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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905557/hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-and-parkinson-s-disease-an-analysis-of-sensory-modalities-involved-and-the-repercussion-on-patients
#1
P M Llorca, B Pereira, R Jardri, I Chereau-Boudet, G Brousse, D Misdrahi, G Fénelon, A-M Tronche, R Schwan, C Lançon, A Marques, M Ulla, P Derost, B Debilly, F Durif, I de Chazeron
Hallucinations have been described in various clinical populations, but they are neither disorder nor disease specific. In schizophrenia patients, hallucinations are hallmark symptoms and auditory ones are described as the more frequent. In Parkinson's disease, the descriptions of hallucination modalities are sparse, but the hallucinations do tend to have less negative consequences. Our study aims to explore the phenomenology of hallucinations in both hallucinating schizophrenia patients and Parkinson's disease patients using the Psycho-Sensory hAllucinations Scale (PSAS)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#2
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#3
Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Huan Yang, Yvonne F Brünner, Jessica Freiherr
Intranasal insulin had been in the spotlight not only for enhancing memory processes but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. Here, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesized that intranasal insulin, as it mediates satiety, alters gustatory sensitivity whereas placebo application and control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870442/contributory-role-of-sex-differences-in-the-variations-of-gustatory-function
#4
REVIEW
Louis J Martin, Suzanne I Sollars
Remarkable variability between males and females occurs for an array of taste-guided behaviors in both rodents and humans. Sex differences have been noted for taste preference, detection thresholds, and reactivity to taste stimuli. Manipulating sex hormones during early postnatal development or altering the amount of circulating estrogen in adulthood can dramatically alter the pattern of these behaviors. Receptors for sex hormones appear to be prominent in several nuclei associated with central gustatory pathways, indicating that steroid hormones may modulate central taste processing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865772/kissing-bugs-can-generalize-and-discriminate-between-different-bitter-compounds
#5
Yamila Asparch, Gina Pontes, Santiago Masagué, Sebastian Minoli, Romina B Barrozo
Animals make use of contact chemoreception structures to examine the quality of potential food sources. During this evaluation they can detect nutritious compounds that promote feeding and recognize toxins that trigger evasive behaviors. Although animals can easily distinguish between stimuli of different gustatory qualities (bitter, salty, sweet, etc.), their ability to discriminate between compounds of the same quality may be limited. Numerous plants produce alkaloids, compounds that elicit aversive behaviors in phytophagous insects and almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste for man...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863243/the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-taste-receptor-homolog-lite-1-is-a-photoreceptor
#6
Jianke Gong, Yiyuan Yuan, Alex Ward, Lijun Kang, Bi Zhang, Zhiping Wu, Junmin Peng, Zhaoyang Feng, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Many animal tissues/cells are photosensitive, yet only two types of photoreceptors (i.e., opsins and cryptochromes) have been discovered in metazoans. The question arises as to whether unknown types of photoreceptors exist in the animal kingdom. LITE-1, a seven-transmembrane gustatory receptor (GR) homolog, mediates UV-light-induced avoidance behavior in C. elegans. However, it is not known whether LITE-1 functions as a chemoreceptor or photoreceptor. Here, we show that LITE-1 directly absorbs both UVA and UVB light with an extinction coefficient 10-100 times that of opsins and cryptochromes, indicating that LITE-1 is highly efficient in capturing photons...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852677/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#7
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. While GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multi-electrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843666/recurring-facial-erythema-in-an-infant
#8
Sam Hassan, Mary Jacqueline Saviour
Causes of facial rashes and erythema in infants are many but rarely only happen during feeding times which are commonly and sometimes wrongly attributed to food allergy. There is a rare condition called Auriculotemporal nerve syndrome that is characterized by recurrent episodes of gustatory facial flushing and sweating along the cutaneous distribution of Auriculotemporal nerve: the so-called Frey syndrome. This condition is most frequently observed in adults usually after parotid surgery. It is rare in children and is mostly attributed to forceps assisted delivery...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832490/adhesion-gpcrs-as-a-putative-class-of-metabotropic-mechanosensors
#9
Nicole Scholz, Kelly R Monk, Robert J Kittel, Tobias Langenhan
Adhesion GPCRs as mechanosensors. Different aGPCR homologs and their cognate ligands have been described in settings, which suggest that they function in a mechanosensory capacity. For details, see text G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the most versatile superfamily of biosensors. This group of receptors is formed by hundreds of GPCRs, each of which is tuned to the perception of a specific set of stimuli a cell may encounter emanating from the outside world or from internal sources. Most GPCRs are receptive for chemical compounds such as peptides, proteins, lipids, nucleotides, sugars, and other organic compounds, and this capacity is utilized in several sensory organs to initiate visual, olfactory, gustatory, or endocrine signals...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812756/a-prospective-evaluation-of-taste-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
M J Ricatti, S Ottaviani, F Boschi, A Fasano, M Tinazzi, M P Cecchini
It is well known that Parkinson's disease is characterized by a variety of non-motor symptoms. A gustatory deficit is hypothesized to be one of them although few and only cross-sectional studies are available. The aim of our pilot study was to prospectively investigate the taste function in Parkinson's disease patients after some years from the first evaluation (mean follow-up 4.35 ± 0.49 years; time range 3.5-5.6 years). A group of 26 patients was re-examined (16 males and 10 females; mean age 70.9 ± 8...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806254/taste-receptors-and-gustatory-associated-g-proteins-in-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#11
Sen Gao, Shikai Liu, Jun Yao, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Qi Li, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Taste sensation plays a pivotal role in nutrient identification and acquisition. This is particularly true for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that live in turbid waters with limited visibility. This biological process is mainly mediated by taste receptors expressed in taste buds that are distributed in several organs and tissues, including the barbels and skin. In the present study, we identified a complete repertoire of taste receptor and gustatory associated G protein genes in the channel catfish genome...
