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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331576/bumblebees-require-visual-pollen-stimuli-to-initiate-and-multimodal-stimuli-to-complete-a-full-behavioral-sequence-in-close-range-flower-orientation
#1
Saskia Wilmsen, Robin Gottlieb, Robert R Junker, Klaus Lunau
Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331183/differential-expression-of-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-midguts-in-response-to-diet-of-spodoptera-litura
#2
Xin Yi, Jiangwei Qi, Xiaofan Zhou, Mei Ying Hu, Guo Hua Zhong
While it has been well characterized that chemosensory receptors in guts of mammals have great influence on food preference, much remains elusive in insects. Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble proteins that could deliver chemicals to olfactory and gustatory receptors. Recent studies have identified a number of CSPs expressed in midgut in Lepidoptera insects, which started to reveal their roles in chemical recognition and stimulating appetite in midgut. In this study, we examined expression patterns in midgut of 21 Spodoptera litura CSPs (SlitCSPs) characterized from a previously reported transcriptome, and three CSPs were identified to be expressed highly in midgut...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323090/c-fos-activity-in-the-insular-cortex-nucleus-accumbens-and-basolateral-amygdala-following-the-intraperitoneal-injection-of-saccharin-and-lithium-chloride
#3
Alberto Soto, Patricia Gasalla, Azucena Begega, Matías López
The present study examined c-Fos expression in selected brain areas consequent to intraperitoneal (IP) administration of saccharin and lithium chloride. Rats were tested for aversion to the saccharin as measured by flavor consumption and orofacial reactions in the taste reactivity (TR) test. It was found that intraperitoneal conditioning resulted in the reduction in voluntary consumption but not in the production of aversive orofacial responses to the saccharin. The immunohistochemistry quantification revealed increased c-Fos activity in the insular cortex, the shell and core regions of the nucleus accumbens, and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322326/superoxide-dismutase-sod-1-modulates-c-elegans-pathogen-avoidance-behavior
#4
Alexander M Horspool, Howard C Chang
The C. elegans nervous system mediates protective physiological and behavioral responses amid infection. However, it remains largely unknown how the nervous system responds to reactive oxygen species (ROS) activated by pathogenic microbes during infection. Here, we show superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), an enzyme that converts superoxide into less toxic hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, functions in the gustatory neuron ASER to mediate C. elegans pathogen avoidance response. When C. elegans first encounters pathogenic bacteria P...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321607/it-s-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-selective-attention-to-drink-properties-during-tasting-influences-brain-activation-in-gustatory-and-reward-regions
#5
Inge van Rijn, Cees de Graaf, Paul A M Smeets
Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316078/5-ht3a-driven-gfp-delineates-gustatory-fibers-innervating-sour-responsive-taste-cells-a-labeled-line-for-sour-taste
#6
J M Stratford, E D Larson, R Yang, E Salcedo, T E Finger
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) - the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296237/inpatient-treatment-of-patients-with-acute-idiopathic-peripheral-facial-palsy-a-population-based-healthcare-research-study
#7
Katharina Plumbaum, Gerd Fabian Volk, Daniel Boeger, Jens Buentzel, Dirk Esser, Andreas Steinbrecher, Katrin Hoffmann, Peter Jecker, Andreas Mueller, Gerald Radtke, Otto W Witte, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
OBJECTIVES: To determine the inpatient management for patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy (IFP) in Thuringia, Germany. DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: All inpatients with IFP in all hospitals with departments of otolaryngology and neurology in 2012 in the German federal state Thuringia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients' characteristics and treatment were compared between departments, and the probability of recovery was tested...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294983/on-the-emerging-role-of-the-taste-receptor-type-1-t1r-family-of-nutrient-sensors-in-the-musculoskeletal-system
#8
REVIEW
Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Tsuyoshi Sato, Tetsuya Yoda
The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose...
March 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294458/how-task-demands-shape-brain-responses-to-visual-food-cues
#9
Tanja Maria Pohl, Claus Tempelmann, Toemme Noesselt
Several previous imaging studies have aimed at identifying the neural basis of visual food cue processing in humans. However, there is little consistency of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results across studies. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this variability across studies might - at least in part - be caused by the different tasks employed. In particular, we assessed directly the influence of task set on brain responses to food stimuli with fMRI using two tasks (colour vs. edibility judgement, between-subjects design)...
March 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282662/r3-versus-r4-thoracoscopic-sympathectomy-for-severe-palmar-hyperhidrosis
#10
Wenxiong Zhang, Yiping Wei, Han Jiang, Jianjun Xu, Dongliang Yu
Background Thoracoscopic sympathectomy (TS) was the preferred surgical treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis (PH), but postoperative complications such as compensatory sweating (CS) were common. This study was projected to compare R3 versus R4 TS for treating severe PH. Methods From April 2009 and March 2015, 106 consecutive patients with severe PH underwent bilateral R3 (n = 62) or R4 (n = 44) TS at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. The patients were followed up to evaluate symptom resolution, postoperative complications, satisfaction level, and severity of CS...
