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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100739/action-categories-in-lateral-occipitotemporal-cortex-are-organized-along-sociality-and-transitivity
#1
Moritz F Wurm, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
: How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. Although there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown whether different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098622/physician-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia-in-the-icu-a-dialogue-on-core-ethical-issues
#2
Ewan C Goligher, E Wesley Ely, Daniel P Sulmasy, Jan Bakker, John Raphael, Angelo E Volandes, Bhavesh M Patel, Kate Payne, Annmarie Hosie, Larry Churchill, Douglas B White, James Downar
OBJECTIVE: Many patients are admitted to the ICU at or near the end of their lives. Consequently, the increasingly common debate regarding physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia holds implications for the practice of critical care medicine. The objective of this article is to explore core ethical issues related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia from the perspective of healthcare professionals and ethicists on both sides of the debate. SYNTHESIS: We identified four issues highlighting the key areas of ethical tension central to evaluating physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in medical practice: 1) the benefit or harm of death itself, 2) the relationship between physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia and withholding or withdrawing life support, 3) the morality of a physician deliberately causing death, and 4) the management of conscientious objection related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the critical care setting...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#3
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070644/-patient-perspective-of-pain-assessment-by-nursing-personnel-qualitative-cross-sectional-study-on-use-of-the-nrs
#4
L Gerken, A Windisch, R Thalhammer, S Olwitz, E Fay, H Al Hussini, B Reuschenbach
BACKGROUND: The assessment of pain as a part of adequate pain management is an integral part of the clinical routine. Much research has been carried out concerning use, relevance and validity of different assessment scales; however, patients' perspective of pain assessment has not yet been studied in Germany. The aim of the present study was to collate patients' experiences regarding pain assessment based on the numeric rating scale (NRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was conducted as a qualitative cross-sectional study based on the grounded theory methodology by Strauss and Corbin...
January 9, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024267/sexual-homicide-brief-review-of-the-literature-and-case-report-involving-rape-genital-mutilation-and-human-arson
#5
REVIEW
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Polichronis Voultsos, Aikaterini Vlachaki, Pavlos Pavlidis
The objective of the current paper is to report a new case of sexual murder involving human arson and summarize the literature on the phenomenon of sexual homicide. The present case study is unprecedented in Greece and a rarity in international literature due to the fact that the victim suffered genital mutilation and incineration while still alive. The evaluation consisted of 176 articles; 53 were reviewed by the authors. The results revealed sparse, but significant, research findings. The authors discuss the limitations regarding research, incidence of the phenomenon, crime-scene patterns, offender characteristics (killing methods, motive inferences, sociodemographic data, classifications, psychopathology, modus operandi), and victim selection...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000944/learning-to-be-in-variant-combining-prior-knowledge-and-experience-to-infer-orientation-invariance-in-object-recognition
#6
Joseph L Austerweil, Thomas L Griffiths, Stephen E Palmer
How does the visual system recognize images of a novel object after a single observation despite possible variations in the viewpoint of that object relative to the observer? One possibility is comparing the image with a prototype for invariance over a relevant transformation set (e.g., translations and dilations). However, invariance over rotations (i.e., orientation invariance) has proven difficult to analyze, because it applies to some objects but not others. We propose that the invariant transformations of an object are learned by incorporating prior expectations with real-world evidence...
December 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997322/time-focus-relationship-and-trauma-a-contemporary-object-relations-approach-to-brief-therapy
#7
Michael Stadter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991761/visualizing-and-calculating-tip-substrate-distance-in-nanoscale-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-using-3-dimensional-super-resolution-optical-imaging
#8
Vignesh Sundaresan, Kyle Marchuk, Yun Yu, Eric J Titus, Andrew J Wilson, Chadd M Armstrong, Bo Zhang, Katherine A Willets
We report a strategy for the optical determination of tip-substrate distance in nanoscale scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) using three-dimensional super-resolution fluorescence imaging. A phase mask is placed in the emission path of our dual SECM/optical microscope, generating a double helix point spread function at the image plane, which allows us to measure the height of emitting objects relative to the focus of the microscope. By exciting both a fluorogenic reaction at the nanoscale electrode tip as well as fluorescent nanoparticles at the substrate, we are able to calculate the tip-substrate distance as the tip approaches the surface with precision better than 25 nm...
December 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975176/the-patient-psychiatrist-relationship-on-the-axis-of-the-other-and-the-same
#9
Gabriel Schreiber, Sofia Avissar, Alan Jotkowitz, Demian Halperin
The patient-psychiatrist relationship is a cornerstone of psychiatric professionalism and ethics. We discuss this topic along the axis of the Other and the Same, concepts defined by continental philosophy. The self of Anglo-American philosophy is typically described in individualistic terms. Individualism, autonomy and ideal self are valorized within the current model of care. These characteristics belong to the Lacanian Imaginary Order, which is the core of narcissism. Patients may yearn for another model of interaction...