October 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800650/supplementation-of-oligofructose-but-not-sucralose-decreases-high-fat-diet-induced-body-weight-gain-in-mice-independent-of-gustducin-mediated-gut-hormone-release
#12
Sandra Steensels, Leen Cools, Bert Avau, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
SCOPE: Enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients through taste receptors similar to those on the tongue. Sweet and fatty acid taste receptors (FFAR) coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells play a role in gut hormone release. We studied if supplementation of artificial (sucralose) or prebiotic (oligofructose; OFS) sweeteners target gustducin-mediated signaling pathways to alter gut hormone release and reduce obesity-associated disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust(-/-) ) mice were fed a high-fat diet and gavaged once daily (8 wk) with water or equisweet concentrations of sweeteners...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800619/vagal-regulation-in-breastfeeding-infants-and-their-mothers
#13
Kelsey M Quigley, Ginger A Moore, Cathi B Propper, Barbara D Goldman, Martha J Cox
Consistent with the gustatory-vagal hypothesis, vagal stimulation during breastfeeding may contribute to infants' physiological regulatory development independent of caregiving effects. This study examined whether breastfeeding predicted 6-month-old infants' (N = 151) and their mothers' vagal regulation during the face-to-face still-face (FFSF). Although breastfed and nonbreastfed infants showed expected vagal withdrawal during the Still-Face episode, only breastfed infants showed continued withdrawal during the reunion episode, suggesting greater physiological mobilization to repair the interaction...
November 1, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797949/complex-evolutionary-dynamics-of-massively-expanded-chemosensory-receptor-families-in-an-extreme-generalist-chelicerate-herbivore
#14
Phuong Cao Thi Ngoc, Robert Greenhalgh, Wannes Dermauw, Stephane Rombauts, Sabina Bajda, Vladimir Zhurov, Miodrag Grbić, Yves Van de Peer, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Pierre Rouzé, Richard M Clark
While mechanisms to detoxify plant produced, anti-herbivore compounds have been associated with plant host use by herbivores, less is known about the role of chemosensory perception in their life histories. This is especially true for generalists, including chelicerate herbivores that evolved herbivory independently from the more studied insect lineages. To shed light on chemosensory perception in a generalist herbivore, we characterized the chemosensory receptors (CRs) of the chelicerate two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, an extreme generalist...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795616/the-elaborate-postural-display-of-courting-drosophila-persimilis-flies-produces-substrate-borne-vibratory-signals
#15
Mónica Vega Hernández, Caroline Cecile Gabrielle Fabre
Sexual selection has led to the evolution of extraordinary and elaborate male courtship behaviors across taxa, including mammals and birds, as well as some species of flies. Drosophila persimilis flies perform complex courtship behaviors found in most Drosophila species, which consist of visual, air-borne, gustatory and olfactory cues. In addition, Drosophila persimilis courting males also perform an elaborate postural display that is not found in most other Drosophila species. This postural display includes an upwards contortion of their abdomen, specialized movements of the head and forelegs, raising both wings into a "wing-posture" and, most remarkably, the males proffer the female a regurgitated droplet...
2016: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787515/ap1-transcription-factors-are-required-to-maintain-the-peripheral-taste-system
#16
Jayasha Shandilya, Yankun Gao, Tapan K Nayak, Stefan G E Roberts, Kathryn F Medler
The sense of taste is used by organisms to achieve the optimal nutritional requirement and avoid potentially toxic compounds. In the oral cavity, taste receptor cells are grouped together in taste buds that are present in specialized taste papillae in the tongue. Taste receptor cells are the cells that detect chemicals in potential food items and transmit that information to gustatory nerves that convey the taste information to the brain. As taste cells are in contact with the external environment, they can be damaged and are routinely replaced throughout an organism's lifetime to maintain functionality...
October 27, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784634/-smooth-operator-music-modulates-the-perceived-creaminess-sweetness-and-bitterness-of-chocolate
#17
Felipe Reinoso Carvalho, Qian Janice Wang, Raymond van Ee, Dominique Persoone, Charles Spence
There has been a recent growth of interest in determining whether sound (specifically music and soundscapes) can enhance not only the basic taste attributes associated with food and beverage items (such as sweetness, bitterness, sourness, etc.), but also other important components of the tasting experience, such as, for instance, crunchiness, creaminess, and/or carbonation. In the present study, participants evaluated the perceived creaminess of chocolate. Two contrasting soundtracks were produced with such texture-correspondences in mind, and validated by means of a pre-test...
October 23, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763631/enhancing-sensory-experiences-for-very-preterm-infants-in-the-nicu-an-integrative-review
#18
R Pineda, R Guth, A Herring, L Reynolds, S Oberle, J Smith
OBJECTIVE: Very preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience alterations in sensory experiences. Defining types, timing and frequency of sensory-based interventions that optimize outcomes can inform environmental modifications. The objective of this study was to conduct an integrative review on sensory-based interventions used with very preterm infants in the NICU to improve infant and parent outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The data sources include MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761326/transcriptome-response-to-elevated-atmospheric-co2-concentration-in-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#19
Wenjing Wu, Zhiqiang Li, Shijun Zhang, Yunling Ke, Yahui Hou
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760896/gustatory-salivation-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-daytime-sleepiness-and-snoring-in-healthy-young-adults
#20
Satoshi Izumi, Guang Hong, Koh Iwasaki, Masayuki Izumi, Yusuke Matsuyama, Mirei Chiba, Takashi Toda, Tada-Aki Kudo
The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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