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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812416/role-of-branchiomotor-neurons-in-controlling-food-intake-of-zebrafish-larvae
#1
James R Allen, Kiran D Bhattacharyya, Emilia Asante, Badr Almadi, Kyle Schafer, Jeremy Davis, Jane Cox, Mark Voigt, John A Viator, Anand Chandrasekhar
The physical act of eating or feeding involves the coordinated action of several organs like eyes and jaws, and associated neural networks. Moreover, the activity of the neural networks controlling jaw movements (branchiomotor circuits) is regulated by the visual, olfactory, gustatory and hypothalamic systems, which are largely well characterized at the physiological level. By contrast, the behavioral output of the branchiomotor circuits and the functional consequences of disruption of these circuits by abnormal neural development are poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805439/ratios-and-effect-size
#2
Jasper Robinson
Responding to a related pair of measurements is often expressed as a single discrimination ratio. Authors have used various discrimination ratios; yet, little information exists to guide their choice. A second use of ratios is to correct for the influence of a nuisance variable on the measurement of interest. I examine 4 discrimination ratios using simulated data sets. Three ratios, of the form a/(a + b), b/(a + b), and (a - b)/(a + b), introduced distortions to their raw data. The fourth ratio, (b - a)/b largely avoided such distortions and was the most sensitive at detecting statistical differences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803876/distasteful-nectar-deters-floral-robbery
#3
Sarah E Barlow, Geraldine A Wright, Carolyn Ma, Marta Barberis, Iain W Farrell, Emily C Marr, Alice Brankin, Bruce M Pavlik, Philip C Stevenson
Toxic nectar is an ecological paradox [1, 2]. Plants divert substantial resources to produce nectar that attracts pollinators [3], but toxins in this reward could disrupt the mutualism and reduce plant fitness [4]. Alternatively, such compounds could protect nectar from robbers [2], provided that they do not significantly alter pollinator visitation to the detriment of plant fitness [1, 5-8]. Indeed, very few studies have investigated the role of plant toxins in nectar for defense against nectar robbers [4, 9, 10]...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801686/mir-12-and-mir-124-contribute-to-defined-early-phases-of-long-lasting-and-transient-memory
#4
Julia Michely, Susanne Kraft, Uli Müller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators of mRNA translation implicated in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM). Since recent findings demonstrated a role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in early memory phases we investigated whether epigenetic regulation by miRNAs also contributes to early memory phases. We used the olfactory associative learning paradigm in honeybees and addressed the contribution of miRNAs depending on the conditioning strength. We selected miR-12, miR-124, and miR-125 that have been implicated in processes of neuronal plasticity and analysed their contribution to non-associative and associative learning using miRNA inhibitors...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798468/the-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-achieves-high-specificity-and-accommodates-diverse-glycoside-ligands-by-using-a-two-faced-binding-pocket
#5
Anu Thomas, Chidananda Sulli, Edgar Davidson, Eli Berdougo, Morganne Phillips, Bridget A Puffer, Cheryl Paes, Benjamin J Doranz, Joseph B Rucker
Although bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for human health, little is known of the determinants of ligand specificity. TAS2Rs such as TAS2R16 help define gustatory perception and dietary preferences that ultimately influence human health and disease. Each TAS2R must accommodate a broad diversity of chemical structures while simultaneously achieving high specificity so that diverse bitter toxins can be detected without all foods tasting bitter. However, how these G protein-coupled receptors achieve this balance is poorly understood...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796326/gustatory-and-olfactory-responses-to-stimulation-of-the-human-insula
#6
Laure Mazzola, Jean-Pierre Royet, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Jean Isnard, François Mauguière
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous studies suggesting the role of insular cortex in the processing of gustatory and olfactory inputs, the exact location of olfacto-gustatory representation in the insula remains controversial. Here we provide a functional mapping of olfactory-gustatory responses to stimulation of the human insular cortex. METHODS: We reviewed 651 electrical stimulations of the insula that were performed in 221 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the pre-surgical evaluation of drug refractory epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794101/modulation-of-taste-processing-by-temperature
#7
Christian H Lemon
Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation", can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared to concentrated...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#8
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767651/an-automated-system-for-the-objective-evaluation-of-human-gustatory-sensitivity-using-tongue-biopotential-recordings
#9
Danilo Pani, Ilenia Usai, Piero Cosseddu, Melania Melis, Giorgia Sollai, Roberto Crnjar, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa, Luigi Raffo, Annalisa Bonfiglio
The goal of this work is to develop an automatic system for the evaluation of the gustatory sensitivity of patients using an electrophysiological recording of the response of bud cells to taste stimuli. In particular, the study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of supervised classifiers in the discrimination between subjects belonging to the three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster categories (supertasters, medium tasters, and non-tasters), exploiting features extracted from electrophysiological recordings of the tongue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762353/effect-of-three-commercially-available-chewing-gums-on-salivary-flow-rate-and-ph-in-caries-active-and-caries-free-children-an-in-vivo-study
#10
Usha Kiran Vantipalli, Sai Sankar Jogendra Avula, Sridevi Enuganti, Sujatha Bandi, Pranitha Kakarla, Raja Vardhan Kuravadi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Adequate salivary flow is an important requisite in the maintenance of oral health. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli. Hence, the aim of the present study was to know the efficacy of commercially available chewing gums (sugar free and sugared) on salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH in caries-active and caries-free children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred school children aged between 10 and 12 years were divided into two groups on the basis of their caries status into caries free and caries active...
