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Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
A Fjaeldstad, A Niklassen, H Fernandes
The sense of taste holds a key integrate role in assessing the flavour of food before swallowing is initiated. If the expectations for taste are not met, palatability and pleasure of the food can decrease. In patients suffering from taste disorders, this may impair appetite and nutritional state. Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening...
March 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
Pavlos Pavlidis, Rafael J A Cámara, Georgios Kekes, Haralampos Gouveris
OBJECTIVE: Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and Bell's palsy (BP) are typically known as facial nerve motor syndromes and are primarily unilateral. The aim of this study was to challenge this assertion because both conditions are also known to be associated with viruses that typically affect several nerves. METHODS: Ten participants with RHS, 12 with BP, all clinically unilateral, and 12 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Electrogustometric thresholds were measured bilaterally in the areas of the chorda tympani, the glossopharyngeal, and the major petrosal nerve...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Hiroki Takagi, Yuji Seta, Shinji Kataoka, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Takashi Toyono, Tatsuo Kawamoto
The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system...
March 10, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Hidehiro Yamamoto, Masayoshi Okada
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy at the second rib level is considered effective as a therapeutic treatment for facial blushing. However, 10% to 15% of patients do not benefit from this intervention. No additional procedure has been developed for this disorder. Recently, ganglionectomy using application of laser speckle flow graph has been evaluated for the treatment of compensatory sweating. We report our results of ganglionectomy for facial blushing as a redo surgery. METHODS: Between August 2012 and April 2017, 8 patients with facial blushing who underwent an initial sympathectomy reported symptom recurrence...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Ruth Morona, Jesús M López, R Glenn Northcutt, Agustín González
Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates, and their neuroanatomical organization is particularly relevant for deducing the neural traits that have been conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. The immunohistochemical localization of calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) provides a powerful method for discerning segregated neuronal populations, fiber tracts, and neuropils and is here applied to the brains of Neoceratodus and Protopterus, representing the two extant orders of lungfishes...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Qing Zhang, Yu-Mei Wei, Yuan-Gang Qi, Bao-Sheng Li
Objective: To evaluate the early changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the salivary glands during radiotherapy (RT) and their association with the degree of xerostomia at 6 months after RT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 patients with NPC who underwent RT. Each patient underwent diffusion-weighted MRI of the salivary glands at rest and with gustatory stimulation within 1 week before RT and 2 weeks after the beginning of RT...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs...
March 5, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jonas Töle, Antje Stolzenburg, Susan M Tyree, Frauke Stähler, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Despite long and intense research, some fundamental questions regarding representation of taste information in the brain still remain unanswered. This might in part be due to shortcomings of the established methods that limit the researcher either to thorough characterization of few elements or analyze the response of the entirety of neurons to only one stimulus. To overcome these restrictions, we evaluate the use of the immediate early gene Arc as a neuronal activity marker in the early neural structures of the taste pathway, the nodose/petrosal ganglion (NPG) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
March 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Albert Wabnegger, Daniela Schwab, Anne Schienle
In western cultures, we are surrounded by appealing visual food cues that stimulate our desire to eat, overeating and subsequent weight gain. Cognitive control of appetite (reappraisal) requires substantial attentional resources and effort in order to work. Therefore, we tested an alternative approach for appetite regulation via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy, normal-weight women were presented with images depicting food (high-/low-caloric), once in combination with a bitter aftertaste (a gustatory stop signal) and once with a neutral taste (water), in a retest design...
February 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Long Sun, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ke Kang, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Jun-Dan Deng, Yan-Ping Tang, Cheng Chen, Laura Hansen, Tian Xu, Qing-He Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang
The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Caroline Honsek, Stefan Kabisch, Margrit Kemper, Christiana Gerbracht, Ayman M Arafat, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Ulrike Dambeck, Martin A Osterhoff, Martin O Weickert, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insoluble cereal fibres have been shown in large prospective cohort studies to be highly effective in preventing type 2 diabetes, but there is a lack of interventional data. Our 2 year randomised double-blind prospective intervention study compared the effect of an insoluble oat fibre extract with that of placebo on glucose metabolism and incidence of diabetes. METHODS: A total of 180 participants with impaired glucose tolerance underwent a modified version of the 1 year lifestyle training programme PREvention of DIAbetes Self-management (PREDIAS) and were randomised to receive a fibre supplement (n = 89; 7...
