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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165147/enterococcus-hirae-biofilm-formation-on-hospital-material-surfaces-and-effect-of-new-biocides
#1
Silvia Di Lodovico, Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Elisabetta Ancarani, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms. METHODS: The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164144/intensive-care-unit-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-nosocomial-infections-the-enirris-project
#2
Gennaro De Pascale, Otavio T Ranzani, Saad Nseir, Jean Chastre, Tobias Welte, Massimo Antonelli, Paolo Navalesi, Eugenio Garofalo, Andrea Bruni, Luis Miguel Coelho, Szymon Skoczynski, Federico Longhini, Fabio Silvio Taccone, David Grimaldi, Helmut J F Salzer, Christoph Lange, Filipe Froes, Antoni Artigas, Emili Díaz, Jordi Vallés, Alejandro Rodríguez, Mauro Panigada, Vittoria Comellini, Luca Fasano, Paolo M Soave, Giorgia Spinazzola, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Judith Marin, Joan Ramon Masclans, Davide Chiumello, Angelo Pezzi, Marcus Schultz, Hafiz Mohamed, Menno Van Der Eerden, Roger A S Hoek, D A M P J Gommers, Marta Di Pasquale, Rok Civljak, Marko Kutleša, Matteo Bassetti, George Dimopoulos, Stefano Nava, Fernando Rios, Fernando G Zampieri, Pedro Povoa, Lieuwe D Bos, Stefano Aliberti, Antoni Torres, Ignacio Martín-Loeches
The clinical course of intensive care unit (ICU) patients may be complicated by a large spectrum of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), defined by specific epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects. A European network for ICU-related respiratory infections (ENIRRIs), supported by the European Respiratory Society, has been recently established, with the aim at studying all respiratory tract infective episodes except community-acquired ones. A multicentre, observational study is in progress, enrolling more than 1000 patients fulfilling the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings consistent with a LRTI...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163416/diagnostic-evasion-of-highly-resistant-microorganisms-a-critical-factor-in-nosocomial-outbreaks
#3
Xuewei Zhou, Alexander W Friedrich, Erik Bathoorn
Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163354/diabetes-and-sepsis-risk-recurrence-and-ruination
#4
REVIEW
Lynn M Frydrych, Fatemeh Fattahi, Katherine He, Peter A Ward, Matthew J Delano
Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162852/predicting-nosocomial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-by-a-risk-index-based-system
#5
Yong Chen, Xue Shan, Jingya Zhao, Xuelin Han, Shuguang Tian, Fangyan Chen, Xueting Su, Yansong Sun, Liuyu Huang, Hajo Grundmann, Hongyuan Wang, Li Han
Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence survey. Among the 49328 patients included, the prevalence of nosocomial LRTIs was 1.70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64% to 1.76%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for logistic regression and fisher discriminant analysis were 0...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162291/the-efficacy-of-self-disinfecting-bedrail-covers-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#6
Lisa M Esolen, Lokendra Thakur, Abraham J Layon, Thomas A Fuller, Deni-Jo Harrington, Kunal Jha, Subhashinie Kariyawasam
BACKGROUND: Hospital surfaces are considered important vectors in the spread of nosocomial pathogens. This study evaluated microbial counts on novel antimicrobial bedrail covers over a 2-week period in a critical care environment. METHODS: Disposable bedrail covers (Aionx Inc, Hershey, PA) made of a copper and silver polymer and capable of conducting an imperceptible surface potential, were installed in a case-control manner on a series of occupied intensive care unit beds...
November 19, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161992/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-causing-blood-stream-infection-in-neonates-and-infants-a-cause-for-concern
#7
Rinku Sah, Shraddha Siwakoti, Ratna Baral, Rupa S Rajbhandari, Basuda Khanal
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( S. maltophilia) is an important Gram-negative, non-fermentative, multidrug resistant (MDR) nosocomial organism. We evaluated the isolation of S. maltophilia from the seven blood culture specimens received from the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) over the duration of two weeks. The suspicion of a possible outbreak was raised and the hospital infection control team investigated the source and found the hand of one healthcare provider harbouring a similar organism...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#8
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160808/interplay-between-colistin-resistance-virulence-and-fitness-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
REVIEW
Gabriela Jorge Da Silva, Sara Domingues
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen often resistant to multiple antibiotics classes. Colistin, an "old" antibiotic, is now considered a last-line treatment option for extremely resistant isolates. In the meantime, resistance to colistin has been reported in clinical A. baumannii strains. Colistin is a cationic peptide that disrupts the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin resistance is primarily due to post-translational modification or loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules inserted into the outer leaflet of the OM...
November 21, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160424/effect-of-prophylactic-non-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-on-functional-capacity-after-heart-valve-replacement-a-clinical-trial
#10
Amaro Afrânio de Araújo-Filho, Manoel Luiz de Cerqueira-Neto, Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau, Géssica Uruga Oliveira, Telma Cristina Fontes Cerqueira, Valter Joviniano de Santana-Filho
OBJECTIVE: During cardiac surgery, several factors contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving the functionality of this type of patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity and length of stay of patients in a nosocomial intensive care unit who underwent prophylactic non-invasive ventilation after heart valve replacement. METHOD: The study was a controlled clinical trial, comprising 50 individuals of both sexes who were allocated by randomization into two groups with 25 patients in each group: the control group and experimental group...
