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Emanuele Preti, Rossella Di Pierro, Giulio Costantini, Ilaria M A Benzi, Chiara De Panfilis, Fabio Madeddu
We argue that clinical information related to an object-relations model of personality pathology can be used by untrained and clinically inexperienced students to rate personality-disordered patients on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). To do so, 73 clinically inexperienced undergraduate students were asked to assess personality functioning of 10 female inpatients using the LPFS from audio recordings of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). LPFS ratings showed acceptable interrater reliability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Ricardo Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Adolfo Muñoz, Antonio L Castro, Oscar Moreno, Mario Pascual
This research shows a protocol to assess the computational complexity of querying relational and non-relational (NoSQL (not only Structured Query Language)) standardized electronic health record (EHR) medical information database systems (DBMS). It uses a set of three doubling-sized databases, i.e. databases storing 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 realistic standardized EHR extracts, in three different database management systems (DBMS): relational MySQL object-relational mapping (ORM), document-based NoSQL MongoDB, and native extensible markup language (XML) NoSQL eXist...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hideaki Tanaka
Studies investigating event-related potentials have reported on face-sensitive P1 and N170 components, as well as object-related N170 components. Face-sensitive N170 is also sensitive to face inversion, which has been defined as the face-inversion effect. This study aimed to directly compare the relationship between face-sensitive N170 during face perception (upright and inverted faces) and object-related N170 during object perception (two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects). More specifically, the purpose was to clarify whether face-sensitive P1 and N170 components are related to the perception of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects...
March 28, 2018: Neuroreport
Jon Hinrichs, V Barry Dauphin, Cheryl C Munday, John H Porcerelli, Ray Kamoo, Paula Christian-Kliger
Heterogeneity within diagnostic types and comorbidity across diagnostic groups render a specific personality disorder anything but specific, leading researchers and clinicians to increasingly focus on the general severity of personality pathology. Personality pathology severity is reflected in one's level of personality organization (LPO) and research has demonstrated that LPO is a significant predictor of treatment response. This investigation examined the reliability and validity of the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC) in assessing the LPO dimension of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Antonino Visalli, Antonino Vallesi
Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Miha Mlakar, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Maja Somrak, Silvio Bonfiglio, Mitja Luštrek
This paper addresses patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and telemonitoring in congestive heart failure (CHF), both increasingly important topics. The interest in CHF trials is shifting from hard end-points such as hospitalization and mortality, to softer end-points such health-related quality of life. However, the relation of these softer end-points to objective parameters is not well studied. Telemonitoring is suitable for collecting both patient-reported outcomes and objective parameters. Most telemonitoring studies, however, do not take full advantage of the available sensor technology and intelligent data analysis...
2018: PloS One
Cody W McCants, Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
Representations of target features (attentional templates) guide attentional object selection during visual search. In many search tasks, targets objects are defined not by a single feature but by the spatial configuration of their component shapes. We used electrophysiological markers of attentional selection processes to determine whether the guidance of shape configuration search is entirely part-based or sensitive to the spatial relationship between shape features. Participants searched for targets defined by the spatial arrangement of two shape components (e...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Maryam Salmanian, Bagher Ghobari-Bonab, Jafar Bolhari
Objective: Spiritual psychotherapy has been conceptualized in the context of love and belief as principles of existence. Spiritual psychotherapy can provide an opportunity to design programs to treat conduct disorder. The aim of this study was to introduce the Spiritual Psychotherapy Package for Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and execute it as a pilot study. Method: The intervention is a manual-guided program conducted over 14 group sessions, using the perspectives of object relations and attachment approach...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Yair Haendler, Flavia Adani
Previous studies have found that Hebrew-speaking children accurately comprehend object relatives (OR) with an embedded non-referential arbitrary subject pronoun (ASP). The facilitation of ORs with embedded pronouns is expected both from a discourse-pragmatics perspective and within a syntax-based locality approach. However, the specific effect of ASP might also be driven by a mismatch in grammatical features between the head noun and the pronoun, or by its relatively undemanding referential properties. We tested these possibilities by comparing ORs whose embedded subject is either ASP, a referential pronoun, or a lexical noun phrase...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Child Language
A Jill Clemence, Katie Lewis
The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G; Westen, 1995 ) has been widely used as an assessment measure of object relational functioning across a number of stimuli. This study used the SCORS-G to investigate associations between global impairments and rigidity in quality of object relations with changes in suicidal ideation and psychiatric functioning over time. Participant narratives describing actual interpersonal experiences were collected using the Relationship Anecdote Paradigm (Luborsky, 1998 ) from a sample of individuals diagnosed with complex psychopathology completing residential psychiatric treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Michelle B Stein, Caleb J Siefert
There continues to be a need in the field of psychology for measures that quantify qualitative data in dynamically rich and clinically meaningful ways. The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G; Westen, 1995) is a clinician-rated measure with a strong theoretical foundation that assesses sophisticated underlying constructs, specifically 8 dimensions of object relations (Stein & Slavin-Mulford, 2018 ). The SCORS-G has steadily increased in popularity and this special section of the Journal of Personality Assessment reflects this growing interest...