February 28, 2018: Diabetologia
Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Eric D Claus, Andrew B Dodd, Brittny Miller, Jessica Mickey, Davin K Quinn, Sarah L Hagerty, Brandi Seaman, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are highly comorbid and share commonly affected neuronal substrates (i.e., prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum). However, no studies have examined how combined physical trauma and heavy drinking affect neurocircuitry relative to heavy drinking alone. METHODS: The current study investigated whether comorbid AUDs and mild or moderate TBI (AUDs+TBI) would negatively affect maladaptive drinking behaviors (n = 90 AUDs+TBI; n = 62 AUDs) as well as brain structure (i...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
On the island of Sardinia the lepidopteran Papilio hospiton uses Ferula communis as exclusive host-plant. However, on the small island of Tavolara, adult females lay eggs on Seseli tortuosum, a plant confined to the island. When raised in captivity on Seseli only few larvae grew beyond the first-second instar. Host specificity of lepidopterans is determined by female oviposition preferences, but also by larval food acceptance, and adult and larval taste sensitivity may be related to host selection in both cases...
February 27, 2018: Insect Science
Wei-Sheng Lin, Sheng-Rong Yeh, Shou-Zen Fan, Liang-Yu Chen, Jui-Hung Yen, Tsai-Feng Fu, Ming-Shiang Wu, Pei-Yu Wang
Appropriate sexual selection or individual sexual attractiveness is closely associated with the reproductive success of a species. Here, we report that young male flies exhibit innate courtship preference for female flies that are raised on higher-yeast diets and that have greater body weight and fecundity, but reduced locomotor activity and shortened lifespan. Male flies discriminate among females that have been fed diets that contain 3 different yeast concentrations-1, 5, and 20% yeast- via gustatory, but not visual or olfactory, perception...
February 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Francesco M Galassi, Nicole Bender, Michael E Habicht, Emanuele Armocida, Fabrizio Toscano, David A Menassa, Matteo Cerri
St. Catherine of Siena suffered from an extreme form of holy fasting, a condition classified as anorexia mirabilis (also known as inedia prodigiosa). Historical and medical scholarships alike have drawn a comparison between this primaeval type of anorexia with a relatively common form of eating disorder among young women in the modern world, anorexia nervosa. St. Catherine's condition was characterised by a disgust for sweet taste, a condition also described in anorexia nervosa, and characterised by specific neurophysiological changes in the brain...
February 22, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Dareia S Roos, Oscar J M Oranje, Anneleen F D Freriksen, Henk W Berendse, Sanne Boesveldt
Flavor perception involves both olfactory and gustatory function. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), hyposmia is a frequent finding, as well as an increased risk of malnutrition. We performed a pilot study to investigate the relationship between flavor perception and risk of malnutrition in PD patients. 63 PD patients participated to perform an olfactory (Sniffin' Sticks) and gustatory (Taste Strips) task, and a questionnaire to establish nutritional risk (MUST), which includes BMI measurements. The relationship between olfactory and gustatory function and BMI was analyzed using partial correlations, corrected for disease duration, and regression analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Giorgia Sollai, Maurizio Biolchini, Roberto Crnjar
In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Julie Lamure, Marlène Chevalier, Pascal Rathelot, Françoise Mignolet, Isabelle Precheur
Frail older adults often experience swallowing disorders, prompting nursing staff to crush tablets, open capsules, and mix drugs into their meals or gelled water. However, crushing drugs can lead to pharmacological and gustatory problems. As crushed drugs can stay in prolonged contact with oral microbial biofilm, the current study aimed to investigate their antimicrobial properties. Crushed drugs were diluted in 1 mL of isotonic water and assayed in vitro for: (a) growth inhibition of five bacterial strains and Candida albicans by the diffusion method; (b) inhibition of Streptococcus salivarius and C...
February 13, 2018: Research in Gerontological Nursing
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