October 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157815/an-efflux-pump-mexab-oprm-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-associated-with-antibacterial-activity-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg
#11
Rashmi Kanagaratnam, Rida Sheikh, Fahad Alharbi, Dong H Kwon
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogen. An efflux pump (MexAB-OprM) is the main contributor to the multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound extracted from green tea, exhibits antibacterial activity. It is unclear that molecular details of the antibacterial activity of EGCG, EGCG-effect on antibiotic susceptibility, and clinical relevance of EGCG in bacteria...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156865/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-and-incidence-of-hospital-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-a-tertiary-care-educational-hospital-in-turkey-a-perspective-from-2001-to-2013
#12
Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Serhat Uysal, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Meltem Taşbakan, Alper Tünger, Fatma Feriha Çilli, Tansu Yamazhan, Bilgin Arda, Hilal Sipahi, Sercan Ulusoy
Background/aim: Staphylococcus aureus is an important nosocomial pathogen and a successful antimicrobial-resistance developer. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the resistance patterns and incidence of microbiologically confirmed nosocomial bacteremia (MCNB) related S. aureus strains between 2001 and 2013. Materials and methods: Any patient in whom S. aureus was isolated in at least one set of blood cultures (sent to the bacteriology laboratory 72 h after hospital admission) was considered to have MCNB...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155201/biochemical-properties-of-the-htra-homolog-from-bacterium-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#13
Urszula Zarzecka, Anna Modrak-Wojcik, Martyna Bayassi, Maciej Szewczyk, Artur Gieldon, Adam Lesner, Tomasz Koper, Agnieszka Bzowska, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Steffen Backert, Barbara Lipinska, Joanna Skorko-Glonek
The HtrA proteins due to their proteolytic, and in many cases chaperone activity, efficiently counteract consequences of stressful conditions. In the environmental bacterium and nosocomial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia HtrA (HtrASm) is induced as a part of adaptive response to host temperature (37°C). We examined the biochemical properties of HtrASm and compared them with those of model HtrAEc from Escherichia coli. We found that HtrASm is a protease and chaperone that operates over a wide range of pH and is highly active at temperatures between 35-37°C...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155125/virulence-characteristics-and-molecular-relatedness-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-different-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec
#14
Rana El-Baz, Dina E Rizk, Rasha Barwa, Ramadan Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a versatile pathogen capable of causing multitude of human diseases. It is one of the most important nosocomial pathogen that implicated in community and healthcare associated infections. Therefore, this study aims to characterize different SCCmec elements found in MRSA isolates. Moreover, molecular typing was performed to investigate the genetic relatedness among MRSA isolates. METHODS: Phenotypic identification of MRSA was done by disc diffusion method...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153063/-investigation-of-various-virulence-factors-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-nosocomial-infections
#15
Halit Kuş, Uğur Arslan, Hatice Türk Dağı, Duygu Fındık
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients and causes nosocomial infections. K.pneumoniae has a variety of virulence factors, especially capsule polysaccharide, hypermucoviscosity (HV), fimbriae, toxins and determinants for iron acquisition. The aim of this study was to detect the virulence factors in K.pneumoniae strains isolated from nosocomial infections in two years. Fifty three K.pneumoniae strains isolated from the samples of patients with nosocomial infections in the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152950/investigation-of-class-d-beta-lactamases-causing-carbapenem-resistance-in-clinical-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates
#16
Iskandar Davandeh, Bayrı Eraç, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir
Background/aim: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important causative agent of nosocomial infections, and carbapenems have been frequently used in the treatment of these infections. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary carbapenem hydrolyzing oxacillinase (CHO) types in clinical A. bumannii strains. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 76 imipenem nonsusceptible A. baumannii strains, isolated from a tertiary care hospital, were determined by microdilution method...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152554/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-after-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#17
Katherine J Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Gretchen K Sieger, Christopher J Weight, Badrinath R Konety
Background and Objectives: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150360/changes-in-the-epidemiology-and-distribution-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-in-north-eastern-spain-over-the-last-35-years
#18
Doroteo Acero Fernández, María José Ferri Iglesias, María Buxó Pujolràs, Carmen López Nuñez, Isabel Serra Matamala, Xavier Queralt Molés, Xavier Aldeguer Manté
BACKGROUND: Genotypic distribution and epidemiology of HCV infection in Western Europe countries has changed over the last decades. AIM: To establish the local genotypic profile and characterize the associated demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All the genotyping from 1988 to 2015 were considered. Associated demographic variables were included in logistic regression models. Genotyping was carried out with updated commercial kits. RESULTS: Genotype 1b was the most prevalent (42...
November 14, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149944/management-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#19
REVIEW
Fabienne Venet, Thomas Rimmelé, Guillaume Monneret
It is now well established that profound immunosuppression develops within a few days after sepsis onset in patients. This should be considered additional organ failure because it is associated with increased rate of nosocomial infections, mortality, and long-term complications, thus constituting the rationale for immunomodulation in patients. Nevertheless, the demonstration of the efficacy of such therapeutic strategy in improving deleterious outcomes in sepsis remains to be made. Results from clinical trials based on interleukin 7 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor immunoadjuvant therapies in septic shock patients are expected for 2018...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149873/health-care-workers-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-tuberculosis-infection-control-nepal
#20
Anita Shrestha, Dipesh Bhattarai, Barsha Thapa, Prem Basel, Rajendra Raj Wagle
BACKGROUND: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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