March 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Paul C Vitz
This paper addresses the problem of pressure on a person to forgive that often makes forgiveness impossible or superficial. It proposes that clients who are unwilling or unable to forgive can still be encouraged to let go of interpersonal hatred because it is psychologically harmful to them. The issue of forgiving the person toward whom the hatred is directed can be treated more easily later, after the hatred has been removed or at least much reduced. The present theoretical approach distinguishes between anger and hatred; it provides a brief understanding of the origin of hatred from an object relations perspective with a focus on splitting...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Judy K Eekhoff
This paper discusses the use of somatic countertransference as a means of learning about the patient, about projective and adhesive identification and about the object relating nature of the most traumatized and withdrawn part of the personality. It assumes an elemental knowledge of British Object Relations and uses clinical material to illustrate the hypotheses that somatic countertransference is an indicator of a very elemental communication occurring from the aspect of the psyche that is united in a body mind or mind body...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Sandra Villata, Whitney Tabor, Julie Franck
Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ryan Smith, Donald Quinlan, Gary E Schwartz, Anna Sanova, Anna Alkozei, Richard D Lane
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) has received considerable support as a reliable and valid measure of individual differences in emotional awareness (EA) since the original report involving 40 participants (Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990 ). However, the hypothesized developmental nature of EA (conceptualized as a cognitive skill) has thus far only been examined in that 1 early study. Here we report multiple regression analyses on the entire sample of 94 participants who completed the LEAS as part of that original study, as well as the same developmental and affective measures used in the original report...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan, Frank Burchert
We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs...
January 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Caitlin Axford, Annette V Joosten, Courtenay Harris
BACKGROUND/AIM: Children are reported to spend less time engaged in outdoor activity and object-related play than in the past. The increased use and mobility of technology, and the ease of use of tablet devices are some of the factors that have contributed to these changes. Concern has been raised that the use of such screen and surface devices in very young children is reducing their fine motor skill development. We examined the effectiveness of iPad applications that required specific motor skills designed to improve fine motor skills...
April 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Pilar Piñar, Matthew T Carlson, Jill P Morford, Paola E Dussias
Eye fixation measures were used to examine English relative clause processing by adult ASL-English bilingual deaf readers. Participants processed subject relative clauses faster than object relative clauses, but expected animacy cues eliminated processing difficulty in object relative clauses. This brings into question previous claims that deaf readers' sentence processing strategies are qualitatively different from those of hearing English native speakers. Measures of English comprehension predicted reading speed, but not differences in syntactic processing...
November 2017: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Zeynep Sahin, Bo Vinnars, Bernard S Gorman, Alexander Wilczek, Marie Åsberg, Jacques P Barber
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of initial level of psychiatric severity on treatment outcome in psychodynamic therapy and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that DBT would lead to better outcome for patients with high psychiatric severity, whereas dynamic treatment would lead to better outcome for patients with lower psychiatric severity. Data from the 5th-year follow-up of the Stockholm City Council's and the Karolinska Institute's Psychotherapy Project were used in the present study...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
Michael J Diamond
This paper argues that recovering the "missing" paternal function in analytic space is essential for the patient's achievement of mature object relations. Emerging from the helpless infant's contact with primary caregivers, mature intimacy rests on establishing healthy triadic functioning based on an infant-with-mother-and-father. Despite a maternocentric bias in contemporary clinical theory, the emergence of triangularity and the inclusion of the paternal third as a separating element is vital in the analytic dyad...
October 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
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