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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107525/longitudinal-testing-of-olfactory-and-gustatory-function-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Florian Cornelius Uecker, Heidi Olze, Hagen Kunte, Christian Gerz, Önder Göktas, Lutz Harms, Felix Alexander Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate changes of the olfactory and gustatory capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODOLOGY: 20 MS patients were tested longitudinally for 3 years after initial testing. The Threshold Discrimination Identification test (TDI) was used for subjective olfactometry. Objective olfactometry was performed by registering olfactory evoked potentials (OEP) by EEG. The Taste Strip Test (TST) was used for gustatory testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100747/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#2
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
: Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#3
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077377/a-new-universal-dynamic-model-to-describe-eating-rate-and-cumulative-intake-curves
#4
Diana M Thomas, Jonathan Paynter, Courtney M Peterson, Steven B Heymsfield, Ann Nduati, John W Apolzan, Corby K Martin
BACKGROUND: Attempts to model cumulative intake curves with quadratic functions have not simultaneously taken gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake into account. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop a dynamic model for cumulative intake curves that captures gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake. DESIGN: We developed a first-principles model describing cumulative intake that universally describes gustatory stimulation, satiation, and maximal food intake using 3 key parameters: 1) the initial eating rate, 2) the effective duration of eating, and 3) the maximal food intake...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074885/first-objective-evaluation-of-taste-sensitivity-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-a-paradigm-gustatory-stimulus-in-humans
#5
Giorgia Sollai, Melania Melis, Danilo Pani, Piero Cosseddu, Ilenia Usai, Roberto Crnjar, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Practical and reliable methods for the objective measure of taste function are critically important for studying eating behavior and taste function impairment. Here, we present direct measures of human gustatory response to a prototypical bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP), obtained by electrophysiological recordings from the tongue of subjects who were classified for taster status and genotyped for the specific receptor gene (TAS2R38), and in which taste papilla density was determined. PROP stimulation evoked negative slow potentials that represent the summated depolarization of taste cells...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070928/convergent-gustatory-and-viscerosensory-processing-in-the-human-dorsal-mid-insula
#6
Jason A Avery, Stephen J Gotts, Kara L Kerr, Kaiping Burrows, John E Ingeholm, Jerzy Bodurka, Alex Martin, W Kyle Simmons
The homeostatic regulation of feeding behavior requires an organism to be able to integrate information from its internal environment, including peripheral visceral signals about the body's current energy needs, with information from its external environment, such as the palatability of energy-rich food stimuli. The insula, which serves as the brain's primary sensory cortex for representing both visceral signals from the body and taste signals from the mouth and tongue, is a likely candidate region in which this integration might occur...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056655/age-related-changes-in-gustatory-homeostatic-reward-and-memory-processing-of-sweet-taste-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-fmri-study
#7
Aaron Jacobson, Erin Green, Lori Haase, Jacquelyn Szajer, Claire Murphy
Age affects the human taste system at peripheral and central levels. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors (e.g., abdominal obesity and hypertension) that co-occur, increase with age, and heighten risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive decline. Little is known about how age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger state interact to influence how the brain processes information about taste. We investigated brain activation during the hedonic evaluation of a pleasant, nutritive stimulus (sucrose) within regions critical for taste, homeostatic energy regulation, and reward, as a function of the interactions among age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger condition...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034739/behavioral-evidence-that-select-carbohydrate-stimuli-activate-t1r-independent-receptor-mechanisms
#8
Alan C Spector, Lindsey A Schier
Three decades ago Tony Sclafani proposed the existence of a polysaccharide taste quality that was distinguishable from the taste generated by common sweeteners and that it was mediated by a separate receptor mechanism. Since that time, evidence has accumulated, including psychophysical studies conducted in our laboratory, buttressing this hypothesis. The use of knockout (KO) mice that lack functional T1R2 + T1R3 heterodimers, the principal taste receptor for sugars and other sweeteners, have been especially informative in this regard...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029722/taste-function-assessed-by-electrogustometry-in-burning-mouth-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#9
Adeline Braud, Vianney Descroix, Marie-Noëlle Ungeheuer, Catherine Rougeot, Yves Boucher
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Burning mouth syndrome (iBMS) is characterized by oral persistent pain without any clinical or biological abnormality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate taste function in iBMS subjects and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electrogustometric thresholds (EGMt) were recorded in 21 iBMS patients and 21 paired matched controls at nine loci of the tongue assessing fungiform and foliate gustatory papillae function. Comparison of EGMt was performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
December 28, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028122/evolution-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-arthropods-insight-from-the-first-inclusive-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-across-spider-appendages
#10
Joel Vizueta, Cristina Frías-López, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Miquel A Arnedo, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Julio Rozas
Unlike hexapods and vertebrates, in chelicerates, knowledge of the specific molecules involved in chemoreception comes exclusively from the comparative analysis of genome sequences. Indeed, the genomes of mites, ticks and spiders contain several genes encoding homologs of some insect membrane receptors and small soluble chemosensory proteins. Here, we conducted for the first time a comprehensive comparative RNA-Seq analysis across different body structures of a chelicerate: the nocturnal wandering hunter spider Dysdera silvatica Schmidt 1981...
