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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#1
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913588/action-categories-in-lateral-occipitotemporal-cortex-are-organized-along-sociality-and-transitivity
#2
Moritz F Wurm, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
: How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. While there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown if different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface, analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913069/otolaryngology-sleep-medicine-curriculum-objectives-as-determined-by-sleep-experts
#3
Nathan Cass, Alan Kominsky, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
PURPOSE: (1) Ascertain the most important concepts and topics for otolaryngology resident education in sleep medicine and surgery, as determined by faculty who teach sleep medicine to otolaryngology residents. (2) Create learning objectives within the area of otolaryngologic sleep medicine in order to design a sleep medicine curriculum for otolaryngology residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two web-based surveys were sent to 163 academic otolaryngologists who teach sleep medicine...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909354/the-comprehension-of-sentences-with-unaccusative-verbs-in-aphasia-a-test-of-the-intervener-hypothesis
#4
Natalie Sullivan, Matthew Walenski, Tracy Love, Lewis P Shapiro
BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh-questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899832/development-and-application-of-a-stepwise-assessment-process-for-rational-redesign-of-sequential-skills-based-courses
#5
Casey E Gallimore, Andrea L Porter, Susanne G Barnett
Objective. To develop and apply a stepwise process to assess achievement of course learning objectives related to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) preparedness and inform redesign of sequential skills-based courses. Design. Four steps comprised the assessment and redesign process: (1) identify skills critical for APPE preparedness; (2) utilize focus groups and course evaluations to determine student competence in skill performance; (3) apply course mapping to identify course deficits contributing to suboptimal skill performance; and (4) initiate course redesign to target exposed deficits...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#6
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859149/psyche-and-culture-perspectives-based-on-the-contributions-and-limits-of-ethnopsychiatry
#7
Rajaa Stitou
The unconscious often appears in the form of a question or answer to the difficult relationship between the psyche and culture, a difficulty that becomes exacerbated when we are dealing with cultural difference. This difficulty, evidenced for example by Freud's thoughts on Islam, reappears, albeit in a very different way, in ethnopsychiatric theory. The author discusses the blind spots of the binary logic of the unconscious present in the work of George Devereux, a logic that eventually leads him into the same trap he had himself criticized...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832454/a-tale-of-two-biographies-the-myth-and-truth-of-barbara-mcclintock
#8
Esha Shah
Evelyn Fox Keller wrote first biography of the Nobel Prize winning geneticist Barbara McClintock in which Keller discussed how McClintock felt being rejected by her peers in the 1950s because she questioned the dominant idea of the particulate gene and instead proposed that the genetic material jumped positions on the chromosome which indicated that the gene did not control but was controlled by the cellular environment. Keller's story of McClintock's life is an account of a woman scientist's conception of science and how her unorthodox views isolated her from the main stream science...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822451/so-much-data-so-little-time-using-sequential-data-analysis-to-monitor-behavioral-changes
#9
Tywanquila Walker
Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815519/a-window-of-opportunity-for-cognitive-training-in-adolescence
#10
Lisa J Knoll, Delia Fuhrmann, Ashok L Sakhardande, Fabian Stamp, Maarten Speekenbrink, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11-33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i...
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813146/the-matrix-verb-as-a-source-of-comprehension-difficulty-in-object-relative-sentences
#11
Adrian Staub, Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton
Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is entirely eliminated if additional material intervenes between the object gap and the matrix verb. An explanation in terms of spillover processing is ruled out, suggesting that it is the gap-matrix verb sequence that is itself responsible for the difficulty...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783883/reflective-practice-in-infant-mental-health-a-south-african-perspective
#12
Astrid Berg
Reflective practice forms a pivotal part of mental health intervention in a setting where language and cultural differences require working together with a community counselor for language interpretation. Reflective practice in infant mental health began with Esther Bick's () infant observations and continued with Selma Fraiberg's () parent-infant psychotherapy. These two models formed the basis of the practice of infant mental health in a community in South Africa. A clinical example will highlight the importance of culturally informed observation that is then reflected upon...
November 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769687/a-cross-validation-study-of-the-tgmd-2-the-case-of-an-adolescent-population
#13
Johann Issartel, Bronagh McGrane, Richard Fletcher, Wesley O'Brien, Danielle Powell, Sarahjane Belton
OBJECTIVES: This study proposes an extension of a widely used test evaluating fundamental movement skills proficiency to an adolescent population, with a specific emphasis on validity and reliability for this older age group. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: A total of 844 participants (n=456 male, 12.03±0.49) participated in this study. The 12 fundamental movement skills of the TGMD-2 were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was examined to ensure a minimum of 95% consistency between coders...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768059/determination-of-the-relative-cell-surface-and-total-expression-of-recombinant-ion-channels-using-flow-cytometry
#14
Benoîte Bourdin, Emilie Segura, Marie-Philippe Tétreault, Sylvie Lesage, Lucie Parent
Inherited or de novo mutations in cation-selective channels may lead to sudden cardiac death. Alteration in the plasma membrane trafficking of these multi-spanning transmembrane proteins, with or without change in channel gating, is often postulated to contribute significantly in this process. It has thus become critical to develop a method to quantify the change of the relative cell surface expression of cardiac ion channels on a large scale. Herein, a detailed protocol is provided to determine the relative total and cell surface expression of cardiac L-type calcium channels CaV1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759801/unusual-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-and-signs-in-the-early-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Hélio A G Teive, Délcio C Bertucci, Renato P Munhoz
Objective: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present with unusual motor and non-motor symptoms and signs in the early stage of the disease. Methods: Cases were collected over a five-year period at two tertiary movement disorders clinics. All had a diagnosis of PD with unusual presentations defined retrospectively as the presence of complaints not objectively related to any of the classic cardinal signs of parkinsonism or the typical early non-motor features of PD...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719831/psychologic-theories-in-functional-neurologic-disorders
#16
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708608/multimodal-integration-of-spatial-information-the-influence-of-object-related-factors-and-self-reported-strategies
#17
Harun Karimpur, Kai Hamburger
Spatial representations are a result of multisensory information integration. More recent findings suggest that the multisensory information processing of a scene can be facilitated when paired with a semantically congruent auditory signal. This congruency effect was taken as evidence that audio-visual integration occurs for complex scenes. As navigation in our environment consists of a seamless integration of complex sceneries, a fundamental question arises: how is human landmark-based wayfinding affected by multimodality? In order to address this question, two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704570/karl-abraham-the-birth-of-object-relations-theory-by-isabel-sanfeliu-translated-by-kate-walters
#18
Andrea Castiello D'Antonio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698502/leadership-book-club-an-innovative-strategy-to-incorporate-leadership-development-into-pharmacy-residency-programs
#19
Alyssa Chappell, Katelyn Dervay
Purpose: To describe an innovative strategy for incorporating leadership training and development across multiple postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs at a single institution. Background: Tampa General Hospital has 7 pharmacy residency positions: 4 postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residents and a single resident for each of the 3 PGY2 programs (critical care, emergency medicine, and solid organ transplant). Administrative topics are incorporated across the PGY1 and PGY2 residency programs, with each PGY2 program having additional administrative topics specific to their specialty area...
September 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695104/are-categorical-spatial-relations-encoded-by-shifting-visual-attention-between-objects
#20
Lei Yuan, David Uttal, Steven Franconeri
Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects-the shift account of relation processing-which states that relations such as 'above' or 'below' are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory...
2016: PloS One
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