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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241023/ergovaline-does-not-alter-the-severity-of-ryegrass-staggers-induced-by-lolitrem-b
#1
S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, C van Koten, W J Mace, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. METHODS: Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months-old, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010...
December 14, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#2
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238885/peanut-cake-can-replace-soybean-meal-in-supplements-for-lactating-cows-without-affecting-production
#3
Carina Anunciação Santos Dias, Adriana Regina Bagaldo, Weiler Giacomaza Cerutti, Analívia Martins Barbosa, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Emellinne Ingrid Souza Costa, Leilson Rocha Bezerra, Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira
This study evaluated the total replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake in the concentrate supplement of lactating cows grazing. Eight crossbred 5/8 Holstein × 3/8 Zebu cows between the 45th and 60th day of lactation and 507 ± 35 kg BW were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design with four levels of peanut cake (0, 110, 220, and 330 g/kg of the dry matter-DM) as a replacement of soybean meal in the concentrate supplement. The intake of pasture, total (pasture + concentrate), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients, and digestibility of the DM, CP, ether extract (EE), and NDF was not affected by the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237259/immunochemical-analysis-of-paxilline-and-ergot-alkaloid-mycotoxins-in-grass-seeds-and-plants
#4
Julia I Bauer, Madeleine Gross, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Gerd Hamscher, Ewald Usleber
Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235046/efficiency-of-nitrogen-metabolism-in-beef-cattle-grazing-pasture-and-supplemented-with-different-protein-levels-in-the-rainy-season
#5
Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques, Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis, Luciana Keiko Hatamoto-Zervoudakis, Pedro Ivo José Lopes da Rosa E Silva, Núbia Bezerra do Nascimento Matos, Andresa Lazzarotto Feliciano, Rones Goulart de Paula Júnior, Luciano da Silva Cabral
Supplementation of animals in the rainy season is essential to maximise weight gain. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with low-, medium- and high-protein levels on nutritional parameters of grazing beef cattle in the rainy season. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore bulls (437 kg body weight) were used in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design with four supplements and four experimental periods. The treatments were mineral supplement (ad libitum) and supplements with low-protein (LPSU), medium-protein (MPS) and high-protein (HPS) levels, providing 106, 408 and 601 g/day of crude protein (CP), respectively...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228062/market-access-and-community-size-influence-pastoral-management-of-native-and-exotic-livestock-species-a-case-study-in-communities-of-the-cordillera-real-in-bolivia-s-high-andean-wetlands
#6
Quentin Struelens, Karina Gonzales Pomar, Susi Loza Herrera, Gaby Nina Huanca, Olivier Dangles, François Rebaudo
Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225763/dispersal-and-establishment-of-vascular-epiphytes-in-human-modified-landscapes
#7
Helena J R Einzmann, Gerhard Zotz
The ongoing destruction of old-growth forests puts tropical forest species under great pressure because of the resulting habitat loss. A pre-requisite for the maintenance of a viable metacommunity in a fragmented landscape is the connectivity between habitable patches. We experimentally studied four vital steps of epiphyte dispersal in different habitat types in western Panama. (i) Seed falling velocity (Vterm) is known to correlate with long-distance dispersal via convective updraft. All measured Vterm of bromeliad and orchid seeds fell into a range of velocities with a high chance of long-distance dispersal...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225728/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-the-rumen-bacterium-butyrivibrio-hungatei-mb2003
#8
Nikola Palevich, William J Kelly, Sinead C Leahy, Eric Altermann, Jasna Rakonjac, Graeme T Attwood
Butyrivibrio hungatei MB2003 was isolated from the plant-adherent fraction of rumen contents from a pasture-grazed New Zealand dairy cow, and was selected for genome sequencing in order to examine its ability to degrade plant polysaccharides. The genome of MB2003 is 3.39 Mb and consists of four replicons; a chromosome, a secondary chromosome or chromid, a megaplasmid and a small plasmid. The genome has an average G + C content of 39.7%, and encodes 2983 putative protein-coding genes. MB2003 is able to use a variety of monosaccharide substrates for growth, with acetate, butyrate and formate as the principal fermentation end-products, and the genes encoding these metabolic pathways have been identified...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224876/effect-of-different-forage-types-on-the-volatile-and-sensory-properties-of-bovine-milk
#9
Hope Faulkner, Tom F O'Callaghan, Stephen McAuliffe, Deirdre Hennessy, Catherine Stanton, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry, Kieran N Kilcawley
The effect of 3 diets (grass, grass/clover, and total mixed ration) on the volatile and sensory properties of bovine milk was assessed over an entire lactation season. Little evidence was found of direct transfer of terpenes into raw milk from the different diets, and it is likely that the monocultures of ryegrass used with and without white clover were factors as these contained very few terpenes. Evidence of direct transfer of nonterpene volatiles from forage to the subsequent raw milks was probable; however, differences in the protein carbohydrate availability and digestion in the rumen appeared to have a greater contribution to volatile profiles...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224875/dairy-cow-preference-for-different-types-of-outdoor-access
#10
Anne-Marieke C Smid, Daniel M Weary, Joao H C Costa, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224861/a-survey-of-selected-animal-based-measures-of-dairy-cattle-welfare-in-the-eastern-alps-toward-context-based-thresholds
#11
A Zuliani, M Mair, M Kraševec, I Lora, M Brscic, G Cozzi, C Leeb, M Zupan, C Winckler, S Bovolenta
