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Amy Botta, Sanjoy Ghosh
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the incorporation of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) containing oilseeds in dairy feeds deplete saturated fatty acids (SFA) in dairy fats like butter. However, due to the lack of chemical evidence, the current status of n-6 PUFA or SFA in butter is unknown. We hypothesized that n-6 PUFA levels in commercial butter were inversely proportional to its SFA content and directly proportional to the extent of n-6 PUFA-rich oilseed production of its country of origin. We analyzed grass-fed and commercial butters from Australia, Belarus, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russia and the USA via gas chromatography...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ennet Moholisa, Arno Hugo, Phillip E Strydom, Ina van Heerden
BACKGROUND: Animal age as determined by number of permanent incisors (p.i) is used in classification of beef carcasses to describe expected meat tenderness. However, animals differing in age are reared under different production systems (pasture or feedlot). In addition to age, other factors associated with particular production systems may also influence the palatability of meat. Therefore, the effects of age combined with feeding regime and the supplementation of a beta-agonist (zilpaterol) on the tenderness of M...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Melissa L Bainbridge, Emily Egolf, John W Barlow, Juan P Alvez, Joe Roman, Jana Kraft
The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein)...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
G A C Lammers, D Jordan, C S McCONNEL, J Heller
This study aimed to describe the diurnal shedding dynamics of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle managed on pasture. The purpose was to identify the value of a single measurement for predicting the shedding status on subsequent days. Over a 14-day period, 24 beef cows with known E. coli O157 shedding status were sampled twice daily or daily (21 sampling points) and E. coli O157 was enumerated from faeces. No association between shedding status of individual animals within a 7-h period was identified (odds ratio 1·5, P = 0·08)...
October 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
A Chail, J F Legako, L R Pitcher, T C Griggs, R E Ward, S Martini, J W MacAdam
Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type)...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
José A Carrillo, Yanghua He, Yaokun Li, Jianan Liu, Richard A Erdman, Tad S Sonstegard, Jiuzhou Song
Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Damian Frank, Alex Ball, Joanne Hughes, Raju Krishnamurthy, Udayasika Piyasiri, Janet Stark, Peter Watkins, Robyn Warner
The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
C R Kerth, C W Rowe
To create expected differences in oxidation ground beef samples from grass-fed and grain-fed animals were utilized in six differing percentages with 4 different packaging types. Percentages of grass-fed and grain-fed ground beef (GB) consisted of 100% grain fed GB; 80% grain-fed: 20% grass-fed GB; 60% grain-fed: 40% grass-fed GB; 40% grain-fed: 60% grass-fed GB; 20% grain-fed: 80% grass-fed GB; and 100% grass-fed GB. Packaging treatments included: high oxygen (HO; 80% O2: 20% CO2), low oxygen (LO; 65% N2: 35% CO2), carbon monoxide (CO; 65% N2: 34...
July 2016: Meat Science
Dariush Mozaffarian
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change...
January 12, 2016: Circulation
Do Van Quang, Nguyen Xuan Ba, Peter T Doyle, Dau Van Hai, Peter A Lane, Aduli Eo Malau-Aduli, Nguyen Huu Van, David Parsons
BACKGROUND: An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that total dry matter (DM) intake and liveweight (LW) gain would increase in a curvilinear manner with increasing amounts of concentrate offered. METHOD: There were five treatments: a basal diet of Guinea grass fed at 1 % of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum (T0), or this diet supplemented with concentrate at 0.6 (T1), 1.2 (T2), 1.8 (T3), or 2.4 % of LW (T4). The concentrate comprised locally available ingredients, namely cassava chips, rice bran, crushed rice grain, fishmeal, salt, and urea, mixed manually...
2015: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Lei Shi, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Pei Wu, Juan Zhao, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary folic acid on fish growth, the immune and barrier functions of fish gills, and the potential mechanisms of these effects. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10 (basal diet), 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results showed that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities and the complement component 3 content in fish gills decreased with folic acid deficiency (P < 0...
November 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yaokun Li, José A Carrillo, Yi Ding, Yanghua He, Chunping Zhao, Jianan Liu, George E Liu, Linsen Zan, Jiuzhou Song
The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two types of diet differ in a large number of nutritional components. Additionally, animals maintained on rich-energy regimen are more likely to develop metabolic disorders and infectious diseases than pasture raised individuals...
2015: PloS One
K J Hammond, D J Humphries, L A Crompton, P Kirton, C K Reynolds
Changes in diet carbohydrate amount and type (i.e., starch vs. fiber) and dietary oil supplements can affect ruminant methane emissions. Our objectives were to measure methane emissions, whole-tract digestibility, and energy and nitrogen utilization from growing dairy cattle at 2 body weight (BW) ranges, fed diets containing either high maize silage (MS) or high grass silage (GS), without or with supplemental oil from extruded linseed (ELS). Four Holstein-Friesian heifers aged 13 mo (BW range from start to finish of 382 to 526 kg) were used in experiment 1, whereas 4 lighter heifers aged 12 mo (BW range from start to finish of 292 to 419 kg) were used in experiment 2...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
H Gidlund, M Hetta, S J Krizsan, S Lemosquet, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Shangong Wu, Yi Ren, Chun Peng, Yaotong Hao, Fan Xiong, Guitang Wang, Wenxiang Li, Hong Zou, Esther R Angert
Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet...
October 2015: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
F Bockisch, S Aboling, M Coenen, I Vervuert
Vitamin-D intoxication by yellow oat grass is often reported under the syndrome of enzootic calcinosis in ruminants in the upper regions of the Alps. The intake of Trisetum flavescens in ruminants and horses induces calcification of soft tissue, including vessels, tendons and ligaments, lung, heart and kidneys. Clinical symptoms, including a reluctance to move, inappetence, body-weight loss and impaired organ function, are frequently observed. To date, there are only a very few case reports about yellow-oat-grass intoxication in horses...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Yong-Po Chen, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Pei Wu, Juan Zhao, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P < 0...
November 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
F X Suarez-Mena, G J Lascano, D E Rico, A J Heinrichs
Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis)...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Zhang Cheng, Wing-Yin Mo, Xiang-Ping Nie, Kai-Bing Li, Wai-Ming Choi, Yu-Bon Man, Ming-Hung Wong
The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p < 0...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ling Li, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Jian Sun, Zheng-Yong Wen, Yu-Hui He, Wen-Jing Cai, Ya-Ping Wang, Ya-Xiong Tao
Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae...
December 15, 2015: Gene
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