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Vitamin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656544/an-overview-on-the-identification-of-mait-cell-antigens
#1
Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Alexandra J Corbett, Zhenjun Chen, Ligong Liu, Jeffrey Y W Mak, Dale I Godfrey, Jamie Rossjohn, David P Fairlie, James McCluskey, Sidonia B G Eckle
Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by the monomorphic MHC class I-like molecule, MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). Until 2012, the origin of the MAIT cell antigens (Ags) was unknown, although it was established that MAIT cells could be activated by a broad range of bacteria and yeasts, possibly suggesting a conserved Ag. Using a combination of protein chemistry, mass spectrometry, cellular biology, structural biology and chemistry, we discovered MAIT cell ligands derived from folic acid (vitamin B9) and from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin (vitamin B2)...
April 14, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656360/dietary-vitamin-e-status-dictates-oxidative-stress-outcomes-by-modulating-effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-in-alzheimer-disease-model-app-swe-ps1-de9-mice
#2
Shengqi Dong, Xiaochen Huang, Jie Zhen, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, JiaJia Wang, Cui Zhou, Linhong Yuan
Quite a number of studies have examined the effects of fish oil supplementation on cognitive performance in different transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, inconsistent and controversial outcomes have been derived from these experiments. In order to investigate whether the beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation on cognition was dietary VE status associated, fish oil dietary intervention was carried out in transgenic APPswe /PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. Control mice (C57BL/6J mice) were fed a normal control diet...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656332/rdh13-deficiency-weakens-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-by-regulating-spot14-and-cyp2e1-expression-levels
#3
Xiaofang Cui, Benting Ma, Yan Wang, Yan Chen, Chunling Shen, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Lungen Lu, Zhugang Wang
Mitochondrion-localized retinol dehydrogenase 13 (Rdh13) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase involved in vitamin A metabolism in both humans and mice. We previously generated Rdh13 knockout mice and showed that Rdh13 deficiency causes severe acute retinal light damage. In this study, considering that Rdh13 is highly expressed in mouse liver, we further evaluated the potential effect of Rdh13 on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Although Rdh13 deficiency showed no significant effect on liver histology and physiological functions under regular culture, the Rdh13-/- mice displayed an attenuated response to CCl4 -induced liver injury...
April 14, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656297/reducing-mineral-and-vitamin-deficiencies-through-biofortification-progress-under-harvestplus
#4
Howarth Bouis
Fundamentally, the prevalence of mineral and vitamin deficiencies is high in developing countries due to the fact that agricultural systems do not produce sufficient foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Biofortification involves breeding staple food crops to increase their micronutrient content, targeting staple foods widely consumed by low-income families globally. In so doing, biofortification contributes to solving the underlying problem of mineral and vitamin deficiencies by increasing the amount of iron, zinc, and provitamin A produced by food systems...
April 13, 2018: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656218/improved-hypocrellin-a-production-in-shiraia-bambusicola-by-light-dark-shift
#5
Chun Xiao Sun, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellin A (HA) is a major bioactive perylenequinone from the fruiting body of Shiraia bambusicola used for the treatment of skin diseases and developed as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent against cancers and viruses. The mycelial culture of S. bambusicola under dark is a biotechnological alternative for HA production but with low yield. In this study, light and dark conditions were investigated to develop effective elicitation on HA production in the cultures. Our results showed the constant light at 200 lx stimulated HA production without any growth retardation of mycelia...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656158/toxicogenetic-study-of-omeprazole-and-the-modulatory-effects-of-retinol-palmitate-and-ascorbic-acid-on-allium-cepa
#6
Antonio Lima Braga, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo de Meneses, José Victor de Oliveira Santos, Antonielly Campinho Dos Reis, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Leane Brunelle Dos Santos Alves, Subrata Shaw, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Razina Rouf, Asish Kumar Das, Shrabanti Dev, Manik Chandra Shil, Jamil A Shilpi, Ishaq N Khan, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunüs S Ali, Mohammad S Mubarak, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Omeprazole (OME) is a proton pump inhibitor used for the treatment of various gastric and intestinal disease; however, studies on its effects on the genetic materials are still restricted. The present study aimed to evaluate possible toxicogenic effects of OME in Allium cepa meristems with the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for DNA damage, mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic effects. Additionally, retinol palmitate (RP) and ascorbic acid (AA) were also co-treated with OME to evaluate possible modulatory effects of OME-induced cytogenetic damages...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656119/state-of-play-and-future-direction-with-noacs-an-expert-consensus
#7
REVIEW
A T Cohen, G Y Lip, R De Caterina, H Heidbuchel, J L Zamorano, G Agnelli, F Verheugt, A J Camm
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular conditions significant in contemporary practice. In both, the use of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) has been traditionally used to prevent adverse events. However, VKA therapy is associated with challenges relating to dose maintenance, the need to monitor anticoagulation, and bleeding risks. The non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are becoming accepted as a clear alternative to VKA therapy for both AF and VTE management...