In the Alps, traditional dairy farms are small-scale operations where vertical transhumance from valley indoor housing systems to highland pasture-based systems is still practiced in summer. Vertical transhumance implies a substantial change of environment, available resources, and management practices from one season to another. In such systems, animal-based welfare measures need to be monitored throughout the year to capture the variation of welfare outcomes, based on which targeted welfare management plans can be implemented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223108/impacts-of-sugarcane-agriculture-expansion-over-low-intensity-cattle-ranch-pasture-in-brazil-on-greenhouse-gases
#12
Camila Bolfarini Bento, Solange Filoso, Leonardo Machado Pitombo, Heitor Cantarella, Raffaella Rossetto, Luiz Antonio Martinelli, Janaina Braga do Carmo
Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, N2O and CH4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218892/heritability-estimates-on-resting-state-fmri-data-using-enigma-analysis-pipeline
#13
Bhim M Adhikari, Neda Jahanshad, Dinesh Shukla, David C Glahn, John Blangero, Richard C Reynolds, Robert W Cox, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Dmitry S Novikov, Thomas E Nichols, L Elliot Hong, Paul M Thompson, Peter Kochunov
Big data initiatives such as the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis consortium (ENIGMA), combine data collected by independent studies worldwide to achieve more generalizable estimates of effect sizes and more reliable and reproducible outcomes. Such efforts require harmonized image analyses protocols to extract phenotypes consistently. This harmonization is particularly challenging for resting state fMRI due to the wide variability of acquisition protocols and scanner platforms; this leads to site-to-site variance in quality, resolution and temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216520/green-pastures-do-us-real-estate-prices-respond-to-population-health
#14
Claudia Nau, David Bishai
We investigate whether communities with improving population health will subsequently experience rising real estate prices. Home price indices (HPIs) for 371 MSAs from 1990 to 2010 are regressed against life-expectancy five years prior. HPIs come from the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Life expectancy estimates come from the Institute of Health Metrics. Our analysis uses random and fixed effect models with a comprehensive set of controls. Life expectancy predicted increases in the HPI controlling for potential confounders...
December 4, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215349/spatiotemporal-variation-of-bacterial-water-quality-and-the-relationship-with-pasture-land-cover
#15
Erin E Scott, Mansoor D K Leh, Brian E Haggard
Pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment and public health concern world-wide. In the United States, each state is tasked with developing water quality standards (WQS) to protect the designated use(s) of waterbodies. Several streams in the Illinois River Watershed in northwest Arkansas are currently listed as impaired due to elevated levels of pathogens. Our objective was to evaluate Escherichia coli (E. coli) numbers at 29 stream sites, compare these numbers to the applicable WQS, and investigate the relationship between E...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212482/biosecurity-aspects-of-cattle-production-in-western-uganda-and-associations-with-seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-salmonellosis-and-bovine-viral-diarrhoea
#16
C Wolff, S Boqvist, K Ståhl, C Masembe, S Sternberg-Lewerin
BACKGROUND: Many low-income countries have a human population with a high number of cattle owners depending on their livestock for food and income. Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as other actors in often informal value chains. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management and biosecurity routines with potential impact on the prevalence of infectious diseases, and to estimate the burden of infectious diseases in Ugandan cattle herds, using the seroprevalence of three model infections...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212051/land-use-and-climate-change-impacts-on-runoff-and-soil-erosion-at-the-hillslope-scale-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#17
Jamil A A Anache, Dennis C Flanagan, Anurag Srivastava, Edson C Wendland
Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201347/the-creation-and-evaluation-of-a-model-to-simulate-the-probability-of-conception-in-seasonal-calving-pasture-based-dairy-heifers
#18
Caroline Fenlon, Luke O'Grady, Stephen Butler, Michael L Doherty, John Dunnion
Background: Herd fertility in pasture-based dairy farms is a key driver of farm economics. Models for predicting nulliparous reproductive outcomes are rare, but age, genetics, weight, and BCS have been identified as factors influencing heifer conception. The aim of this study was to create a simulation model of heifer conception to service with thorough evaluation. Methods: Artificial Insemination service records from two research herds and ten commercial herds were provided to build and evaluate the models...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200933/dimensions-of-biodiversity-loss-spatial-mismatch-in-land-use-impacts-on-species-functional-and-phylogenetic-diversity-of-european-bees
#19
Adriana De Palma, Michael Kuhlmann, Rob Bugter, Simon Ferrier, Andrew J Hoskins, Simon G Potts, Stuart P M Roberts, Oliver Schweiger, Andy Purvis
Aim: Agricultural intensification and urbanization are important drivers of biodiversity change in Europe. Different aspects of bee community diversity vary in their sensitivity to these pressures, as well as independently influencing ecosystem service provision (pollination). To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of human impacts on bee diversity across Europe, we assess multiple, complementary indices of diversity. Location: One Thousand four hundred and forty six sites across Europe...
December 2017: Diversity & Distributions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200497/sweat-bees-on-hot-chillies-provision-of-pollination-services-by-native-bees-in-traditional-slash-and-burn-agriculture-in-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-of-tropical-mexico
#20
Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame, Robert J Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
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