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Farzana Rahiman, Usuf Chikte, Gail D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Nurses in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly at a higher risk of acquiring nosocomial infections, considering the increased prevalence of infectious diseases. It is therefore imperative that these nurses have a sound knowledge and understanding of infection prevention procedures. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning infection prevention and control precautions among nursing students in a resource limited setting...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
F J Castañeda-Montes, M Avitia, O Sepúlveda-Robles, V Cruz-Sánchez, L Kameyama, G Guarneros, A E Escalante
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important pathogens worldwide. Population genetics studies have shown that the P. aeruginosa population has an epidemic structure with highly conserved clonal complexes. Nonetheless, epidemiological studies of P. aeruginosa have been historically absent or infrequent in developing countries, in which different medical treatments, conditions and infrastructure may have an impact in population dynamics and evolutionary outcomes, including antibiotic resistance profiles...
July 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Danielle Vuichard Gysin, Barry Cookson, Henri Saenz, Markus Dettenkofer, Andreas F Widmer
Background: Definitions and practices regarding use of contact precautions and isolation to prevent the spread of gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are not uniform. Methods: We conducted an on-site survey during the European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2014 to assess specific details on contact precaution and implementation barriers. Results: Attendants from 32 European (EU) and 24 non-EU countries participated ( n  = 213)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Reza Mirnejad, Mohsen Heidary, Aghil Bahramian, Mehdi Goudarzi, Abazar Pournajaf
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for approximately 10% of all gram-negative nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in the clinically A. baumannii . In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 nonduplicative A. baumannii isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. QnrA, anrB, qnrS, aac(3)-IIa, and aac(6')-Ib genes were identified using PCR method...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Atin Sharma, Vineet Dubey, Rajnikant Sharma, Kuldip Devnath, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Jawed Akhter, Timsy Bhando, Aparna Verma, Kiran S Ambatipudi, Mihir Sarkar, Ranjana Pathania
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram negative nosocomial pathogen that causes soft tissue infections in patients that spend a long time in intensive care units. This recalcitrant bacterium is very well known for developing rapid drug resistance which is a combined outcome of its natural competence and mobile genetic elements. Successful efforts to treat these infections would be aided by additional information on the physiology of A. baumannii Towards that end, we recently reported on a small RNA (sRNA), AbsR25, in this bacterium that regulates the genes of several efflux pumps...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a potentially deadly disease without therapy and can cause a wide number of findings and symptoms, often resembling a flu-like illness, which makes diagnosis difficult. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review evaluates the presentation, evaluation, and management of infective endocarditis in the emergency department, based on the most current literature. DISCUSSION: IE is due to infection of the endocardial surface, most commonly cardiac valves...
July 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jingming Zhao, Wei Cheng, Xigang He, Yanli Liu, Ji Li, Jiaxing Sun, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Yufang Gao
Background & objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause nosocomial bloodstream infections in humans. This study was aimed to explore the association of furanone C-30 with biofilm formation, quorum sensing (QS) system and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. Methods: An in vitro model of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilm was established using the standard P. aeruginosa strain (PAO-1). After treatment with 2.5 and 5 μg/ml of furanone C-30, the change of biofilm morphology of PAO-1 was observed, and the expression levels of QS-regulated virulence genes (lasB, rhlA and phzA2), QS receptor genes (lasR, rhlR and pqsR) as well as QS signal molecule synthase genes (lasI, rhlI, pqsE and pqsH) were determined...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Mahmudullah Bhuiya, Mohammad K I Sarkar, Mehadi H Sohag, Hafij Ali, Chapol K Roy, Lutfa Akther, Abu F Sarker
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous free-living bacterium and is responsible for severe nosocomial infections, life-threatening infections in immune compromised persons. The bacterium, along with its natural resistance, can acquire resistance to many antibiotics by a variety of methods. Method: Therefore, to compare the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a total of seventeen isolates of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different sources; for example environmental sources, frozen food sources, clinical sources and medical waste materials...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Ryan Kean, Christopher Delaney, Leighann Sherry, Andrew Borman, Elizabeth M Johnson, Malcolm D Richardson, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Candida auris has emerged as a significant global nosocomial pathogen. This is primarily due to its antifungal resistance profile but also its capacity to form adherent biofilm communities on a range of clinically important substrates. While we have a comprehensive understanding of how other Candida species resist and respond to antifungal challenge within the sessile phenotype, our current understanding of C. auris biofilm-mediated resistance is lacking. In this study, we are the first to perform transcriptomic analysis of temporally developing C...
July 11, 2018: MSphere
Qiuwen He, Qiangchuan Hou, Yanjie Wang, Jing Li, Weicheng Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Zhihong Sun, Heping Zhang, Zhi Zhong
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is widely studied as a common gut commensal and a nosocomial pathogen. In fact, Enterococcus faecalis is ubiquitous in nature, and it has been isolated from various niches, including the gastrointestinal tract, faeces, blood, urine, water, and fermented foods (such as dairy products). In order to elucidate the role of habitat in shaping the genome of Enterococcus faecalis, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 78 strains of various origins. RESULTS: Although no correlation was found between the strain isolation habitat and the phylogeny of Enterococcus faecalis from our whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis, our results revealed some environment-associated features in the analysed Enterococcus faecalis genomes...