March 10, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273934/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-t2-t3-or-t4-to-evaluate-the-best-denervation-level-for-palmar-hyperhidrosis
#11
Wenxiong Zhang, Dongliang Yu, Yiping Wei, Jianjun Xu, Xiaoqiang Zhang
We systematically reviewed and compared the clinical outcomes of thoracoscopic sympathectomy (TS) at different denervation levels for palmar hyperhidrosis. We searched PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, Scopus and Google Scholar for relevant studies published during 1990-2016. Symptom resolution, patient satisfaction, compensatory sweating (CS), recurrence, dry hands and gustatory sweating were assessed. We selected 13 studies from 2228 for the final analysis...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261024/effect-of-cigarette-smoke-on-gustatory-sensitivity-evaluation-of-the-deficit-and-of-the-recovery-time-course-after-smoking-cessation
#12
Fabrice Chéruel, Marta Jarlier, Hélène Sancho-Garnier
BACKGROUND: Study results have shown that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the taste function in humans. However, neither the quantitative impact on taste sensitivity nor the time-course of taste recovery on stopping smoking have been precisely examined. METHODS: The experimental design included 2 phases, (i) a case-control phase comparing the taste sensitivity level measured by Electrogustometric (EGM) thresholds from various parts of the tongue (locus) between smokers (n = 83) and non-smokers (n = 48), (ii) a follow-up study looking at the taste sensitivity recovery in smokers after smoking cessation (n = 24) and compared with non-smokers...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258376/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-patients-with-non-complicated-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Aytug Altundag, Seyid Ahmet Ay, Serdar Hira, Murat Salıhoglu, Kamil Baskoy, Ferhat Denız, Hakan Tekelı, Onuralp Kurt, Arif Yonem, Thomas Hummel
The aim of this study was to evaluate any possible relationship between diabetic state and olfactory and gustatory functions in patients with non-complicated diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1D), and also to present evidence of the association between olfactory and gustatory scores and HbA1c values and disease durations. The study included 39 patients with non-complicated T1D and 31 healthy controls. Clinical characteristics such as age, gender, duration of disease, education levels and biochemical analyses (fasting blood glucose, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), triglyceride, HbA1c, C-peptide, postprandial blood glucose) were measured...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256589/chemosensory-adaptations-of-the-mountain-fly-drosophila-nigrosparsa-insecta-diptera-through-genomics-and-structural-biology-s-lenses
#14
Francesco Cicconardi, Daniele Di Marino, Pier Paolo Olimpieri, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254019/volatile-profile-in-the-accurate-labelling-of-monofloral-honey-the-case-of-lavender-and-thyme-honey
#15
Isabel Escriche, Lara Sobrino-Gregorio, Andrea Conchado, Marisol Juan-Borrás
The proliferation of hybrid plant varieties without pollen, such as lavender, has complicated the classification of specific types of honey. This study evaluated the correlation between the proclaimed type of monofloral honey (lavender or thyme) as appears on the label with the actual percentage of pollen. In addition, physicochemical parameters, colour, olfacto-gustatory profile, and volatile compounds were tested. All of the samples labelled as lavender were wrongly classified according to the usual commercial criteria (minimum 10% of pollen Lavandula spp...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252186/taste-related-sensations-in-old-age
#16
REVIEW
Taiji Ogawa, Michael J Annear, Kazunori Ikebe, Yoshinobu Maeda
BACKGROUND: The sense of taste is important as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, safety, and quality of foods as well as for food enjoyment and quality of life. Several factors are suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity, and higher prevalence of taste disorder has been reported among older adults. This review focused on the reported causes and correlates of taste decline in older adults, with the of aim to consolidating existing evidence and identifying gaps and limitations...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242311/taste-assessment-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-individuals-with-co-occurring-binge-eating-disorder
#17
Jean M Arlt, Gregory S Smutzer, Eunice Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Taste perception influences food choice, and may contribute to both weight status and disordered eating. Relatively little work has attempted to disentangle contributions of weight status and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) to human taste perception. We predicted weight status and BED would interact, showing difference in taste perception from non-eating disorder matched groups. METHODS: The four study groups included: normal weight BED (NW BED), normal weight healthy controls (NW HC), overweight BED (OW BED), and overweight healthy controls (OW HC) (N = 60)...
February 24, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242202/chemosensory-basis-of-larval-performance-of-papilio-hospiton-on-different-host-plants
#18
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Paolo Solari, Roberto Crnjar
Papilio hospiton Géné is an oligophagous species, endemic of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, using various Apiaceae and Rutaceae as host plants, such as Ferula communis, Ferula arrigonii, Peucedanum paniculatum, Ruta lamarmorae and Pastinaca latifolia. We previously found that the lateral maxillary styloconic sensillum in the larva has two deterrent neurons, one phagostimulant and one salt specific, while the medial sensillum has two phagostimulant neurons, one deterrent and one salt specific. In this work we studied the sensitivity of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) to saps of F...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235778/clinical-evoked-potentials-in-neurology-a-review-of-techniques-and-indications
#19
REVIEW
Agustina M Lascano, Patrice H Lalive, Martin Hardmeier, Peter Fuhr, Margitta Seeck
Evoked potentials (EPs) are a powerful and cost-effective tool for evaluating the integrity and function of the central nervous system. Although imaging techniques, such as MRI, have recently become increasingly important in the diagnosis of neurological diseases, over the past 30 years, many neurologists have continued to employ EPs in specific clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the recent evolution of 'classical' clinical applications of EPs in terms of early diagnosis and disease monitoring and is an extension of a previous review published in this journal in 2005 by Walsh and collaborators...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218483/antimicrobial-potential-and-gustatory-perception-of-chlorhexidine-gluconate-mouthwashes-with-or-without-alcohol-after-a-single-rinse-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-clinical-trial
#20
R Cantarelli, T C Negrini, Fwmg Muniz, Hjr Oballe, R A Arthur, C K Rösing
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to assess whether the presence of alcohol in chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes influences their antimicrobial potential against salivary bacteria in young adults. Additionally, the taste perception was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized crossover design, 20 participants (17 women and three men; aged 18-38 years old) rinsed with the 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate with (CHX+) or without alcohol (CHX-) for 1 min...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
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