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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747785/discovery-of-monoclonal-antibodies-cross-reactive-to-novel-subserotypes-of-k-pneumoniae-o3
#1
Luis M Guachalla, Katarina Stojkovic, Katharina Hartl, Marta Kaszowska, Yadhu Kumar, Benjamin Wahl, Tobias Paprotka, Eszter Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Gábor Nagy, Valéria Szijártó
Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for nosocomial infections causing significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of newly emerging multi-drug resistant strains is hampered due to severely limited antibiotic choices. Passive immunization targeting LPS O-antigens has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic option, given the limited variability of Klebsiella O-antigens. Here we report that the O3 serogroup, previously considered to have uniform O-antigen built of mannan, represents three different subtypes differing in the number of mannose residues within the O-antigen repeating units...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747373/investigation-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-on-an-adult-stem-cell-transplant-unit-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Yijun Zhu, Teresa R Zembower, Kristen E Metzger, Zhengdeng Lei, Stefan J Green, Chao Qi
A viral whole genome sequencing strategy, based on PCR amplification followed by Next-generation Sequencing, was used to investigate a nosocomial RSV-B outbreak in a hematology-oncology and stem cell transplant unit. RSV-B genomes from 16 patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) suspected to be involved in the outbreak were compared to RSV-B genomes acquired from outpatients during the same time period but epidemiologically unrelated to the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome identified a cluster of 11 patients and HCWs with an identical RSV-B strain which were clearly distinct from strains recovered from individuals unrelated to the outbreak...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747232/development-of-an-accumulation-assay-and-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-efflux-pump-inhibitors-on-the-retention-of-chlorhexidine-digluconate-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Molly Mombeshora, Stanley Mukanganyama
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is used as a disinfectant. The emergence of pathogens resistant to the biocide raises health concern. Information on specific efflux mechanisms utilised by bacteria to confer reduced susceptibility to the biocide, may be used to develop ways of preventing the efflux of the biocide from nosocomial pathogens resulting in higher disinfection activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters on the transport of CHG in bacteria...
July 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747056/fecal-transplantation-as-a-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Marta Izquierdo Romero, Pilar Varela Trastoy, Alejo Mancebo Mata
Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is currently the most frequent etiology of nosocomial diarrhea. Besides, its incidence is progressively increasing in ambulatory patients. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor of CD infection itself, but also due to the regular immunosuppressive treatment used in these patients. At the present time, fecal transplantation (FT) is a safe and cost-effective alternative if the previous antibiotic treatments have failed. Similar outcomes between patients with IBD and general population have been reported...
July 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743813/curative-treatment-of-severe-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-by-a-new-class-of-antibiotics-targeting-lpxc
#5
Nadine Lemaître, Xiaofei Liang, Javaria Najeeb, Chul-Jin Lee, Marie Titecat, Emmanuelle Leteurtre, Michel Simonet, Eric J Toone, Pei Zhou, Florent Sebbane
The infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria pose serious threats to humankind. It has been suggested that an antibiotic targeting LpxC of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway in Gram-negative bacteria is a promising strategy for curing Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, experimental proof of this concept is lacking. Here, we describe our discovery and characterization of a biphenylacetylene-based inhibitor of LpxC, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the lipid A component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743652/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumonia-at-a-turkish-center-is-the-increase-of-resistance-a-threat-for-europe
#6
Aslıhan Candevir Ulu, Tülin Güven Gökmen, Filiz Kibar, Behice Kurtaran, Cansu Önlen, Ferit Kuşçu, Ayşe Seza İnal, Süheyla Kömür, Akgün Yaman, Hasan Salih Zeki Aksu, Yeşim Taşova
INTRODUCTION: In recent years carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has became an important threat to hospitalized patients. Our aim in this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a total of 98K. pneumoniae isolated from patients who registered at Cukurova University Balcali Hospital and determined phenotypically carbapenem resistant were screened for genotypic presence of carbapenemase enzymes with the multiplex-PCR in the period of 2013-2014...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743336/-analysis-of-factors-affecting-the-prognosis-of-icu-patients-by-multiple-logistic-regression-model-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-1-299-patients-in-12-consecutive-years
#7
Jianfeng Liang, Zhiyong Li, Yan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Haishan Dong, Yun Zhang, Chang Xu, Maolong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the prognostic factors of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The clinical data of patients admitted to ICU of Beijing Geriatric Hospital from January 2005 to December 2016 were collected. According to the prognosis, the patients were divided into death group and survival group, and the mortality trend with time and age was observed. Survival and death were treated as dependent variables, while the gender, age, reason of ICU admission, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, whether undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), invasive MV reason, duration of invasive MV, whether successful weaning, whether ICU nosocomial infection, hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred, whether undergoing continuous blood purification (CBP), whether septic shock occurred, whether undergoing invasive hemodynamic monitoring or blood transfusion and length of ICU stay were used as the independent variables...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742815/il33-mediated-ilc2-activation-and-neutrophil-il5-production-in-the-lung-response-after-severe-trauma-a-reverse-translation-study-from-a-human-cohort-to-a-mouse-trauma-model
