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Empathic understanding

Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Robert P Shannon, Richard J Presutti
There is an upward trend incidence of multiple chronic life-limiting conditions with a well-documented associated impact on patients and their caregivers. When patients approach the end of life, they are often faced with a challenging multidimensional burden while navigating a complex health care system. Patients and families/caregivers are faced with daily decisions, often with little or no frame of reference or medical knowledge. The "what, how, when, and where" puzzle during this challenging time can be overwhelming for patients and their families, and when clinicians do not contemplate this associated workload's impact on patients and caregivers' capacity for self-care, patients and caregivers scramble to find compensatory solutions, often putting their health care at lower priority...
March 13, 2018: Curēus
Cara D Dolin, Michelle A Kominiarek
Pregnancy in women with obesity is an important public health problem with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Obesity complicates almost all aspects of pregnancy. Given the growing prevalence of obesity in women, obstetric providers need to understand the risks associated with obesity in pregnancy and the unique aspects of management for women with obesity. Empathic and patient-centered care, along with knowledge, can optimize outcomes for women and children.
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Sophie Isobel, Gavin Angus-Leppan
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to briefly overview the processes of neuro-reciprocity relevant to vicarious traumatization of psychiatrists through their clinical roles. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of trauma in mental health service users, understanding of the effects of trauma on the brain and mechanisms of neuro-reciprocity in empathic attunement suggest that psychiatrists are at high risk of vicarious trauma. Preventing vicarious trauma at an organizational level through trauma-informed approaches is of paramount importance...
May 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Aslı Karakilic, Servet Kizildag, Sevim Kandis, Guven Guvendi, Basar Koc, Gamze B Camsari, Ulas M Camsari, Mehmet Ates, Sevil Gonenc Arda, Nazan Uysal
Empathy defined as the ability to understand and the share the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of another, is an important skill in survival and reproduction. Among many factors that affect empathy include psychological stress, anxiety states. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acute psychological stress on empathic behavior and its association with oxytocin and vasopressin levels in amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Rats were subjected to 0.2 mA (low) and 1.6 mA (high) intensity of foot shock stress for duration of 20 minutes...
April 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Fariba Taleghani, Elaheh Ashouri, Mehrdad Memarzadeh, Mortaza Saburi
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore oncology nurses' barriers to empathy-based care perceptions. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive qualitative method. In total, 18 oncology nurses were selected via purposive sampling. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis using an inductive approach. Findings Three main categories emerged from the data analysis: barriers related to nursing including: lacking compassion; disinterest in oncology nursing and self-criticism; psychological distress; barriers related to healthcare: job strain; task-centeredness; no formal training; poor manager support; nurse-patient gender imbalance; and barriers related to cancer care including: difficulty maintaining empathy with cancer patients; and inappropriate cancer patient Practical implications Oncology nurses provided insights into barriers to empathy-based care and the challenges they encountered while caring for cancer patients...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Florian Schmidsberger, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
BACKGROUND: The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Ksenia Meyza, Ewelina Knapska
While many consider empathy an exclusively human trait, non-human animals are capable of simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, as well as consolation and helping behavior. Rodent models are particularly useful for describing the neuronal background of these phenomena. They offer the possibility of employing single-cell resolution mapping of the neuronal activity as well as novel techniques for manipulation of in vivo activity, which are currently unavailable in human studies. Here, we review recent developments in the field of rodent empathy research with special emphasis on behavioral paradigms and data on neuronal correlates of emotional contagion...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Julie Apker, Margaret Baker, Scott Shank, Kristen Hatten, Sally VanSweden
BACKGROUND: Optimizing patient-hospitalist interactions heightens patient satisfaction, improves patient health outcomes, and improves hospitalist job satisfaction. A study was conducted to recognize hospitalist communication that enhance encounters, identify hospitalist behaviors for improvement interventions, and explore the association of time and gender with communication quality. METHODS: Researchers observed encounters between 36 hospitalists and 206 adult patients...
April 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Shihui Han
Racial discrimination in social behavior, although disapproved of by many contemporary cultures, has been widely reported. Because empathy plays a key functional role in social behavior, brain imaging researchers have extensively investigated the neurocognitive underpinnings of racial ingroup bias in empathy. This research has revealed consistent evidence for increased neural responses to the perceived pain of same-race compared with other-race individuals in multiple brain regions and across multiple time-windows...