July 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Juliana Nunes Ramos, Izabel Dos Santos Rodrigues, Paulo Victor Pereira Baio, João Flávio Carneiro Veras, Rommel Thiago Jucá Ramos, Luis Gc Pacheco, Vasco Ariston Azevedo, Raphael Hirata Júnior, Michel Abanto Marín, Ana Luiza de Mattos-Guaraldi, Verônica Viana Vieira
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Corynebacterium striatum has been cited with increased frequency as pathogen of nosocomial infections. In this study, we report the draft genome of a C. striatum isolated from a patient with bloodstream infection in a hospital of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate presented susceptibility only to tetracycline, vancomycin and linezolid. The detection of various antibiotic resistance genes is fully consistent with previously observed multidrug-resistant pattern in Corynebacterium spp...
July 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Lidia Ruiz-Roldán, Alba Bellés, Jessica Bueno, José Manuel Azcona-Gutiérrez, Beatriz Rojo-Bezares, Carmen Torres, F Javier Castillo, Yolanda Sáenz, Cristina Seral
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic human pathogen, responsible for nosocomial infections and infections in patients with impaired immune systems. Little data exist about the faecal colonisation by P. aeruginosa isolates in healthy humans. The occurrence, antimicrobial resistance phenotype, virulence genotype, and genetic lineages of P. aeruginosa from faecal samples of children from two different Spanish regions were characterised. Seventy-two P. aeruginosa were isolated from 1,443 faecal samples...
2018: BioMed Research International
K Morikane
Surgical site infection (SSI) following cardiovascular surgery has been well documented, possibly owing to its highly invasive nature, but SSI following surgery on the thoracic aorta has not. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and assess risk factors associated with the latter in Japan using a national database for SSI. Data on surgery on thoracic aorta performed between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) database. Risk factors were assessed initially by univariate analysis, and then entered into a logistic regression model for final evaluation...
July 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Marina Caldara, Nelson Marmiroli
Candida albicans is a commensal yeast of the human body, able to form biofilms on solid surfaces such as implanted medical devices, and contributes to nosocomial infections. Biofilms have the capacity to resist to higher levels of antifungals compared to planktonic cells and can develop tolerance to commonly used treatments. The necessity to overcome acquired drug resistance, and identify new active molecules with low toxicity is a significant problem. It has been reported that some antidepressants have antibacterial properties, but little is known on the effect that these drugs have on fungi...
July 7, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Amanda R Hoyer, Chad J Johnson, Matthew R Hoyer, John F Kernien, Jeniel E Nett
The nosocomial pathogen Candida albicans forms biofilms on medical devices that persist in the face of antifungals and host defenses. Echinocandins, the most effective anti-biofilm drugs, have recently been shown to augment the activity of neutrophils against biofilms through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that treatment of C. albicans biofilms with sub-inhibitory concentrations of echinocandins promotes the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), structures of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins with antifungal activity...
July 9, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Dharm Raj Bhatta, Deependra Hamal, Rajani Shrestha, Ranjana Parajuli, Nisha Baral, Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Niranjan Nayak, Shishir Gokhale
Background: Upper respiratory tract is one of the commonest sites for microbial colonization. The colonized individuals are at risk of infections and can be a source of transmission of pathogens. Medical students are frequently exposed to a variety of infectious agents and more likely to get colonized by them. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and to compare the colonization rates of nasal and pharyngeal bacterial pathogens among preclinical and clinical sciences medical students...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Biniyam Sahiledengle, Azeb Gebresilassie, Tadesse Getahun, Desta Hiko
Background: Failure to follow proper infection prevention practices puts healthcare workers, patients and communities at risk. Despite the increases of highly contagious infections, infection prevention practices among healthcare workers is unknown in many developing countries. The need to understand infection prevention practices is important for prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess infection prevention practices and associated factors among healthcare workers in governmental healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
March 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Holger Brüggemann, Leticia Busato Migliorini, Romario Oliveira de Sales, Paula Célia Mariko Koga, Andrea Vieira de Souza, Anders Jensen, Anja Poehlein, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Andre Mario Doi, Jacyr Pasternak, Marines Dalla Valle Martino, Patricia Severino
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in hospitals, responsible for various infections that are difficult to treat due to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Here, twenty epidemiologically unrelated strains isolated from patients in a general hospital over a time period of two decades were analyzed using whole genome sequencing. The genomes were compared in order to assess the presence of a predominant clone or sequence type (ST). No clonal structure was identified, but core genome-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis distinguished two major, previously identified phylogenetic groups...
July 3, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Bryce Haac, Sharon Henry, Jose Diaz, Thomas Scalea, Deborah Stein
Soft tissue diseases including necrotizing soft tissue infections are associated with high mortality and morbidity with hospital-acquired infection rates up to 76 per cent. Critically ill patients with soft tissue infections have increased metabolic requirements; however, the effect of early nutrition on inhospital morbidity including nosocomial infection rates remains unclear. We hypothesized that enteral nutrition within 48 hours of intensive care unit admission would be associated with fewer hospital-acquired infections...
June 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Neda Baseri, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh, Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains have been reported in many countries around the world and its prevalence is increasing. The incidence of these strains in Iran has been shown in some studies; however, there is no overall estimation of VISA incidence in Iran. The objective of this systematic review was to estimate the total prevalence of VISA strains that reported from Iran. METHODS: A systematic literature review of relevant articles published on "S...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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