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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#1
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#2
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771283/adolescents-at-high-risk-of-obesity-show-greater-striatal-response-to-increased-sugar-content-in-milkshakes
#3
Grace E Shearrer, Eric Stice, Kyle S Burger
Background: Children of overweight or obese parents are at a high risk of developing obesity. Objective: This study sought to examine the underlying neural factors related to parental obesity risk and the relative impact of sugar and fat when consuming a palatable food, as well as the impact of obesity risk status on brain response to appetizing food images. Design: With the use of functional MRI, the responses of 108 healthy-weight adolescents [mean ± SD body mass index (kg/m2): 20...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770259/an-update-on-the-sense-of-taste-in-chickens-a-better-developed-system-than-previously-appreciated
#4
Hong-Xiang Liu, Prasangi Rajapaksha, Zhonghou Wang, Naomi E Kramer, Brett J Marshall
Taste is important in guiding nutritive choices and motivating food intake. The sensory organs for taste are the taste buds, that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. It has been reported that chickens have a low taste bud number and thus low taste acuity. However, more recent studies indicate that chickens have a well-developed taste system and the reported number and distribution of taste buds may have been significantly underestimated. Chickens, as a well-established animal model for research, are also the major species of animals in the poultry industry...
2018: Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769575/characterization-of-antennal-chemosensilla-and-associated-odorant-binding-as-well-as-chemosensory-proteins-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#5
Shan-Ning Wang, Shuang Shan, Jing-Tao Liu, Rui-Jun Li, Zi-Yun Lu, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Adel Khashaveh, Yong-Jun Zhang
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) expressed in antennal chemosensilla are believed to be important in insect chemoreception. In the current study, we fully described the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla in parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator and analyzed the expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs within the antennae. In M. mediator, eight types of sensilla were observed on the antennae. Sensilla basiconica type 2 and s. placodea with wall pores may be involved in olfactory perception, whereas s...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761380/saliva-production-and-enjoyment-of-real-food-flavors-in-people-with-and-without-dysphagia-and-or-xerostomia
#6
Angela M Dietsch, Cathy A Pelletier, Nancy Pearl Solomon
Non-food gustatory stimulation has multiple potential therapeutic benefits for people with dysphagia and xerostomia. This study examined palatability and saliva flow associated with dissolvable flavored films. Taste strips with real-food flavors dissolved on the tongues of 21 persons with dysphagia and/or xerostomia and 21 healthy age- and sex-matched adults while sublingual gauze pads absorbed saliva over randomized 3-min trials. Participants rated taste enjoyment for each trial on a hedonic general labeled magnitude scale...
May 14, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758531/capture-swallowing-and-egestion-of-microplastics-by-a-planktivorous-juvenile-fish
#7
Nicolas Christian Ory, Camila Gallardo, Mark Lenz, Martin Thiel
Microplastics (<5 mm) have been found in many fish species, from most marine environments. However, the mechanisms underlying microplastic ingestion by fish are still unclear, although they are important to determine the pathway of microplastics along marine food webs. Here we conducted experiments in the laboratory to examine microplastic ingestion (capture and swallowing) and egestion by juveniles of the planktivorous palm ruff, Seriolella violacea (Centrolophidae). As expected, fish captured preferentially black microplastics, similar to food pellets, whereas microplastics of other colours (blue, translucent, and yellow) were mostly co-captured when floating close to food pellets...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755721/effects-of-congruent-and-incongruent-stimulus-colour-on-flavour-discriminations
#8
Leonie Wieneke, Pauline Schmuck, Julia Zacher, Mark W Greenlee, Tina Plank
In addition to gustatory, olfactory and somatosensory input, visual information plays a role in our experience of food and drink. We asked whether colour in this context has an effect at the perceptual level via multisensory integration or if higher level cognitive factors are involved. Using an articulatory suppression task, comparable to Stevenson and Oaten, cognitive processes should be interrupted during a flavour discriminatory task, so that any residual colour effects would be traceable to low-level integration...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755329/assessment-of-appetitive-behavior-in-honey-bee-dance-followers
#9
Mariel A Moauro, M Sol Balbuena, Walter M Farina
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754900/burst-firing-in-bee-gustatory-neurons-prevents-adaptation
#10
Ashwin Miriyala, Sébastien Kessler, F Claire Rind, Geraldine A Wright
Animals detect changes in the environment using modality-specific, peripheral sensory neurons. The insect gustatory system encodes tastant identity and concentration through the independent firing of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that spike rapidly at stimulus onset and quickly adapt. Here, we show the first evidence that concentrated sugar evokes a temporally structured burst pattern of spiking involving two GRNs within the gustatory sensilla of bumblebees. Bursts of spikes resulted when a sucrose-activated GRN was inhibited by another GRN at a frequency of ∼22 Hz during the first 1 s of stimulation...
May 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754211/awareness-of-dysgeusia-and-gustatory-tests-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#11
Sayaka Kuba, Rie Fujiyama, Kosho Yamanouchi, Michi Morita, Chika Sakimura, Toshiko Hatachi, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Naomi Hayashida, Takeshi Nagayasu, Susumu Eguchi
PURPOSE: We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX)...
