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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055544/dry-matter-intake-body-condition-score-and-grazing-behavior-of-nonlactating-pregnant-dairy-cows-fed-on-kale-or-grass-once-versus-twice-during-winter
#1
I Rugoho, G R Edwards
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg of dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg of DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg of DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg of DM barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972993/comparative-characterization-of-bacterial-communities-in-geese-fed-all-grass-or-high-grain-diets
#2
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qi Xu, Xiaoya Yuan, Tiantian Gu, Yang Li, Wangcheng Dai, Xiaokun Shen, Yadong Song, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Guobin Chang, Guohong Chen
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial composition is dependent on diet. Geese are herbivores and can digest crude fibre, but the relationship between composition of the microbiota and a fibre-rich diet in geese is not well understood. RESULTS: Here, caecal and faecal samples were collected simultaneously from all-grass-fed geese and high-grain-fed geese and the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. The results was identified that high-grass-fed geese possessed significantly higher alpha diversity both in caecum and faeces compared with that in all-grain-fed geese...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668528/effect-of-stocking-rate-and-animal-genotype-on-dry-matter-intake-milk-production-body-weight-and-body-condition-score-in-spring-calving-grass-fed-dairy-cows
#3
E L Coffey, L Delaby, S Fitzgerald, N Galvin, K M Pierce, B Horan
The objective of the experiment was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and animal genotype on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and production efficiency across 2 consecutive grazing seasons (2014 and 2015). A total of 753 records from 177 dairy cows were available for analysis: 68 Holstein-Friesian and 71 Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JxHF) cows each year of the experiment under a pasture-based seasonal production system. Animals within each breed group were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments defined in terms of body weight per hectare (kg of body weight/ha): low (1,200 kg of body weight/ha), medium (1,400 kg of body weight/ha), and high (1,600 kg of body weight/ha), and animals remained in the same SR treatments for the duration of the experiment...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644988/effect-of-marbling-on-volatile-generation-oral-breakdown-and-in-mouth-flavor-release-of-grilled-beef
#4
Damian Frank, Kornelia Kaczmarska, Janet Paterson, Udayasika Piyasiri, Robyn Warner
While the positive effect of intramuscular fat (IMF) on beef tenderness is well-established, its role in flavor generation and flavor release is less defined. To increase understanding, real-time volatile generation was monitored during grilling of beefsteaks (grass and grain-fed Angus and grass-fed Wagyu) with different amounts of IMF by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Volatile concentration increased significantly (p<0.001) when the IMF was >~10%, but did not differ (p>0.05) at lower IMF levels (5...
June 15, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#5
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515638/fatty-acid-profiles-meat-quality-and-sensory-palatability-of-grain-fed-and-grass-fed-beef-from-hanwoo-american-and-australian-crossbred-cattle
#6
Young-Hwa Hwang, Seon-Tea Joo
Fatty acid profiles in relation to meat quality traits and sensory palatability of grain-fed and grass-fed beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian crossbred cattle were examined in this study. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid compositions between grain-fed and grass-fed beef. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion but higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) proportion compared to grass-fed cattle. The proportion of oleic acid in grain-fed Hanwoo was significantly (p<0...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372247/pasture-feeding-conventional-cows-removes-differences-between-organic-and-conventionally-produced-milk
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brigitte H Schwendel, Timothy J Wester, Patrick C H Morel, Bertram Fong, Michael H Tavendale, Craig Deadman, Nicola M Shadbolt, Don E Otter
Perceptions of production methods for organic and conventional milk are changing, with consumers prepared to pay premium prices for milk from either certified organic or conventional grass-fed cows. Our study investigated whether chemical composition differed between milk produced by these two farming systems. Sampling was conducted on two farms sets, each comprised of one organic and one conventional farm. All farms applied year-round pasture grazing. Milk samples were collected throughout the milking season and analysed for free oligosaccharides, fatty acids, major casein and whey proteins, and milk fat volatiles...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362343/characterization-of-retail-conventional-organic-and-grass-full-fat-butters-by-their-fat-contents-free-fatty-acid-contents-and-triglyceride-and-fatty-acid-profiling
#8
Annemieke M Pustjens, Rita Boerrigter-Eenling, Alex H Koot, Maikel Rozijn, Saskia M van Ruth
In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional (n = 28), organic (n = 14), and grass (n = 12) full-fat butters were collected during the winter and summer seasons. Samples were analyzed for their fat content, free fatty acid (FFA) content, and triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) profiles...
