Read by QxMD icon Read


Ana Belkin, Zeala Gazit, Nathan Keller, Ronen Ben-Ami, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Ana Novikov, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
A patient transferred from South Africa to Israel acquired a Candida auris infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed resemblance of C. auris to isolates from South Africa but not Israel, suggesting travel-associated infection. C. auris infection occurred weeks later in another patient at the same hospital, suggesting prolonged environmental persistence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana Constança Mendes, Ângela Novais, Joana Campos, Carla Rodrigues, Cláudia Santos, Patrícia Antunes, Helena Ramos, Luísa Peixe
We describe a hospital-based outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3-producing, mcr-1-positive K. pneumoniae sequence type 45 in Portugal. mcr-1 was located in an IncX4 plasmid. Our data highlight the urgent need for systematic surveillance of mcr-1 to support adequate therapeutic choices in the nosocomial setting.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mohammed Sami Alhaddad, Afnan Khalifah AlBarjas, Lolowah Ebraheem Alhammar, Abdullatif Sami Al Rashed, Lorina Ineta Badger-Emeka
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii , is an emerging nosocomial multidrug resistance pathogen with the rapid spread of clones being reported in health-care settings and hospitals worldwide. Carbapenem resistance in this bacterium has been attributed to D OXA β-lactamases with OXA-51-like β-lactamase, being present in all A. baumannii isolate. The present study looks into the antibiotics susceptibility and molecular characterization of clinical A. baumannii isolates from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) samples in Al-Hofuf, South-eastern region of Saudi Arabia...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Luca Roscini, Alice Vassiliou, Laura Corte, Debora Casagrande Pierantoni, Vincent Robert, Carlo Tascini, Sara Mattana, Martina Alunni Cardinali, Stylianos E Orfanos, Daniele Fioretto, Gianluigi Cardinali
Medical and environmental microbiology have two distinct, although very short, histories stemming, the first from the pioneering works of Sommelweiss, Pasteur, Lister and Koch, the second mainly from the studies of Bejerink and Winogradsky. These two branches of microbiology evolved and specialized separately producing distinct communities and evolving rather different approaches and techniques. The evidence accumulated in recent decades indicate that indeed most of the medically relevant microorganisms have a short circulation within the nosocomial environment and a larger one involving the external, i...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
M Garrote-Garrote, J A Del-Moral-Luque, A Checa-García, J F Valverde-Cánovas, C Campelo-Gutiérrez, J Martínez-Martín, A Gil-de-Miguel, G Rodríguez-Caravaca
OBJECTIVE: The surgical site infection is the main cause of nosocomial infection in surgical patients, being antibiotic prophylaxis one of the most important factors for preventing it. This study evaluates adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in hip arthroplasty surgery as well as its effect on preventing surgical site infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2016. We assessed the degree of adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in hip arthroplasty...
March 14, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Emeli Månsson, Berolla Sahdo, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Eva Särndahl, Bo Söderquist
Nosocomial sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis dominate in prosthetic joint infections. We examined caspase-1 activation in human neutrophils after incubation with Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections and normal skin flora. Active caspase-1 was lower after incubation with isolates from prosthetic joint infections than after incubation with commensal isolates. Both host and isolate dependent differences in active caspase-1 were noted. Our results indicate that there might be a host-dependent incapacity to elicit a strong caspase-1 response towards certain strains of S...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Solenn Remy, Karine Kolev-Descamps, Morgane Gossez, Fabienne Venet, Julie Demaret, Etienne Javouhey, Guillaume Monneret
BACKGROUND: While the process of sepsis-induced immunosuppression is now well described in adults, very little information is available on immune functions in pediatric sepsis. The current study investigated this in children with septic shock by performing immunomonitoring, including both innate (monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR, mHLA-DR, expression) and adaptive immunity (lymphocyte subsets count), as well as cytokine concentrations (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Subsequent objectives were to assess the associations between inflammatory response, potential immunosuppression and secondary acquired infection occurrence...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Shikha Sharma, Vasvi Chaudhry, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prominent commensal member of human skin microbiome and an emerging nosocomial pathogen, making it a good model organism to provide genomic insights, correlating its transition between commensalism and pathogenicity. While there are numerous studies to understand differences in commensal and pathogenic isolates, systematic efforts to understand variation and evolutionary pattern in multiple strains isolated from healthy individuals are lacking. In the present study, using whole genome sequencing and analysis, we report presence of diverse lineages of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