March 18, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Lindsay J Blazin, Cherilyn Cecchini, Catherine Habashy, Erica C Kaye, Justin N Baker
Effective communication is essential to the practice of pediatric oncology. Clear and empathic delivery of diagnostic and prognostic information positively impacts the ways in which patients and families cope. Honest, compassionate discussions regarding goals of care and hopes for patients approaching end of life can provide healing when other therapies have failed. Effective communication and the positive relationships it fosters also can provide comfort to families grieving the loss of a child. A robust body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of optimal communication for patients, families, and healthcare providers...
March 11, 2018: Children
Matthew E Sachs, Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Jonas T Kaplan
Effective social functioning relies in part on the ability to identify emotions from auditory stimuli and respond appropriately. Previous studies have uncovered brain regions engaged by the affective information conveyed by sound. But some of the acoustical properties of sounds that express certain emotions vary remarkably with the instrument used to produce them, for example the human voice or a violin. Do these brain regions respond in the same way to different emotions regardless of the sound source? To address this question, we had participants (N = 38, 20 females) listen to brief audio excerpts produced by the violin, clarinet, and human voice, each conveying one of three target emotions-happiness, sadness, and fear-while brain activity was measured with fMRI...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Rianne van Rooijen, Caroline M M Junge, Chantal Kemner
During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chrystyna D Kouros, Lauren M Papp
This study examined couples' perceptions of each other's daily affect, using a daily diary methodology. Specifically, we tested the extent to which couples accurately inferred how their partner was feeling (empathic accuracy) and the extent to which spouses used their own feelings as a gauge for how their partner was feeling (assumed similarity). We also tested for indirect accuracy in couples' perceptions; that is, that assumed similarity in the context of actual similarity leads to empathic accuracy. Participants were 51 couples who completed daily diaries for seven consecutive nights...
February 23, 2018: Family Process
Conny A M F H Span-Sluyter, Jan C M Lavrijsen, Evert van Leeuwen, Raymond T C M Koopmans
BACKGROUND: Patients in a vegetative state/ unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) pose ethical dilemmas to those involved. Many conflicts occur between professionals and families of these patients. In the Netherlands physicians are supposed to withdraw life sustaining treatment once recovery is not to be expected. Yet these patients have shown to survive sometimes for decades. The role of the families is thought to be important. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the professional perspective on conflicts in long-term care of patients in VS/UWS...
February 22, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
March 4, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Riccardo Paracampo, Martina Pirruccio, Marco Costa, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
Functional imaging studies suggest that accurate understanding of others' emotional feelings (i.e., empathic accuracy, EA) recruits high-order visual, sensorimotor and mentalizing brain networks. However, the behavioral relevance of these findings is unclear. To fill in this gap, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to interfere with the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during an EA task requiring participants to infer the enjoyment felt by a social target while smiling/laughing...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jane Quinlan, Felicia Cox
Managing patients with dependence requires knowledge of pharmacology; an understanding of the diagnosis of dependence and recognition of withdrawal; skills in communication and collaborative working; and a nonjudgmental, empathic attitude.
July 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
John H Spreadbury, Christopher M Kipps
AIM: Psychosocial research on the lived experiences of young-onset dementia patients and caregivers has identified salient issues about their care, however, views on care from the perspective of young-onset dementia healthcare professionals is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify important issues in young-onset dementia care provision from a healthcare provider perspective. METHODS: The design was an exploratory qualitative interview study...
February 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
David Hui, Donna S Zhukovsky, Eduardo Bruera
Serious illness conversations can influence the direction of care by supporting decision-making compatible with the patient's goals. Effective use of core communication techniques, such as active listening and empathic statements, allows for a deeper understanding of the patients' goals, concerns, communication preferences, and questions. Metaphors can be used to augment end-of-life care planning. Used inappropriately, metaphors can cause misunderstandings and confusion. Applied skillfully, metaphors can personalize challenging discussions, improving patient comprehension and helping patients and their families to plan ahead...
January 25, 2018: Oncologist
Gianluigi Zaza, Simona Granata, Chiara Caletti, Lorenzo Signorini, Giovanni Stallone, Antonio Lupo
The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I), drugs widely used in transplant medicine and oncology, exert their function by inhibiting a serine/threonine kinase with a pivotal role in cellular metabolism and in a wide range of eukaryotic biological/cellular functions and signaling networks. Additionally, as largely described, the inhibition of mTOR has a major impact on cellular metabolism by stimulating synthesis of proteins and lipids, inhibiting catabolic processes, such as lysosome biogenesis and autophagy, and controlling cell survival, cytoskeleton organization, lipogenesis, and gluconeogenesis...
February 2018: Transplantation
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