#8
Jing Xu, Jesse Guardado, Rosemary Hoffman, Hui Xu, Rami Namas, Yoram Vodovotz, Li Xu, Mostafa Ramadan, Joshua Brown, Heth R Turnquist, Timothy R Billiar
BACKGROUND: The immunosuppression and immune dysregulation that follows severe injury includes type 2 immune responses manifested by elevations in interleukin (IL) 4, IL5, and IL13 early after injury. We hypothesized that IL33, an alarmin released early after tissue injury and a known regulator of type 2 immunity, contributes to the early type 2 immune responses after systemic injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Blunt trauma patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit of a level I trauma center were enrolled in an observational study that included frequent blood sampling...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742152/bacterial-size-matters-multiple-mechanisms-controlling-septum-cleavage-and-diplococcus-formation-are-critical-for-the-virulence-of-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#9
Bartłomiej Salamaga, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Ana Jareño-Martinez, Joost Willemse, Martin A Bewley, Françoise Chau, Tassadit Ben Belkacem, Annemarie H Meijer, David H Dockrell, Stephen A Renshaw, Stéphane Mesnage
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen frequently isolated in clinical settings. This organism is intrinsically resistant to several clinically relevant antibiotics and can transfer resistance to other pathogens. Although E. faecalis has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen, the mechanisms underlying the virulence of this organism remain elusive. We studied the regulation of daughter cell separation during growth and explored the impact of this process on pathogenesis. We demonstrate that the activity of the AtlA peptidoglycan hydrolase, an enzyme dedicated to septum cleavage, is controlled by several mechanisms, including glycosylation and recognition of the peptidoglycan substrate...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741095/phenotype-microarray-analysis-of-the-aders-two-component-system-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
J-R Sun, Y-S Chiang, H-S Shang, C-L Perng, Y-S Yang, T-S Chiueh
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of resistance to multiple antimicrobials. The AdeRS two-component system (TCS) is associated with antimicrobial resistance by controlling the AdeABC efflux pump. To elucidate modulation by AdeRS, we made an A. baumannii mutant lacking the AdeRS TCS and characterized it using phenotype microarray (PM) analysis. After disrupting the adeRS operon, lower expression of AdeABC efflux pump was observed in the mutant strain. PM analysis showed that the AdeRS deletion strain and parental strain presented different tolerances to 91 compounds...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740486/evolution-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-vivo-international-clone-ii-more-resistance-to-ceftazidime-mutation-in-ptk
#11
Xiaoting Hua, Zhihui Zhou, Qing Yang, Qiucheng Shi, Qingye Xu, Jianfeng Wang, Keren Shi, Feng Zhao, Long Sun, Zhi Ruan, Yan Jiang, Yunsong Yu
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide. A more comprehensive understanding of the within-host genomic evolution of A. baumannii would provide a molecule basis for improving treatment of A. baumannii infection. To understand the evolutionary mechanism facilitating A. baumannii survived in human body, we here reported the genomic analysis of A. baumannii isolated sampled from Chinese patients. We used whole-genome sequence of A. baumannii isolates from the same patient to determine single-nucleotide variants, insertion sequence mapping, and gene change...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740354/nosocomial-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-antibiotic-treatment-in-the-era-of-multi-drug-resistance-pathogens-a-systematic-review
#12
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
AIM: To systematically review literature upon aetiology of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (N-SBP) given the rising importance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. METHODS: A literature search was performed on MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases from 2000 to 15(th) of November 2016, using the following search strategy: "spontaneous" AND "peritonitis". RESULTS: The initial search through electronic databases retrieved 2556 records...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740225/clinical-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-with-higher-susceptibility-to-environmental-phages-than-antibiotic-sensitive-strains
#13
Li-Kuang Chen, Shu-Chen Kuo, Kai-Chih Chang, Chieh-Chen Cheng, Pei-Ying Yu, Chih-Hui Chang, Tren-Yi Chen, Chun-Chieh Tseng
Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we used clinically isolated A. baumannii strains as models to demonstrate whether antibiotic resistance is correlated with an increased susceptibility to bacteriophages. In this study, 24 active phages capable of infecting A. baumannii were isolated from various environments, and the susceptibilities of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of A. baumannii to different phages were compared...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739428/novel-class-1-integrons-and-sequence-types-in-vim-2-and-vim-11-producing-clinical-strains-of-enterobacter-cloacae
#14
D De Belder, D Faccone, N Tijet, R Melano, M Rapoport, A Petroni, C Lucero, F Pasteran, A Corso, S A Gomez
All VIM-producing Enterobacteriaceae (six Enterobacter cloacae) submitted to the Argentinian Reference Laboratory in Antimicrobial Resistance in the period 2008-13 were characterized. The isolates were referred from 6 nosocomial institutions located in 5 different cities across the country. All isolates showed carbapenem disk diffusion inhibition zones ≤22mm and synergism between a carbapenem disk and EDTA/SMA. The six isolates were PCR positive for blaVIM. Imipenem MICs were ≤1 to 8μg/ml. Typing by PFGE and MLST distinguished six pulsotypes and sequence types with blaVIM located on novel class 1 integron arrays: ECL-1: ST182, In883; ECL-2, ST90, In885; ECL-3, ST88, In346 with blaVIM-11; ECL-4, ST184, In900; ECL-5, ST749-new, In900; ECL-6, ST91 and uncharacterized In...