July 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756777/genomic-innovations-transcriptional-plasticity-and-gene-loss-underlying-the-evolution-and-divergence-of-two-highly-polyphagous-and-invasive-helicoverpa-pest-species
#11
S L Pearce, D F Clarke, P D East, S Elfekih, K H J Gordon, L S Jermiin, A McGaughran, J G Oakeshott, A Papanikolaou, O P Perera, R V Rane, S Richards, W T Tay, T K Walsh, A Anderson, C J Anderson, S Asgari, P G Board, A Bretschneider, P M Campbell, T Chertemps, J T Christeller, C W Coppin, S J Downes, G Duan, C A Farnsworth, R T Good, L B Han, Y C Han, K Hatje, I Horne, Y P Huang, D S T Hughes, E Jacquin-Joly, W James, S Jhangiani, M Kollmar, S S Kuwar, S Li, N-Y Liu, M T Maibeche, J R Miller, N Montagne, T Perry, J Qu, S V Song, G G Sutton, H Vogel, B P Walenz, W Xu, H-J Zhang, Z Zou, P Batterham, O R Edwards, R Feyereisen, R A Gibbs, D G Heckel, A McGrath, C Robin, S E Scherer, K C Worley, Y D Wu
BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics, transcriptomics and resequencing to elucidate the genetic basis for their properties as pests. RESULTS: We find that, prior to their divergence about 1.5 Mya, the H. armigera/H. zea lineage had accumulated up to more than 100 more members of specific detoxification and digestion gene families and more than 100 extra gustatory receptor genes, compared to other lepidopterans with narrower host ranges...
July 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751111/gustatory-receptor-22e-is-essential-for-sensing-chloroquine-and-strychnine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Jun-Seok Gwak, Sangyun Jeong, Youngseok Lee
Chloroquine, an amino quinolone derivative commonly used as an anti-malarial drug, is known to impart an unpleasant taste. Little research has been done to study chloroquine taste in insects, therefore, we examined both the deterrant properties and mechanisms underlying chloroquine perception in fruit flies. We identified the antifeedant effect of chloroquine by screening 21 gustatory receptor (Grs) mutants through behavioral feeding assays and electrophysiology experiments. We discovered that two molecular sensors, GR22e and GR33a, act as chloroquine receptors, and found that chloroquine-mediated activation of GRNs occurs through S-type sensilla...
July 24, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745628/a-method-to-test-the-effect-of-environmental-cues-on-mating-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Jenke A Gorter, Jean-Christophe Billeter
An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743797/sonic-hedgehog-from-both-nerves-and-epithelium-is-a-key-trophic-factor-for-taste-bud-maintenance
#14
David Castillo-Azofeifa, Justin T Losacco, Ernesto Salcedo, Erin J Golden, Thomas E Finger, Linda A Barlow
The integrity of taste buds is intimately dependent on an intact gustatory innervation, yet the molecular nature of this dependency is unknown. Here we show differentiation of new taste bud cells, but not progenitor proliferation, is interrupted in mice treated with a Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (HPI), and that gustatory nerves are a source of Shh for taste bud renewal. Additionally, epithelial taste precursor cells express Shh transiently, and are a local supply of Hh ligand supporting taste cell renewal...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742813/taste-preference-changes-throughout-different-life-stages-in-male-rats
#15
Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Katsura Ueda, Michiko Nakatsuka, Shunji Kumabe, Tadashi Inui, Yasutomo Iwai
Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3-6 weeks), young adult (8-11 weeks), adult (17-20 weeks), middle-aged (34-37 weeks), and old-aged (69-72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740466/a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-characterization-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#16
Stevanus R Tedjakumala, Jacques Rouquette, Marie-Laure Boizeau, Karen A Mesce, Lucie Hotier, Isabelle Massou, Martin Giurfa
Dopamine (DA) plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US). Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (ir) to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739369/genomic-regression-of-claw-keratin-taste-receptor-and-light-associated-genes-provides-insights-into-biology-and-evolutionary-origins-of-snakes
#17
Christopher A Emerling
Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#18
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732220/short-term-evaluation-of-gustatory-changes-after-surgical-removal-of-mandibular-third-molar-a-prospective-randomized-control-trial
#19
D Prabhu Shankar, P Manodh, Pradeep Devadoss, Rahul Anand, Murugan Aparna
PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of suprathreshold taste changes after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients who required removal of impacted third molars were included in the study. Based on the Winter criteria of angulation of impacted mandibular third molars, 15 patients each with mesioangular, distoangular, horizontal, and vertical impacted third molars were selected...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729798/evaluation-of-salivary-flow-rate-and-gustatory-function-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-or-without-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Neha Verma, Ranjitkumar Patil, Vikram Khanna, Vandana Singh, Anurag Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the salivary flow rate and gustatory changes in HIV-positive patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and without HAART. We also correlated CD4 count and salivary flow rate and gustatory function in both groups. METHODS: Sample size for each group was thirty. After obtaining informed consent, we measured salivary flow rate using Schimer's method and gustatory function using four tastants (sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) of different concentrations...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
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