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Vitamin A

Roberta E Rossi, Tara Whyand, Charles D Murray, Mark I Hamilton, Dario Conte, Martyn E Caplin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune disorders of unclear aetiology. Dietary deficiencies may be a potential pathogenic factor in their development. Patients often take food supplements without knowledge of any evidence base. We have therefore assessed the evidence for food supplementation in the management of IBD. A PubMed search was performed for the terms Inflammatory bowel disease; nutritional deficiencies; dietary supplements; curcumin; green tea; vitamin D/other vitamins; folic acid; iron; zinc; probiotics; andrographis paniculata; and boswellia serrate...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Amber A Bokhari, Laura R Lee, Dewayne Raboteau, Jane Turbov, Isabel V Rodriguez, J Wesley Pike, Chad A Hamilton, G Larry Maxwell, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Viqar Syed
Here, we evaluated the expression of CYP24A1, a protein that inactivates vitamin D in tissues. CYP24A1 expression was increased in advanced-stage endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Similarly, endometrial cancer cells expressed higher levels of CYP24A1 than immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine CYP24A1 mRNA and protein levels in endometrial cancer cells after 8, 24, 72, and 120 h of exposure to progesterone, progestin derivatives and calcitriol, either alone or in combination...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Ying Wang, Shaoyan Si, Junli Liu, Zongye Wang, Haiying Jia, Kai Feng, Lili Sun, Shu Jun Song
AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults...
2016: PloS One
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium towards the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Akihiro Orita, Michael G Verde, Masanori Sakai, Ying Shirley Meng
The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Kavita J Rawat, Nilakshi H Sabnis, Udit Saraf, Gaurav Surana
Vitamin D functions as a vitamin as well as a hormone. Its major skeletal actions are complemented by varied extra-skeletal functions. During the past decade, association between Vitamin D and its role in various non-skeletal morbidities have been recognized. It plays a role in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses like allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers, infections and cardiovascular disease. We report the case of a middle aged female with chronic quadriparesis and new onset anemia associated with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Gherardo Mazziotti, Anna Maria Formenti, Robert A Adler, John P Bilezikian, Ashley Grossman, Emilia Sbardella, Salvatore Minisola, Andrea Giustina
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most frequent form of secondary osteoporosis caused by chronic exposure to glucocorticoid excess. Pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is multifactorial including direct effects of glucocorticoids on bone cells and indirect effects of glucocorticoids on several neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways. Fragility fractures occur early in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and anti-osteoporotic drugs along with calcium and vitamin D should be started soon after exposure to glucocorticoid excess...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine
Jean-Christophe Ianotto, Aurélie Chauveau, Dominique Mottier, Valérie Ugo, Christian Berthou, Eric Lippert, Aurélien Delluc
Cancer incidence in patients with recurrent unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) is much higher than after a first event, but the incidence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) in this situation is still unknown. We tested for JAK2V617F and calreticulin mutants, 372 DNA samples of patients treated for (VTR). Among these patients, 10 (2.7%) were carrying JAK2V617F mutation and none of them any of the calreticulin (CALR) mutations. Among the 19 patients who had VTE recurrence under vitamin K antagonists, 4 patients (21...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Hematology
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Kosuke Kawaguchi, Masashi Morita
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1-3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes...
2016: BioMed Research International
So Young Ock, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bu Kyung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Myung Ha Lee, Young Me Yoon, Dae Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women) aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Corey H Basch, Jennifer Mongiovi, Alyssa Berdnik, Charles E Basch
Background: Use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVM) and other dietary supplements is common among American adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the source and content of the most widely viewed YouTube videos associated with MVM supplements. Methods: Videos were filtered by number of views and the source of the video upload was recorded. A comparison of video characteristics and differences in video content was conducted. Results: Cumulatively, the videos in this sample were viewed 25 573 055 times...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Oliver Stich, Armin Buchwald, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Simon Maier, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D has many immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective functions, and previous studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a 1-year cohort of adult inpatients with schizophreniform and autism spectrum syndromes in a naturalistic inpatient setting in Germany. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Our study was comprised of 60 adult schizophreniform and 23 adult high-functioning autism spectrum patients who were hospitalized between January and December of 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Bryan M Corbett, Charles O'Connell, Mallory A Boutin, Nabil I Fatayerji, Charles W Sauer
BACKGROUND Methylergonovine is an ergot alkaloid used to treat post-partum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Mistaking methylergonovine for vitamin K with accidental administration to the neonate is a rare iatrogenic illness occurring almost exclusively in the delivery room setting. Complications of ergot alkaloids in neonates include respiratory depression, seizures, and death. CASE REPORT A term infant was inadvertently given 0.1 mg of methylergonovine intramuscularly in the right thigh. The error was only noted when the vial of medication was scanned, after administration, identifying it as methylergonovine rather than vitamin K...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Matthew C Ferroni, Kevin J Rycyna, Timothy D Averch, Michelle J Semins
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is often detected during metabolic evaluation in the nephrolithiasis population. Multiple vitamin D repletion protocols exist, however their differing impact on urinary stone formation risk factors is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a history of calcium stones and vitamin D deficiency (<30ng/ml) were randomized to receive either 1,000 International Units (IU) daily or 50,000 IU weekly of vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urology
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