Collen, Rob M Ewers, Georgina M Mace, Drew W Purves, Jörn P W Scharlemann, Andy Purvis
The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066973/discovery-and-characterisation-of-field-resistance-to-organophosphorus-chemicals-in-a-major-mite-pest-halotydeus-destructor
#6
Paul A Umina, Alan Lord, Svetlana Micic, Owain Edwards
BACKGROUND: The redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) is an agricultural pest in Australia that attacks a wide variety of crops and pasture species. Chemicals remain an important part of control strategies for H. destructor, despite the existence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species. Recent chemical control failures involving a second insecticide class, organophosphates, were investigated using pesticide bioassays. RESULTS: We confirmed, for the first time, resistance to organophosphates in H...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063236/reconstruction-of-travel-history-using-coupled-%C3%AE-18-o-and-87-sr-86-sr-measurements-of-hair
#7
Thuan H Chau, Brett J Tipple, Lihai Hu, Diego P Fernandez, Thure E Cerling, James R Ehleringer, Lesley A Chesson
RATIONALE: Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18) O values) of hair largely reflect features of regional hydrology while strontium isotope ratios ((87) Sr/(86) Sr) are thought to reflect bedrock geology; combination of both isotope signatures may provide greater capacity for determining provenance and reconstructing travel history of an organism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the O-Sr isotope profiles of hair from domestic horses with known residency histories. METHODS: Tail hairs were collected from a pair of horses pastured together for a period of 16 months, one of which lived in a different location for the 8 months prior...
January 7, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060913/analysis-of-the-spatial-organization-of-pastures-as-a-contact-network-implications-for-potential-disease-spread-and-biosecurity-in-livestock-france-2010
#8
Aurore Palisson, Aurélie Courcoul, Benoit Durand
The use of pastures is part of common herd management practices for livestock animals, but contagion between animals located on neighbouring pastures is one of the major modes of infectious disease transmission between herds. At the population level, this transmission is strongly constrained by the spatial organization of pastures. The aim of this study was to answer two questions: (i) is the spatial configuration of pastures favourable to the spread of infectious diseases in France? (ii) would biosecurity measures allow decreasing this vulnerability? Based on GIS data, the spatial organization of pastures was represented using networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059057/-open-borders-for-alpine-pastures-the-history-of-the-pacage-franco-suisse
#9
J Schluep
Alpine transhumance and summer grazing of animals on both sides of the French-Swiss border has a long tradition. The Bernese authorities first regulated the movement of animals across the French border in the 18th century due to outbreaks of epidemics. At that time the importation of cattle from the "Franche-Comté" was forbidden, but grazing on the French side of the border remained allowed. The 1912 agreement, relating to grazing on both sides of the border, was used for decades as a guideline to ensure the open communication and close cooperation of the veterinary and customs authorities of both countries with regard to border traffic...
January 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056054/effect-of-dietary-types-on-feed-intakes-growth-performance-and-economic-benefit-in-tibetan-sheep-and-yaks-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-during-cold-season
#10
Tianwei Xu, Shixiao Xu, Linyong Hu, Na Zhao, Zhe Liu, Li Ma, Hongjin Liu, Xinquan Zhao
Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051918/genetic-variation-in-fabp4-and-evaluation-of-its-effects-on-beef-cattle-fat-content
#11
Daniel E Goszczynski, Juliana Papaleo-Mazzucco, María V Ripoli, Edgardo L Villarreal, Andrés Rogberg-Muñoz, Carlos A Mezzadra, Lilia M Melucci, Guillermo Giovambattista
FABP4 is a protein primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages that plays a key role in fatty acid trafficking and lipid hydrolysis. FABP4 gene polymorphisms have been associated with meat quality traits in cattle, mostly in Asian breeds under feedlot conditions. The objectives of this work were to characterize FABP4 genetic variation in several worldwide cattle breeds and evaluate possible genotype effects on fat content in a pasture-fed crossbred (Angus-Hereford-Limousin) population. We re-sequenced 43 unrelated animals from nine cattle breeds (Angus, Brahman, Creole, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, Nelore, Shorthorn, and Wagyu) and obtained 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over 3,164 bp, including four novel polymorphisms...
January 4, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049632/paleogenetic-study-of-ancient-dna-suggestive-of-x-linked-acrogigantism
#12
Albert Beckers, Daniel Fernandes, Frederic Fina, Mario Novak, Angelo Abati, Liliya Rostomyan, Albert Thiry, L'Houcine Ouafik, Bertrand Pasture, Ron Pinhasi, Adrian F Daly
Extract: Dear Editor, Pituitary gigantism is caused by chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion by a pituitary lesion before epiphyseal fusion. Genetic causes have been identified in nearly 50% of patients with pituitary gigantism, with germline mutations in the AIP gene being the most frequent cause (Rostomyan et al. 2015). Recently, a new form of pituitary gigantism, X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG), was described (Trivellin et al. 2014). X-LAG is due to chromosome Xq26.3 duplication and GPR101 is the disease-associated gene (Trivellin et al...
