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Ilina Singh
Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Eelco F M Wijdicks, Axel Karenberg
The history of Neurocinema includes neuroethics, and this theme was first used in 2 films released in the 1940s in both Germany and the United States. Ich Klage An (I Accuse) is about "terminal" multiple sclerosis in a young woman and the decision to determine one's own fate. The protagonist anticipates becoming "deaf, blind, and idiotic" and asks her husband to administer a toxic drug dose, which he does. The film disturbingly suggests that the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is tantamount to a death sentence...
September 20, 2016: Neurology
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
James Giordano
Here we have a case in which (1) the outcome(s) for the patient do not comport with the projected-or initially defined-outcomes of the research study, and (2) these outcomes represent cognitive and behavioral effects that are positively interpreted by the patient, but not by the patient's immediate family. The 6Cs approach, which frames the technique or technology-and its effects-within defined considerations of domains and dimensions, can be used as part of a multistep approach to addressing issues arising from the use of neurotechnology...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Nina DI Pietro, Jantina DE Vries, Angelina Paolozza, Dorothy Reid, James N Reynolds, Amy Salmon, Marsha Wilson, Dan J Stein, Judy Illes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is increasingly recognized as a growing public health issue worldwide. Although more research is needed on both the diagnosis and treatment of FASD, and a broader and more culturally diverse range of services are needed to support those who suffer from FASD and their families, both research and practice for FASD raise significant ethical issues. In response, from the point of view of both research and clinical neuroethics, we provide a framework that emphasizes the need to maximize benefits and minimize harm, promote justice, and foster respect for persons within a global context...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Grant Gillett
Human beings are sensorimotor coupled to the actual world and also attuned to the symbolic world of culture and the techniques of adaptation that culture provides. The self-image and self-shaping mediated by that mirror directly affects the neurocognitive structures that integrate human neural activity and reshape its processing capacities through top-down or autopoietic effects. Thus a crack'd mirror, which disrupts the processes of enactive self-configuration, can be disabling for an individual. That is exactly what happens in postcolonial or immigration contexts in which individuals' cultural adaptations are marginalized and disconnected in diverse and often painful and disorienting ways...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Philipp Kellmeyer, Thomas Cochrane, Oliver Müller, Christine Mitchell, Tonio Ball, Joseph J Fins, Nikola Biller-Andorno
Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Joseph J Fins
In the 2015 David Kopf Lecture on Neuroethics of the Society for Neuroscience, Dr. Joseph Fins presents his work on neuroethics and disorders of consciousness through the experience of Maggie and Nancy Worthen, a young woman who sustained a severe brain injury and her mother who cared for her. The central protagonists in his book, Rights Come to Mind: Brain Injury, Ethics and the Struggle for Consciousness (Cambridge University Press, 2015), their experience is emblematic of the challenges faced by families touched by severe brain injury and the possibility for improved diagnosis and treatment offered by progress in neuroscience...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Julija Erhardt, Dubravka Švob Štrac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
Azizan Baharuddin, Mohd Noor Musa, Sm Saifuddeen Sm Salleh
Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
James Giordano
Research in neuroscience and neurotechnology (neuroS/T) is progressing at a rapid pace with translational applications both in medicine, and more widely in the social milieu. Current and projected neuroS/T research and its applications evoke a number of neuroethicolegal and social issues (NELSI). This paper defines inherent and derivative NELSI of current and near-term neuroS/T development and engagement, and provides an overview of our group's ongoing work to develop a systematized approach to their address...
July 25, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Jon Leefmann, Clement Levallois, Elisabeth Hildt
In bioethics, the first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by the emergence of interest in the ethical, legal, and social aspects of neuroscience research. At the same time an ongoing extension of the topics and phenomena addressed by neuroscientists was observed alongside its rise as one of the leading disciplines in the biomedical science. One of these phenomena addressed by neuroscientists and moral psychologists was the neural processes involved in moral decision-making. Today both strands of research are often addressed under the label of neuroethics...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tineke Broer, Martyn Pickersgill, Ian J Deary
Media reporting of science has consequences for public debates on the ethics of research. Accordingly, it is crucial to understand how the sciences of the brain and the mind are covered in the media, and how coverage is received and negotiated. The authors report here their sociological findings from a case study of media coverage and associated reader comments of an article ('Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?') from Annals of Neurology. The media attention attracted by the article was high for cognitive science; further, as associates/members of the Centre where it was produced, the authors of the research reported here had rare insight into how the scientists responsible for the Annals of Neurology article interacted with the media...
2016: Neuroethics
Grant Gillett
Joseph Fins's book Rights Come to Mind: Brain Injury, Ethics, and the Struggle for Consciousness (Cambridge UP, 2015) is a considerable addition to the literature on disorders of consciousness and the murky area of minimally conscious states. Fins brings to this fraught area of clinical practice and neuroethical analysis a series of stories and reflections resulting in a pressing and sustained ethical challenge both to clinicians and to health care systems. The challenge is multifaceted, with diagnostic and therapeutic demands to be met by clinicians and a mix of moral, scientific-economic, and political resonances for health care analysts...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Turhan Canli
The analysis of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetics ("genethics") has focused on traditional concerns in bioethics, such as privacy and informed consent. The analysis of ELSI associated with neuroscience ("neuroethics") has focused on concerns related to personhood, such as free will or cognitive enhancement. With neurogenomics coming of age, this is an appropriate time to attend to the set of novel concerns that arises when we consider the confluence of these two lines of research...
June 1, 2015: Applied & Translational Genomics
Gustavo Figueroa
Ethical problems resulting from brain research have given rise to a new discipline termed neuroethics, representing a new kind of knowledge capable of discovering the neural basis for universal ethics. The article (1) tries to evaluate the contributions of neuroethics to medical ethics and its suitability to outline the foundations of universal ethics, (2) critically analyses the process of founding this universal ethic. The potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm...
2016: Biological Research
Caroline Robitaille, Johanne Collin
BACKGROUND: Within the last decade, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs has raised concern, particularly among young adults. Psychostimulants, that is to say amphetamine and its derivatives, are pharmaceuticals, which contribute to what has come to be known in Canada and the United States as the "prescription drug crisis." Research in the fields of public health, addiction studies, and neuroethics has attempted to further understand this mounting issue; however, there is a paucity of data concerning the underlying social logics related to the use of these substances...
2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Laura Y Cabrera, Jordan Tesluk, Michelle Chakraborti, Ralph Matthews, Judy Illes
The ways in which humans affect and are affected by their environments have been studied from many different perspectives over the past decades. However, it was not until the 1970s that the discussion of the ethical relationship between humankind and the environment formalized as an academic discipline with the emergence of environmental ethics. A few decades later, environmental health emerged as a discipline focused on the assessment and regulation of environmental factors that affect living beings. Our goal here is to begin a discussion specifically about the impact of modern environmental change on biomedical and social understandings of brain and mental health, and to align this with ethical considerations...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
John R Shook, James Giordano
An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance...
January 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Dominic Wilkinson
Severe congenital hydrocephalus manifests as accumulation of a large amount of excess fluid in the brain. It is a paradigmatic example of a condition in which diagnosis is relatively straightforward and long-term survival is usually associated with severe disability. It might be thought that, should parents agree, palliative care and limitation of treatment would be clearly permissible on the basis of the best interests of the infant. However, severe congenital hydrocephalus illustrates some of the neuroethical challenges in pediatrics...
January 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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