July 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739424/respiratory-viruses-in-transplant-recipients-more-than-just-a-cold-clinical-syndromes-and-infection-prevention-principles
#15
REVIEW
Salma Abbas, Jillian E Raybould, Sangeeta Sastry, Oveimar de la Cruz
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (RVI) in both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Pubmed databases for literature regarding the aforementioned aspects of RVIs, with focus on respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739224/esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-the-most-prevalent-clinical-isolates-obtained-between-2005-and-2012-in-mexico
#16
Humberto Barrios, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Ilse Mejia-Miranda, Fernando Reyna-Flores, Alejandro Sánchez-Perez, Dalila Mosqueda-García, Jesus Silva-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of ESBL genes in the principal group of Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infections and to identify the phylogenetic group in E. coli isolates. METHODS: There were collected 1084 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates during 2005 to 2012 from adult patients from 14 hospitals and corresponding to eight states and five regions (SE, S, N, W and NW) in Mexico. The CTX-M-(CTX-M-1 group), SHV-, TLA- and GES-type ESBLs genes were screened...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738817/exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-by-pseudomonas-monteilii-a-case-report
#17
Aditi, Malini Shariff, Kiran Beri
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas spp are important opportunistic and nosocomial pathogens. One such species is Pseudomonas monteilii (P. monteilii). It has been described as an environmental contaminant and potential pathogen. We identified this organism as the causative agent of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis and an environmental contaminant in our hospital on two separate occasions. CASE PRESENTATION: P. monteilii was the cause of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a 30-year-old HIV negative male...
July 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734523/laparoscopic-choledochoduodenostomy
#18
Adolfo Cuendis-Velázquez, Mario E Trejo-Ávila, Enrique Rosales-Castañeda, Eduardo Cárdenas-Lailson, Martin E Rojano-Rodríguez, Sujey Romero-Loera, Carlos A Sanjuan-Martínez, Mucio Moreno-Portillo
INTRODUCTION: Today's options for biliary bypass procedures, for difficult choledocholithiasis, range from open surgery to laparo-endoscopic hybrid procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of patients with difficult choledocholithiasis treated with laparoscopic choledochoduodenostomy. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study from March 2011 to June 2016. We included patients with difficult common bile duct stones (recurrent or unresolved by ERCP) in which a biliary bypass procedure was required...
July 19, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732564/desiccation-and-ethanol-resistances-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-embedded-in-biofilm-the-favorable-antiseptic-efficacy-of-combination-chlorhexidine-gluconate-and-ethanol
#19
Shyh-Ren Chiang, Fang Jung, Hung-Jen Tang, Chung-Hua Chen, Chi-Chung Chen, Hsiu-Yin Chou, Yin-Ching Chuang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Globally, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) has emerged as an important pathogen in nosocomial outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the biofilm formation and survival of MDRABs, and to investigate the antiseptic efficacy of hand sanitizers for the MDRABs, embedded with biofilm (MDRAB-Bs). METHODS: The MDRABs were selected randomly after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and their biofilm formation was analyzed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732057/structural-basis-of-zn-ii-induced-metal-detoxification-and-antibiotic-resistance-by-histidine-kinase-czcs-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Dan Wang, Weizhong Chen, Shanqing Huang, Yafeng He, Xichun Liu, Qingyuan Hu, Tianbiao Wei, Hong Shang, Jianhua Gan, Hao Chen
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a major opportunistic human pathogen, causing serious nosocomial infections among immunocompromised patients by multi-determinant virulence and high antibiotic resistance. The CzcR-CzcS signal transduction system in P. aeruginosa is primarily involved in metal detoxification and antibiotic resistance through co-regulating cross-resistance between Zn(II) and carbapenem antibiotics. Although the intracellular regulatory pathway is well-established, the mechanism by which extracellular sensor domain of histidine kinase (HK) CzcS responds to Zn(II) stimulus to trigger downstream signal transduction remains unclear...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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