I-Ling Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Shih-Wen Ting, Lily Yu-Chin Wang
Objectives: The increasing number of reports on infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) has raised concerns, because they have complicated empiric or guided antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients. We aimed to develop a scoring system to predict nosocomial imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) septicemia among the critically ill patients. Materials and methods: The study included critically ill adult patients with nosocomial GNB septicemia at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) in 2013-2015, and the scoring system for predicting IR-GNB septicemia was developed, followed by prospective validation conducted among patients at Linkou CGMH and Kaohsiung CGMH between January and June, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ruiqiang Xie, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Qi Zhao, Bo Peng, Jun Zheng
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most challenging nosocomial pathogens due to the emergence and widespread of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to provide the first analysis of global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections, by synthesizing data and knowledge through a systematic review. We searched studies reporting antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections using the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported antibiotic resistance in A...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Joseph P Zackular, Eric P Skaar
Clostridium difficile in one of the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Beyond antibiotic use, little is known about the host, microbiota, and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility to and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). We recently observed that in a mouse model of CDI, excess dietary zinc (Zn) alters the gut microbiota and decreases resistance to CDI. Moreover, we determined that high levels of Zn exacerbate C. difficile-associated disease and calprotectin-mediated Zn limitation is an essential host response to infection...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
R Cantón, E Loza, J Aznar, R Barrón-Adúriz, J Calvo, F J Castillo, E Cercenado, R Cisterna, F González-Romo, J L López-Hontangas, A I Suárez-Barrenechea, F Tubau, B Molloy, D López-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: The SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study monitors antimicrobial susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Gram-negative bacilli recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility of 5,343 isolates from IAI recovered in 11 centres during the 2011-2015 SMART-Spain program was analysed by standard microdilution (EUCAST criteria) and compared with that from 2002-2010...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
Ana Kovacic, Martina Seruga Music, Svjetlana Dekic, Marija Tonkic, Anita Novak, Zana Rubic, Jasna Hrenovic, Ivana Goic-Barisic
Acinetobacter baumannii origin and its epidemiology is under a great concern worldwide since this microorganism has become a leading nosocomial pathogen of the 21th century among the "ESKAPE" group of microorganisms. The aim of the study was to monitor and explore the epidemiology of this important hospital pathogen in the second largest clinical university hospital in Croatia. The presence of A. baumannii in hospital wastewater, as a route for possible transmission outside of the hospital setting, as well as its survival in environmental conditions including seawater, was investigated...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Woo Cheol Lee, Min-Cheol Jeong, Yeongjoon Lee, Chulhee Kwak, Jee-Young Lee, Yangmee Kim
Originally annotated as the initiator of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III) is a unique component of the bacterial FAS system. Novel variants of KAS III have been identified that promote the de novo use of additional extracellular fatty acids by FAS. These KAS III variants prefer longer acyl-groups, notably octanoyl-CoA. Acinetobacter baumannii, a clinically important nosocomial pathogen, contains such a multifunctional KAS III (AbKAS III). To characterize the structural basis of its substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of AbKAS III in the presence of different substrates...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Sibel Kara, Nazan Sen, Ebru Kursun, Hakan Yabanoğlu, Sedat Yıldırım, Şule Akçay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients despite enhanced facilities for perioperative care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients with pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all renal transplant recipients from January 2010 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients diagnosed with pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Toru Shizuma
Spontaneous bacterial (SBP) and spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) can be a life-threatening infection in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and ascites. One of the possible mechanisms of developing SBP is bacterial translocation. Although the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the culture of ascitic fluid is diagnostic for SBP, secondary bacterial peritonitis is necessary to exclude. The severity of underlying liver dysfunction is predictive of developing SBP; moreover, renal impairment and infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism are associated with a fatal prognosis of SBP...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"