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Susanne M van Hooft, Yvonne N Becqué, Jolanda Dwarswaard, AnneLoes van Staa, Roland Bal
BACKGROUND: Nurses are expected to support people to self-manage. Student nurses therefore need to master competencies that include the assessment of peoples' needs and preferences, and shared decision-making, whilst respecting and enhancing peoples' autonomy. Adapting nurse education programmes to meet this goal requires insight into the practice of teaching self-management support. In order to reveal this practice, one can distinguish between the intended, the taught, and the received curriculum...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Andrea F Auletta, Simone Cupellaro, Luigi Abbate, Elena Aiello, Pamela Cornacchia, Claudia Norcia, Carla Sogos
Previous research has shown that stimulus pull is one of the contributory factors influencing Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) responses. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of studies examining this. In particular, the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) has been employed to examine stimulus pull in adult clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study is the first attempt to examine this issue in a nonclinical sample of children. Ninety-eight children from Italian elementary (1st to 5th grade) and middle (6th to 8th grade) schools provided narratives to six TAT cards (1, 2, 3BM, 4, 8BM, and 16)...
June 1, 2018: Assessment
Yune S Lee, Arthur Wingfield, Nam-Eun Min, Ethan Kotloff, Murray Grossman, Jonathan E Peelle
In this paper, we investigate how subtle differences in hearing acuity affect the neural systems supporting speech processing in young adults. Auditory sentence comprehension requires perceiving a complex acoustic signal and performing linguistic operations to extract the correct meaning. We used functional MRI to monitor human brain activity while adults aged 18-41 years listened to spoken sentences. The sentences varied in their level of syntactic processing demands, containing either a subject-relative or object-relative center-embedded clause...
May 2018: ENeuro
Sibel Toprak, Nicolás Navarro-Guerrero, Stefan Wermter
In computational systems for visuo-haptic object recognition, vision and haptics are often modeled as separate processes. But this is far from what really happens in the human brain, where cross- as well as multimodal interactions take place between the two sensory modalities. Generally, three main principles can be identified as underlying the processing of the visual and haptic object-related stimuli in the brain: (1) hierarchical processing, (2) the divergence of the processing onto substreams for object shape and material perception, and (3) the experience-driven self-organization of the integratory neural circuits...
2018: Cognitive Computation
Jo-Anna B Baxter, Yaqub Wasan, Sajid B Soofi, Zamir Suhag, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical period for physical and psychological growth and development, and vitamin and mineral requirements are correspondingly increased. Health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence to adulthood. Developing a preconception care package for adolescent and young women in resource-limited settings could serve to empower them to make informed decisions about their nutrition, health, and well-being, as well as function as a platform for the delivery of basic nutrition-related interventions to address undernutrition...
May 30, 2018: Reproductive Health
Golan Shahar
Despite considerable progress in depression research and treatment, the disorder continues to pose daunting challenges to scientists and practitioners alike. This article presents a novel conceptualization of the psychological dynamics of depression which draws from Melanie Klein's notion of the positions, reformulated using social-cognitive terms. Specifically, Klein's notion of position, consisting of anxieties (persecutory vs. "depressive"), defense mechanisms ("primitive"/split based vs...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Ramón Morillo-Verdugo, María de Las Aguas Robustillo-Cortés, María Teresa Martín-Conde, Gador Callejón-Callejón, Purificación Cid-Silva, Carmen Moriel-Sánchez, Begoña Tortajada-Goitia, Carmen Victoria Almeida-González
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients have increased their life expectancy with a parallel increase in age-associated comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of an intensive pharmaceutical care follow-up program in comparison to a traditional model among HIV-infected patients with moderate/high cardiovascular risk. METHOD: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized study of a structured health intervention conducted between January-2014 and June-2015 with 12 months of follow-up at outpatient pharmacy services...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Marie-Anne Boujaoude, Andrew J Mirelman, Kim Dalziel, Natalie Carvalho
Background: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is frequently used as an input for guiding priority setting in health. However, CEA seldom incorporates information about trade-offs between total health gains and equity impacts of interventions. This study investigates to what extent equity considerations have been taken into account in CEA in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using rotavirus vaccination as a case study. Methods: Specific equity-related indicators for vaccination were first mapped to the Guidance on Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health) checklist criteria...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon P Caplovitz, Gennadiy Gurariy, Jared Medina, Jacqueline C Snow
Although object-related areas were discovered in human parietal cortex a decade ago, surprisingly little is known about the nature and purpose of these representations, and how they differ from those in the ventral processing stream. In this article, we review evidence for the unique contribution of object areas of dorsal cortex to three-dimensional (3-D) shape representation, the localization of objects in space, and in guiding reaching and grasping actions. We also highlight the role of dorsal cortex in form-motion interaction and spatiotemporal integration, possible functional relationships between 3-D shape and motion processing, and how these processes operate together in the service of supporting goal-directed actions with objects...
