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Christina Feldman
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May 4, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Wojciech Białaszek, Piotr Bakun, Elton McGoun, Piotr Zielonka
It is often a good strategy to "stand in the other person's shoes" to see a situation from a different perspective. People frequently attempt to infer what someone else would recommend when no advisor is available to help with a decision. Such situations commonly concern intertemporal or risky choices, and the usual assumption is that lay people make such decisions differently than experts do. The aim of our study was to determine what intertemporal and risky decisions people make when they take their own perspective, the perspective of a peer, and the perspectives of an expert or an entrepreneur...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
K Lee Raby, Glenn I Roisman, Cathryn Booth-LaForce
A longstanding question for attachment theory and research is whether genetically based characteristics of the child influence the development of attachment security and its stability over time. This study attempted to replicate and extend recent findings indicating that the developmental stability of attachment security is moderated by oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genetic variants. Using longitudinal data from over 550 individuals, there was no evidence that OXTR rs53576 moderated the association between attachment security during early childhood and overall coherence of mind ("security") during the Adult Attachment Interview at age 18 years...
November 2015: Developmental Psychology
Yu-Chen Chan, Joseph P Lavallee
'Getting a joke' always requires resolving an apparent incongruity, but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Shilpi Modi, Mukesh Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Subash Khushu
Trait anxiety, a personality dimension, has been characterized by functional consequences such as increased distractibility, attentional bias in favor of threat-related information and hyper-responsive amygdala. However, literature on the association between resting state brain functional connectivity, as studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and reported anxiety levels in the sub-clinical population is limited. In the present study, we employed rs-fMRI to investigate the possible alterations in the functional integrity of Resting State Networks (RSNs) associated with trait anxiety of the healthy subjects (15 high anxious and 14 low anxious)...
October 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Susan McPherson, Syd Hiskey, Zoe Alderson
OBJECTIVES: Nurses and health care workers are under increasing scrutiny from the general public and other professionals over their capacity for compassion. For example, in the UK, recruitment of nurses includes assessment of compassion through 'Values Based Recruitment'. However, compassionate care can be hindered when working in very challenging and pressurised environments. The study aimed to explore the experiences of managing work pressures in front-line NHS staff caring for older adults with dementia...
January 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Virginia Carter Leno, Tony Charman, Andrew Pickles, Catherine R G Jones, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Emily Simonoff
BACKGROUND: People with callous-unemotional traits and also those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display sociocognitive difficulties. However, the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of callous-unemotional traits within individuals with ASD are unknown. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of callous-unemotional traits in individuals with ASD and test their association with behavioural and cognitive measures. METHOD: Parents of 92 adolescents with ASD completed the Antisocial Processes Screening Device (APSD) for callous-unemotional traits...
November 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Louise Cummings
The cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is an area that continues to provoke intense theoretical debate among pragmatists. That utterance interpretation involves some type of mind-reading or theory of mind (ToM) is indisputable. However, theorists are divided on the exact nature of this ToM-based mechanism. In this paper, it is argued that the only type of ToM-based mechanism that can adequately represent the cognitive basis of utterance interpretation is one which reflects the rational, intentional, holistic character of interpretation...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Anja Vaskinn, Bjørnar T Antonsen, Ragnhild A Fretland, Isabel Dziobek, Kjetil Sundet, Theresa Wilberg
Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are notably different mental disorders, they share problems in social cognition-or understanding the feelings, intentions and thoughts of other people. To date no studies have directly compared the social cognitive abilities of individuals with these two disorders. In this study, the social cognitive subdomain theory of mind was investigated in women with BPD (n = 25), women with SZ (n = 25) and healthy women (n = 25). An ecologically valid video-based measure (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition) was used...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Alessandra Santona, Angela Tagini, Diego Sarracino, Pietro De Carli, Cecilia S Pace, Laura Parolin, Grazia Terrone
Internal working models (IWMs) of attachment can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation, biological rhythms, and the establishment of children's autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Ravinder Jerath, Molly W Crawford, Vernon A Barnes
The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Nora Ruck
This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives...