December 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017815/ultrastructure-of-chemoreceptive-tarsal-sensilla-in-an-armored-harvestman-and-evidence-of-olfaction-across-laniatores-arachnida-opiliones
#11
Guilherme Gainett, Peter Michalik, Carsten H G Müller, Gonzalo Giribet, Giovanni Talarico, Rodrigo H Willemart
Harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) are especially dependent on chemical cues and are often regarded as animals that rely mainly on contact chemoreception. Information on harvestman sensilla is scarce when compared to other arachnid orders, especially concerning internal morphology. Using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, we investigated tarsal sensilla on the distal tarsomeres (DT) of all leg pairs in Heteromitobates discolor (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Furthermore, we explored the typological diversity of sensilla present on the DT I and II in members of the suborder Laniatores, which include two thirds of the formally described opilionid fauna, using species from 17 families representing all main laniatorian lineages...
December 22, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003413/single-neuron-responses-to-intra-oral-delivery-of-odor-solutions-in-primary-olfactory-and-gustatory-cortex
#12
Joost X Maier
Smell plays a major role in our perception of food. Odorants released inside the mouth during consumption are combined with taste and texture qualities of a food to guide flavor preference learning and food choice behavior. Here, we built on recent physiological findings that implicated primary sensory cortex in multisensory flavor processing. Specifically, we used extracellular recordings in awake rats to characterize responses of single neurons in primary olfactory (OC) and gustatory cortex (GC) to intra-oral delivery of odor solutions, and compare odor responses to taste and oral somatosensory responses...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989677/salt-controls-feeding-decisions-in-a-blood-sucking-insect
#13
Gina Pontes, Marcos H Pereira, Romina B Barrozo
Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989411/changes-in-gustatory-function-and-taste-preference-following-weight-loss
#14
Helene Sauer, Kathrin Ohla, Dirk Dammann, Martin Teufel, Stephan Zipfel, Paul Enck, Isabelle Mack
OBJECTIVE: To investigate taste changes of obese children during an inpatient weight reduction treatment in comparison with normal weight children. STUDY DESIGN: Obese (n = 60) and normal weight (n = 27) children aged 9-17 years were assessed for gustatory functions using taste strips (taste identification test for the taste qualities sour, salty, sweet, and bitter), taste preferences, and experienced taste sensitivity. Obese children were examined upon admission (T1) and before discharge (T2)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980072/memory-trace-reactivation-and-behavioral-response-during-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-amygdalar-glutamate-receptors-activity-interaction-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#15
Daniel Osorio-Gómez, Kioko Guzmán-Ramos, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni
The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the gustatory zone of the IC during CTA retrieval. Additionally, it has been reported that the amygdala-IC interaction is highly involved in CTA memory establishment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (CNQX) and a NMDA receptor antagonist (APV) into the amygdala on CTA retrieval and IC neurotransmitter levels...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980002/the-role-of-nutrient-sensing-in-the-metabolic-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#16
Sandra Steensels, Matthias Lannoo, Bert Avau, Jorien Laermans, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
Taste receptors coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients to regulate gut hormone release. During Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the altered nutrient flow to more distal regions can affect gustducin-mediated gut hormone release, and hence energy and glucose homeostasis. We studied the role of gustducin-mediated signaling in the metabolic improvements and intestinal adaptations along the gut after RYGB surgery in wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin(-/-) (α-gust(-/-)) mice...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966640/trans-generational-desensitization-and-within-generational-resensitization-of-a-sucrose-best-neuron-in-the-polyphagous-herbivore-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#17
Ying Ma, Jingjing Li, Qingbo Tang, Xuening Zhang, Xincheng Zhao, Fengming Yan, Joop J A van Loon
Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5(th) and subsequent generations...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941594/the-sweetener-sensing-mechanisms-of-the-ghrelin-cell
#18
Sandra Steensels, Laurien Vancleef, Inge Depoortere
Carbohydrate administration decreases plasma levels of the 'hunger hormone' ghrelin. The ghrelin cell is co-localized with the sweet taste receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, both involved in the sensing of sweeteners by entero-endocrine cells. This study investigated the role of gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling on ghrelin secretion in a gastric ghrelinoma cell line, tissue segments and mice. The monosaccharide d-glucose and low-intensity sweetener oligofructose (OFS) decreased (p < 0...
December 7, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940992/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#19
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
: Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knockout model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932542/h2o2-sensitive-isoforms-of-drosophila-trpa1-act-in-bitter-sensing-gustatory-neurons-to-promote-avoidance-of-uv-during-egg-laying
#20
Ananya R Guntur, Bin Gou, Pengyu Gu, Ruo He, Ulrich Stern, Yang Xiang, Chung-Hui Yang
The evolutionarily conserved TRPA1 channel can sense various stimuli including temperatures and chemical irritants. Recent results have suggested that specific isoforms of Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) are UV sensitive and that their UV sensitivity is due to H2O2 sensitivity. However, whether such UV sensitivity serves any physiological purposes in behaving animals was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms promote avoidance of UV when adult Drosophila females are selecting sites for egg-laying...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
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