December 14, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939421/efficacy-and-safety-of-yahom-as-a-traditional-thai-herbal-therapy-a-systematic-review
#10
Krongkarn Chootip, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon, C Norman Scholfield, Anjana Fuangchan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yahom is a traditional Thai medicine used to treat syncope and abdominal discomfort. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to systematically review all available evidence which purports to support these claims. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The systematic review accorded with the Cochrane Collaboration framework and PRISMA reporting. Databases including MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane library database, and Google Scholar were searched by keywords, Yahom and Ya-hom...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#11
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913588/action-categories-in-lateral-occipitotemporal-cortex-are-organized-along-sociality-and-transitivity
#12
Moritz F Wurm, Alfonso Caramazza, Angelika Lingnau
: How neural specificity for distinct conceptual knowledge categories arises is central for understanding the organization of semantic memory in the human brain. While there is a large body of research on the neural processing of distinct object categories, the organization of action categories remains largely unknown. In particular, it is unknown if different action categories follow a specific topographical organization on the cortical surface, analogously to the category-specific organization of object knowledge...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913069/otolaryngology-sleep-medicine-curriculum-objectives-as-determined-by-sleep-experts
#13
Nathan Cass, Alan Kominsky, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
PURPOSE: (1) Ascertain the most important concepts and topics for otolaryngology resident education in sleep medicine and surgery, as determined by faculty who teach sleep medicine to otolaryngology residents. (2) Create learning objectives within the area of otolaryngologic sleep medicine in order to design a sleep medicine curriculum for otolaryngology residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two web-based surveys were sent to 163 academic otolaryngologists who teach sleep medicine...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909354/the-comprehension-of-sentences-with-unaccusative-verbs-in-aphasia-a-test-of-the-intervener-hypothesis
#14
Natalie Sullivan, Matthew Walenski, Tracy Love, Lewis P Shapiro
BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh-questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899832/development-and-application-of-a-stepwise-assessment-process-for-rational-redesign-of-sequential-skills-based-courses
#15
Casey E Gallimore, Andrea L Porter, Susanne G Barnett
Objective. To develop and apply a stepwise process to assess achievement of course learning objectives related to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) preparedness and inform redesign of sequential skills-based courses. Design. Four steps comprised the assessment and redesign process: (1) identify skills critical for APPE preparedness; (2) utilize focus groups and course evaluations to determine student competence in skill performance; (3) apply course mapping to identify course deficits contributing to suboptimal skill performance; and (4) initiate course redesign to target exposed deficits...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#16
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859149/psyche-and-culture-perspectives-based-on-the-contributions-and-limits-of-ethnopsychiatry
#17
Rajaa Stitou
The unconscious often appears in the form of a question or answer to the difficult relationship between the psyche and culture, a difficulty that becomes exacerbated when we are dealing with cultural difference. This difficulty, evidenced for example by Freud's thoughts on Islam, reappears, albeit in a very different way, in ethnopsychiatric theory. The author discusses the blind spots of the binary logic of the unconscious present in the work of George Devereux, a logic that eventually leads him into the same trap he had himself criticized...
December 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832454/a-tale-of-two-biographies-the-myth-and-truth-of-barbara-mcclintock
#18
Esha Shah
Evelyn Fox Keller wrote first biography of the Nobel Prize winning geneticist Barbara McClintock in which Keller discussed how McClintock felt being rejected by her peers in the 1950s because she questioned the dominant idea of the particulate gene and instead proposed that the genetic material jumped positions on the chromosome which indicated that the gene did not control but was controlled by the cellular environment. Keller's story of McClintock's life is an account of a woman scientist's conception of science and how her unorthodox views isolated her from the main stream science...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822451/so-much-data-so-little-time-using-sequential-data-analysis-to-monitor-behavioral-changes
#19
Tywanquila Walker
Twenty-three infants (M = 13.7 months, SD = 3.73) and their primary caregivers were observed and video-taped in three 20-min play sessions. Over the course of a month, changes in infant behaviors and caregiver responsiveness to those behaviors were monitored. Repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that caregiver responsiveness to infant object-related and dyadic behaviors significantly increased over the course of the sessions. However, the ANOVAs did not specify exactly which caregiver behaviors changed. Sequential data analysis revealed that caregivers specifically increased their use of dyadic vocal behaviors in response to all infant behaviors...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815519/a-window-of-opportunity-for-cognitive-training-in-adolescence
#20
Lisa J Knoll, Delia Fuhrmann, Ashok L Sakhardande, Fabian Stamp, Maarten Speekenbrink, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11-33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i...
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
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