August 2015: History of Psychology
Elena Pujals, Santiago Batlle, Ester Camprodon, Sílvia Pujals, Xavier Estrada, Marta Aceña, Araitz Petrizan, Lurdes Duñó, Josep Martí, Luis Miguel Martin, Víctor Pérez-Solá
The Theory of Mind Inventory is an informant measure designed to evaluate children's theory of mind competence. We describe the translation and cultural adaptation of the inventory by the following process: (1) translation from English to Spanish by two independent certified translators; (2) production of an agreed version by a multidisciplinary committee of experts; (3) back-translation to English of the agreed version by an independent translator; (4) discussion of the semantic, idiomatic, and cultural equivalence of the final version; (5) elaboration of the final test; (6) pilot test on 24 representatives of the autism spectrum disorders population and 24 representatives of typically developing children...
February 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Carmel Davies, Catherine Redmond, Sinead O Toole, Barbara Coughlan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this discursive paper is to explore the question 'has biological science reconciled mind and body?'. BACKGROUND: This paper has been inspired by the recognition that bioscience has a historical reputation for privileging the body over the mind. The disregard for the mind (emotions and behaviour) cast bioscience within a 'mind-body problem' paradigm. It has also led to inherent limitations in its capacity to contribute to understanding the complex nature of health...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Andrée-Anne Bouvette-Turcot, Michael Pluess, Annie Bernier, Marie-Hélène Pennestri, Robert Levitan, Marla B Sokolowski, James L Kennedy, Klaus Minde, Meir Steiner, Irina Pokhvisneva, Michael J Meaney, Hélène Gaudreau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep problems are frequent in young children; however, children vary in the degree to which they are affected by poor sleep quality. We investigated whether a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, which is linked to emotional function, is a potential moderator of the influences of sleep duration on infant temperament using longitudinal data. METHODS: We examined the interactive effects of average sleep duration between 6 and 36 months of age and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation at 36 months in 209 children recruited into a longitudinal birth cohort study...
October 2015: Pediatrics
Daniel C Hyde, Mariana Aparicio Betancourt, Charline E Simon
Humans have the unique capacity to actively reflect on the thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge of others, but do we also track mental states spontaneously when observing other people? We asked this question by monitoring brain activity in belief-sensitive cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during free-viewing of social videos. More specifically, we identified a portion of the right temporal-parietal junction (rTPJ) selective for mental state processing using an established, explicit theory of mind task, and then analyzed the brain response in that region of interest (ROI) during free-viewing of video clips involving people producing goal-directed actions...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Eliane Deschrijver, Lara Bardi, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
Theory of mind (ToM) research has shown that adults with high functioning autism (HFA) demonstrate typical performance on tasks that require explicit belief reasoning, despite clear social difficulties in everyday life situations. In the current study, we used implicit belief manipulations that are task-irrelevant and therefore less susceptible to strategies. In a ball-detection task, it was shown that neurotypical individuals detect a ball faster if an agent believed the ball was present. We predicted that adults with high functioning autism (HFA) would not show this effect...
January 2016: Cognitive Neuroscience
Anouk van der Weiden, Merel Prikken, Neeltje E M van Haren
Difficulties in self-other processing lie at the core of schizophrenia and pose a problem for patients' daily social functioning. In the present selective review, we provide a framework for understanding self-other integration and distinction, and impairments herein in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we discuss classic motor prediction models in relation to mirror neuron functioning, theory of mind, mimicry, self-awareness, and self-agency phenomena. Importantly, we also discuss the role of more recent cognitive expectation models in these phenomena, and argue that these cognitive models form an essential contribution to our understanding of self-other integration and distinction...
October 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Gianina Toller, Babu Adhimoolam, Katherine P Rankin, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Martin Kurthen, Hennric Jokeit
Refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy and is often accompanied by deficits in social cognition including emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy. Consistent with the neuronal networks that are crucial for normal social-cognitive processing, these impairments have been associated with functional changes in fronto-temporal regions. However, although atrophy in unilateral MTLE also affects regions of the temporal and frontal lobes that underlie social cognition, little is known about the structural correlates of social-cognitive deficits in refractory MTLE...
November 2015: Neuropsychologia
Shanna Williams, Kelsey Moore, Angela M Crossman, Victoria Talwar
Children's prosocial lying was examined in relation to executive functioning skills and theory of mind development. Prosocial lying was observed using a disappointing gift paradigm. Of the 79 children (ages 6-12 years) who completed the disappointing gift paradigm, 47 (59.5%) told a prosocial lie to a research assistant about liking their prize. In addition, of those children who told prosocial lies, 25 (53.2%) maintained semantic leakage control during follow-up questioning, thereby demonstrating advanced lie-telling skills...
January 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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