May 17, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
B B Bankson, M N Hebart, I I A Groen, C I Baker
Visual object representations are commonly thought to emerge rapidly, yet it has remained unclear to what extent early brain responses reflect purely low-level visual features of these objects and how strongly those features contribute to later categorical or conceptual representations. Here, we aimed to estimate a lower temporal bound for the emergence of conceptual representations by defining two criteria that characterize such representations: 1) conceptual object representations should generalize across different exemplars of the same object, and 2) these representations should reflect high-level behavioral judgments...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Caterina Cinel, Cathleen Cortis Mack, Geoff Ward
The authors report 6 experiments that examined the contention that an end-of-day review could lead to augmentation in human memory. In Experiment 1, participants in the study phase were presented with a campus tour of different to-be-remembered objects in different university locations. Each to-be-remembered object was presented with an associated specific comment. Participants were then shown the location name and photographs of half of the objects from half of the locations, and they were asked to try to name the object and recall the associated comment specific to each item...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Barry L Stern, Frank Yeomans
The authors describe the application of a twice-weekly exploratory psychotherapy, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), to patients with borderline personality disorder. The article describes the pathology of internal object relations that provides a framework for understanding borderline personality and how TFP establishes a treatment framework to address such pathology and set the stage for working at the level of internal psychological structure. An outline of the assessment and treatment protocol is described along with a case example to illustrate the same...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
James Wickham, Kurt Riitters, Peter Vogt, Jennifer Costanza, Anne Neale
Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed. We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existing natural vegetation. We identified 1,102,720 candidate ecological restoration areas across the continental United States. Candidate ecological restoration areas were concentrated in the Great Plains and eastern United States. We populated the database of candidate ecological restoration areas with 17 attributes related to site content and context, including factors such as soil fertility and roads (site content), and number and area of potentially conjoined vegetated regions (site context) to facilitate its use for site prioritization...
November 2017: Restoration ecology
Chrysa Retsa, Pawel J Matusz, Jan W H Schnupp, Micah M Murray
Distinct anatomical and functional pathways are postulated for analysing a sound's object-related ('what') and space-related ('where') information. It remains unresolved to which extent distinct or overlapping neural resources subserve specific object-related dimensions (i.e. who is speaking and what is being said can both be derived from the same acoustic input). To address this issue, we recorded high-density auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) while participants selectively attended and discriminated sounds according to their pitch, speaker identity, uttered syllable ('what' dimensions) or their location ('where')...
August 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ)...
June 2018: Psychiatry Research
Nufar Sukenik, Naama Friedmann
Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Greg Haggerty, Michelle Stein, Caleb Siefert, Jennifer Zodan, Ashwin Mehra, Kelechi Ogbuji, Jaspreet Sangha, Michael Habib, Samuel J Sinclair, Mark A Blais
The social cognition and object relations scale-global rating method is a clinical rating system assessing 8 domains of self and interpersonal functioning. It can be applied to score numerous forms of narrative data. In this study, we investigate the SCORS-G relationship to measures of alliance and readiness for psychotherapy with an adolescent inpatient sample. Seventy-two psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were consented and subsequently rated by their individual and group therapist using the SCORS-G...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Emanuele Preti, Rossella Di Pierro, Giulio Costantini, Ilaria M A Benzi, Chiara De Panfilis, Fabio Madeddu
We argue that clinical information related to an object-relations model of personality pathology can be used by untrained and clinically inexperienced students to rate personality-disordered patients on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS). To do so, 73 clinically inexperienced undergraduate students were asked to assess personality functioning of 10 female inpatients using the LPFS from audio recordings of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). LPFS ratings showed acceptable interrater reliability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Ricardo Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Adolfo Muñoz, Antonio L Castro, Oscar Moreno, Mario Pascual
This research shows a protocol to assess the computational complexity of querying relational and non-relational (NoSQL (not only Structured Query Language)) standardized electronic health record (EHR) medical information database systems (DBMS). It uses a set of three doubling-sized databases, i.e. databases storing 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 realistic standardized EHR extracts, in three different database management systems (DBMS): relational MySQL object-relational mapping (ORM), document-based NoSQL MongoDB, and native extensible markup language (XML) NoSQL eXist...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hideaki Tanaka
Studies investigating event-related potentials have reported on face-sensitive P1 and N170 components, as well as object-related N170 components. Face-sensitive N170 is also sensitive to face inversion, which has been defined as the face-inversion effect. This study aimed to directly compare the relationship between face-sensitive N170 during face perception (upright and inverted faces) and object-related N170 during object perception (two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects). More specifically, the purpose was to clarify whether face-sensitive P1 and N170 components are related to the perception of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects...
May 2, 2018: Neuroreport
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