April 12, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655945/long-term-westernized-diet-leads-to-region-specific-changes-in-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#8
Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and down-stream markers of synaptic plasticity, as well as alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655807/temporal-trends-of-time-in-therapeutic-range-and-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Daniele Pastori, Alessio Farcomeni, Mirella Saliola, Francesco Del Sole, Pasquale Pignatelli, Francesco Violi, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: Optimal time in therapeutic range (TTR) of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is crucial for cardiovascular events (CVEs) prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The relationship between temporal changes of TTR and the incidence of CVEs has been poorly investigated. We investigated 1) temporal trends of TTR in a long-term follow-up of NVAF patients; 2) the incidence of CVEs according to changes of TTR. METHODS: Prospective observational study including 1341 NVAF outpatients (mean age 73...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655760/psidium-cattleianum-fruits-a-review-on-its-composition-and-bioactivity
#10
REVIEW
Elisa Dos Santos Pereira, Juliana Vinholes, Rodrigo C Franzon, Gabriel Dalmazo, Márcia Vizzotto, Leonardo Nora
Psidium cattleianum Sabine, commonly known as araçá, is a Brazilian native fruit, which is very juicy, with sweet to sub acid pulp and a spicy touch. The fruit can be eaten fresh or processed into juice, jellies and ice creams. Araçás are source of vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, polysaccharides, volatile compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, which can provide nutrients and phytochemical agents with different biological functions. Different pharmacological studies demonstrate that P. cattleianum exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655710/pectin-honey-coating-as-novel-dehydrating-bioactive-agent-for-cut-fruit-enhancement-of-the-functional-properties-of-coated-dried-fruits
#11
Gabriella Santagata, Salvatore Mallardo, Gabriella Fasulo, Paola Lavermicocca, Francesca Valerio, Mariaelena Di Biase, Michele Di Stasio, Mario Malinconico, Maria Grazia Volpe
In this paper, a novel and sustainable process for the fruit dehydration was described. Specifically, edible coatings based on pectin and honey were prepared and used as dehydrating and antimicrobial agents of cut fruit samples, in this way promoting the fruit preservation from irreversible deteriorative processes. Pectin-honey coating was tested on apple, cantaloupe melon, mango and pineapple. The analysis were performed also on uncoated dehydrated fruits (control). The coated fruit evidenced enhanced dehydration percentage, enriched polyphenol and vitamin C contents, improved antioxidant activity and volatile molecules profile...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655594/no-effect-of-prenatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-autism-relevant-behaviours-in-multiple-inbred-strains-of-mice
#12
M Langguth, M Fassin, S Alexander, K M Turner, T H J Burne
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders commonly characterised by verbal and non-verbal communication deficits, impaired social interaction and repetitive, stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is most likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of ASD. The overall aim of this study was to investigate prenatal vitamin D deficiency on ASD-related behavioural phenotypes in multiple inbred strains of mice...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655574/current-treatment-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
C Moctezuma-Velázquez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent hepatopathy, estimated at 30% in the general population. In the coming years, it will likely be the most common indication for liver transplantation and the most frequent cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and exercise interventions that have been shown to be efficacious, even for reverting fibrosis. Unfortunately, compliance with general measures involving lifestyle modifications is very poor, making pharmacologic strategies a necessary option...