January 3, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046147/bill-e-kunkle-interdisciplinary-beef-symposium-assessing-the-mineral-supplementation-needs-in-pasture-based-beef-operations-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#13
L W Greene
Macro- and microminerals are required for all physiological processes in beef cattle. When mineral deficiencies occur in pasture-based production systems, a multitude of deficiency symptoms may occur, and most often, these deficiencies result in hidden losses to include reduced production potential, reduced immunity, and reproductive failure. More severe deficiencies will result in specific deficiency symptoms, depending on the specific mineral deficiency. In pasture-based beef operations, specific deficiency symptoms are seldom observed...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046145/effects-of-cows-grazing-toxic-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-or-novel-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue-in-late-gestation-on-cow-performance-reproduction-and-progeny-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics
#14
L M Shoup, L M Miller, M Srinivasan, F A Ireland, D W Shike
Very little is known regarding the effects of cow exposure to toxic ergot alkaloids in late gestation and the subsequent, long-term effects on progeny. Therefore, the objectives were to determine the effects of grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue () or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue during late gestation on cow BW, BCS, hair coat score (HCS), respiration rates, milk production, and reproduction and on growth performance and carcass characteristics of progeny. Eighty gestating, Angus × Simmental cows (age = 6...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041728/associations-between-housing-and-management-practices-and-the-prevalence-of-lameness-hock-lesions-and-thin-cows-on-us-dairy-operations
#15
A E Adams, J E Lombard, C P Fossler, I N Román-Muñiz, C A Kopral
The objective of this study was to determine the association among different housing and management practices on the prevalence of lameness, hock lesions, and thin cows on US dairy operations. This study was conducted as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 study, which included dairy operations in 17 states. Size categories were assigned as follows: small (30-99 cows), medium (100-499 cows), and large (≥500 cows). Trained assessors visited 191 dairy operations from March through July 2014 and recorded locomotion and hock scores (on a 3-point scale), and the number of thin cows (body condition score ≤2...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040217/impacts-of-converting-low-intensity-pastureland-to-high-intensity-bioenergy-cropland-on-the-water-quality-of-tropical-streams-in-brazil
#16
Ricardo Hideo Taniwaki, Carla Cristina Cassiano, Solange Filoso, Silvio Frosini de Barros Ferraz, Plínio Barbosa de Camargo, Luiz Antônio Martinelli
In Brazil, the cultivation of bioenergy crops is expanding at an accelerated rate. Most of this expansion has occurred over low-intensity pasture and is considered sustainable because it does not involve deforestation of natural vegetation. However, the impacts on the water quality of headwater streams are poorly understood, especially with regard to the influence of land use patterns in the watershed. In this study, we investigated the effects of land-use conversion on the water quality of streams draining sugarcane fields and examined whether the preservation of forested areas at the top of the headwaters would help mitigate the negative impacts of intensive agriculture...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035972/current-understanding-of-acute-bovine-liver-disease-in-australia
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth Read, Jacqueline Edwards, Myrna Deseo, Grant Rawlin, Simone Rochfort
Acute bovine liver disease (ABLD) is a hepatotoxicity principally of cattle which occurs in southern regions of Australia. Severely affected animals undergo rapid clinical progression with mortalities often occurring prior to the recognition of clinical signs. Less severely affected animals develop photosensitization and a proportion can develop liver failure. The characteristic histopathological lesion in acute fatal cases is severe, with acute necrosis of periportal hepatocytes with hemorrhage into the necrotic areas...
December 26, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035260/effect-of-initial-soil-properties-on-six-year-growth-of-15-tree-species-in-tropical-restoration-plantings
#18
Cristina Martínez-Garza, Julio Campo, Martin Ricker, Wolke Tobón
In restoration plantings in degraded pastures, initial soil nutrient status may lead to differential growth of tropical tree species with diverse life history attributes and capacity for N2 fixation. In 2006, we planted 1,440 seedlings of 15 native tree species in 16 fenced plots (30 × 30 m) in a 60-year-old pasture in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, in two planting combinations. In the first year, we evaluated bulk density, pH, the concentration of organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), ammonia (NO3-), nitrate (NH4+), and total phosphorus (P) in the upper soil profile (0-20 cm in depth) of all plots...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029333/biochemical-and-organoleptic-characteristics-of-muscle-from-early-and-late-maturing-bulls-in-different-production-systems
#19
G B Mezgebo, F J Monahan, M McGee, E G O'Riordan, B Picard, R I Richardson, A P Moloney
In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments...
December 28, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027026/host-tissue-environment-directs-activities-of-an-epichlo%C3%A3-endophyte-while-it-induces-systemic-hormone-and-defense-responses-in-its-native-perennial-ryegrass-host
#20
Jan Schmid, Robert Day, Ningxin Zhang, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Murray P Cox, Christopher Lewis Schardl, Niki Minards, Mauro Truglio, Neil Moore, Daniel R Harris, Yanfei Zhou
Increased resilience of pasture grasses mediated by fungal Epichloë endophytes is crucial to pastoral industries. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood and likely involve very different activities of the endophyte in different plant tissues and responses of the plant to these. We analyzed the transcriptomes of Epichloë festucae and its host Lolium perenne in host tissues of different function and developmental stages. The endophyte contributed approximately 10x more to the transcriptomes than to the biomass of infected tissues...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"