May 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753861/different-neural-processing-of-umami-and-salty-taste-determined-by-umami-identification-ability-independent-of-repeated-umami-exposure
#12
Pengfei Han, Mohebbat Mohebbi, Manja Unrath, Cornelia Hummel, Thomas Hummel
There is a large inter-individual variation for umami taste perception. However the neural mechanism for this variability is not well understood. This study investigated brain responses to umami and salty taste among individuals with different umami identification abilities and the effect of repeated oral umami exposure on umami identification and neural processing of taste perceptions. Fifteen participants with high umami identification ability ("High Tasters, HT) and fifteen with low umami identification ability ("Low Tasters", LT) underwent three weeks of controlled exposure to umami taste (umami training)...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740343/identification-of-chemosensory-genes-based-on-the-transcriptomic-analysis-of-six-different-chemosensory-organs-in-spodoptera-exigua
#13
Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ji-Wei Xu, Xiu-Yun Zhu, Meng-Ya Li, Xiao-Xue Xu, Chun-Xiang Liu, Tao Xue, Liang Sun
Insects have a complex chemosensory system that accurately perceives external chemicals and plays a pivotal role in many insect life activities. Thus, the study of the chemosensory mechanism has become an important research topic in entomology. Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major agricultural polyphagous pest that causes significant agricultural economic losses worldwide. However, except for a few genes that have been discovered, its olfactory and gustatory mechanisms remain uncertain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731709/spike-timing-of-orbitofrontal-neurons-is-synchronized-with-breathing
#14
Áron Kőszeghy, Bálint Lasztóczi, Thomas Forro, Thomas Klausberger
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727827/analysis-of-the-grapevine-moth-lobesia-botrana-antennal-transcriptome-and-expression-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-proteins
#15
Valentina Rojas, Héctor Jiménez, Rubén Palma-Millanao, Angélica González-González, Juan Machuca, Ricardo Godoy, Ricardo Ceballos, Ana Mutis, Herbert Venthur
The grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, is considered a harmful pest for vineyards in Chile as well as in North America and Europe. Currently, monitoring and control methods of L. botrana are based on its main sex pheromone component, being effective for low population densities. In order to improve control methods, antennal olfactory proteins in moths, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) have been studied as promising targets for the discovery of new potent semiochemicals, which have not been reported for L...
April 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719895/-assessment-of-olfactory-and-gustatory-function-with-validated-tests
#16
Önder Göktas, Susann Fräßdorf, Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Pengfei Han, Thomas Hummel
Approximately 5 % of the general population is affected by functional anosmia. An additional 15 % exhibit decreased olfactory function. Many of these individuals ask ENT-doctors or neurologists for help. A cornerstone of the counselling process is the assessment of olfactory function. The aim of this work is to give a differentiated overview about the administration of commonly used psychophysical tests for olfactory and gustatory function including their normative data. The use of standardized, reliable and validated tools is mandatory to provide patients with state-of the-art counseling on treatment options...
May 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713004/obese-subjects-with-specific-gustatory-papillae-microbiota-and-salivary-cues-display-an-impairment-to-sense-lipids
#17
Philippe Besnard, Jeffrey E Christensen, Hélène Brignot, Arnaud Bernard, Patricia Passilly-Degrace, Sophie Nicklaus, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Xavier Collet, Benjamin Lelouvier, Florence Servant, Vincent Blasco, Bruno Verges, Laurent Lagrost, Gilles Feron, Rémy Burcelin
Some obese subjects overeat lipid-rich foods. The origin of this eating behavior is unknown. We have here tested the hypothesis that these subjects could be characterized by an impaired fatty taste sensitivity linked to a change in the gustatory papillae microbial and salivary environment. The composition of microbiota and saliva surrounding the circumvallate papillae was analyzed in combination with the orosensory lipid detection threshold in normal weight (NW) and obese (O) adults. Microbial architecture was similar to what was known in feces, but with an increased frequency of Proteobacteria...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710409/papillary-architecture-and-functional-characterization-of-mucosubstances-in-the-sheep-tongue
#18
Serkan Erdoğan, Hakan Sağsöz
This research aimed to reveal the general morphology and topographic distribution of lingual papillae, epithelial characteristics, mucosal structure, and glands with their mucin content in the sheep tongue, with consideration of species-specific characteristics. The tongues of ten sheep were analyzed for this purpose. Filiform and fungiform papillae existed within the borders of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. The majority of the filiform papillae had multiple secondary projections. Fungiform papillae were also seen on the lingual torus among lenticular papillae, as well as 6 to 10 circumvallate papillae arranged on its caudal border...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706983/unraveling-the-host-plant-alternation-of-cacopsylla-pruni-adults-but-not-nymphs-can-survive-on-conifers-due-to-phloem-xylem-composition
#19
Jannicke Gallinger, Jürgen Gross
Plant sap feeding insects like psyllids are known to be vectors of phloem dwelling bacteria (' Candidatus Phytoplasma' and ' Ca . Liberibacter'), plant pathogens which cause severe diseases and economically important crop damage. Some univoltine psyllid species have a particular life cycle, within one generation they alternate two times between different host plant species. The plum psyllid Cacopsylla pruni , the vector of European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY), one of the most serious pests in European fruit production, migrates to stone fruit orchards ( Prunus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704111/chemosensory-changes-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Rania Abasaeed, Susan E Coldwell, Michele E Lloid, Sohaib H Soliman, Paula C Macris, Mark M Schubert
PURPOSE: To assess magnitude and characteristics of changes in chemosensory function and quality of life (QOL) for patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Patients (aged 18 years and above) scheduled to undergo HSCT at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance were tested for chemosensory function at three time points: pre-transplant (baseline), 30 ± 5 days (day 30), and 80 ± 5 days (day 80) post-HSCT. Gustatory function was assessed following procedures developed at the Monell-Jefferson Taste and Smell Clinic...
April 27, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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