April 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655559/associations-between-bone-and-energy-metabolism-in-cows-fed-diets-differing-in-level-of-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-supplemented-with-cholecalciferol-or-calcidiol
#14
R M Rodney, N P Martinez, P Celi, E Block, P C Thomson, G Wijffels, D R Fraser, J E P Santos, I J Lean
Bone-derived hormones play an important role in metabolism. This study examined the hypothesis that interactions between bone and energy metabolism, particularly those involving osteocalcin, are present in dairy cattle and have feedback mechanisms over time. Associations between metabolites in blood were examined in 32 Holstein cows blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to diets containing either 0.27 mg/kg dry matter (DM) calcidiol or cholecalciferol for an anticipated intake of 3 mg/d (120,000 IU/d) at 11 kg of DM, and positive (+130 mEq/kg DM) or negative (-130 mEq/kg DM) dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 252 d of gestation to calving...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653103/sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-trans-activates-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-3-24-hydroxylase-gene-expression-in-renal-proximal-tubular-cells
#15
Tomohiro Kagawa, Mina Kozai, Masashi Masuda, Nagakatsu Harada, Otoki Nakahashi, Mari Tajiri, Ryouhei Yoshikawa, Mari Nakao, Yuichiro Takei, Masayuki Iwano, Eiji Takeda, Yutaka Taketani, Hironori Yamamoto
The physiological activity of the steroid derived hormone vitamin D is regulated by several enzymatic steps. Both 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) modulate blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 , an activated form of vitamin D. We previously demonstrated that CYP27B1 expression was trans-activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), although whether SREBP1 also regulates CYP24A1 transcription was unclear. Here we investigated the ability of SREBP1 to affect CYP24A1 transcription...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653100/vitamin-d-nanoemulsion-enhances-hapatoprotective-effect-of-conventional-vitamin-d-in-rats-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Mohamed El-Sherbiny, Mohamed Eldosoky, Mohamed El-Shafey, Gamal Othman, Hany A Elkattawy, Tamer Bedir, Nehal Mohsen Elsherbiny
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and type II diabetes. Due to increasing prevalence of these diseases globally, NAFLD is considered as a common form of chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with reported anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating activity. Hypovitaminosis D often coexists with NAFLD and various studies reported beneficial role of vitamin D in modulating NAFLD. However, variable oral bioavailability, poor water solubility, and chemical degradation hinder the clinical application of vitamin D...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652847/comparative-phytonutrient-analysis-of-broccoli-by-products-the-potentials-for-broccoli-by-product-utilization
#17
Mengpei Liu, Lihua Zhang, Suk Lan Ser, Jonathan R Cumming, Kang-Mo Ku
The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues...
April 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652820/diet-quality-and-nutrient-intake-of-urban-overweight-and-obese-primarily-african-american-older-adults-with-osteoarthritis
#18
Sevasti Vergis, Linda Schiffer, Tiffany White, Andrew McLeod, Neda Khudeira, Andrew Demott, Marian Fitzgibbon, Susan Hughes, Lisa Tussing-Humphreys
Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9) were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652819/the-when-what-how-of-measuring-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-clinical-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Niek F Dirks, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Paul Lips, Renate T de Jongh, Marc G Vervloet, Robert de Jonge, Annemieke C Heijboer
We now have the ability to measure a number of different vitamin D metabolites with very accurate methods. The most abundant vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is currently the best marker for overall vitamin D status and is therefore most commonly measured in clinical medicine. The added value of measuring metabolites beyond 25-hydroxyvitamin D, like 1,25-, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not broadly appreciated. Yet, in some more complicated cases, these metabolites may provide just the information needed for a legitimate diagnosis...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652593/vitamin-d-status-in-hospitalized-chronically-ill-patients
#20
Raef Malak Botros, Mona Mohamed AbdElsalam Besibes, Ahmed Mohamed Bahaaeldin, Sherihan Abo Elyazed
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is rarely considered or treated in critically ill patients. Deficiency of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] prior to hospital admission might be a significant predictor of short- and long-term all cause patient mortality in a critically ill patient. The aim of this work is to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized patients and its relation to the length of stay and outcome of hospitalization. METHODS: Prospective cohort study performed on 80 patients admitted with acute deterioration of their chronic illness...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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