March 31, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898932/performance-and-methane-emissions-of-grazing-nellore-bulls-supplemented-with-crude-glycerin
#9
E San Vito, J F Lage, J D Messana, E E Dallantonia, R T S Frighetto, R A Reis, A J Neto, T T Berchielli
Supplementation of grass-fed cattle with low-cost feeding alternatives may be an attractive way to improve efficiency of cattle production. We hypothesized that inclusion of crude glycerin (CG) in supplements provided to grass-fed cattle could improve feed conversion without negative effects on growth performance while reducing methane emissions. Our hypothesis was tested using Nellore bulls grazing tropical pasture ( = 50; initial BW of 427 ± 19.41 kg; age of 17 ± 2 mo) supplemented with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of CG and corn gluten replacing corn grain...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723313/exploring-the-impact-of-n-6-pufa-rich-oilseed-production-on-commercial-butter-compositions-worldwide
#10
Amy Botta, Sanjoy Ghosh
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the incorporation of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) containing oilseeds in dairy feeds deplete saturated fatty acids (SFA) in dairy fats like butter. However, due to the lack of chemical evidence, the current status of n-6 PUFA or SFA in butter is unknown. We hypothesized that n-6 PUFA levels in commercial butter were inversely proportional to its SFA content and directly proportional to the extent of n-6 PUFA-rich oilseed production of its country of origin. We analyzed grass-fed and commercial butters from Australia, Belarus, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russia and the USA via gas chromatography...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716945/the-effects-of-animal-age-feeding-regime-and-a-dietary-beta-agonist-on-tenderness-of-three-beef-muscles
#11
Ennet Moholisa, Arno Hugo, Phillip E Strydom, Ina van Heerden
BACKGROUND: Animal age as determined by number of permanent incisors (p. i.) is used in classification of beef carcasses to describe expected meat tenderness. However, animals differing in age are reared under different production systems (pasture or feedlot). In addition to age, other factors associated with particular production systems may also influence the palatability of meat. Therefore, the effects of age combined with feeding regime and the supplementation of a beta-agonist (zilpaterol) on the tenderness of M...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664694/milk-from-cows-grazing-on-cool-season-pastures-provides-an-enhanced-profile-of-bioactive-fatty-acids-compared-to-those-grazed-on-a-monoculture-of-pearl-millet
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Melissa L Bainbridge, Emily Egolf, John W Barlow, Juan P Alvez, Joe Roman, Jana Kraft
The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein)...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453330/daily-shedding-dynamics-of-e-coli-o157-in-an-australian-grass-fed-beef-herd
#13
G A C Lammers, D Jordan, C S McCONNEL, J Heller
This study aimed to describe the diurnal shedding dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle managed on pasture. The purpose was to identify the value of a single measurement for predicting the shedding status on subsequent days. Over a 14-day period, 24 beef cows with known E. coli O157 shedding status were sampled twice daily or daily (21 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faeces. No association between shedding status of individual animals within a 7-h period was identified (odds ratio 1·5, P = 0·08)...
October 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285714/legume-finishing-provides-beef-with-positive-human-dietary-fatty-acid-ratios-and-consumer-preference-comparable-with-grain-finished-beef
#14
A Chail, J F Legako, L R Pitcher, T C Griggs, R E Ward, S Martini, J W MacAdam
Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type)...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185157/integrated-metabolomic-and-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-finishing-forage-affects-metabolic-pathways-related-to-beef-quality-and-animal-welfare
#15
José A Carrillo, Yanghua He, Yaokun Li, Jianan Liu, Richard A Erdman, Tad S Sonstegard, Jiuzhou Song
Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118482/sensory-and-flavor-chemistry-characteristics-of-australian-beef-influence-of-intramuscular-fat-feed-and-breed
#16
Damian Frank, Alex Ball, Joanne Hughes, Raju Krishnamurthy, Udayasika Piyasiri, Janet Stark, Peter Watkins, Robyn Warner
The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954759/improved-sensitivity-for-determining-thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances-in-ground-beef
#17
C R Kerth, C W Rowe
To create expected differences in oxidation ground beef samples from grass-fed and grain-fed animals were utilized in six differing percentages with 4 different packaging types. Percentages of grass-fed and grain-fed ground beef (GB) consisted of 100% grain fed GB; 80% grain-fed: 20% grass-fed GB; 60% grain-fed: 40% grass-fed GB; 40% grain-fed: 60% grass-fed GB; 20% grain-fed: 80% grass-fed GB; and 100% grass-fed GB. Packaging treatments included: high oxygen (HO; 80% O2: 20% CO2), low oxygen (LO; 65% N2: 35% CO2), carbon monoxide (CO; 65% N2: 34...
July 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746178/dietary-and-policy-priorities-for-cardiovascular-disease-diabetes-and-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#18
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change...
January 12, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413310/effect-of-concentrate-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-of-brahman-crossbred-cattle-fed-a-basal-diet-of-grass-and-rice-straw
#19
Do Van Quang, Nguyen Xuan Ba, Peter T Doyle, Dau Van Hai, Peter A Lane, Aduli Eo Malau-Aduli, Nguyen Huu Van, David Parsons
BACKGROUND: An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that total dry matter (DM) intake and liveweight (LW) gain would increase in a curvilinear manner with increasing amounts of concentrate offered. METHOD: There were five treatments: a basal diet of Guinea grass fed at 1 % of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum (T0), or this diet supplemented with concentrate at 0.6 (T1), 1.2 (T2), 1.8 (T3), or 2.4 % of LW (T4). The concentrate comprised locally available ingredients, namely cassava chips, rice bran, crushed rice grain, fishmeal, salt, and urea, mixed manually...
2015: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26381932/folic-acid-deficiency-impairs-the-gill-health-status-associated-with-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mlck-and-nrf2-signaling-pathways-in-the-gills-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#20
Lei Shi, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Pei Wu, Juan Zhao, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary folic acid on fish growth, the immune and barrier functions of fish gills, and the potential mechanisms of these effects. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10 (basal diet), 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results showed that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities and the complement component 3 content in fish gills decreased with folic acid deficiency (P < 0...
November 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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