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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163209/the-role-of-cholecystokinin-in-peripheral-taste-signaling-in-mice
#1
Ryusuke Yoshida, Misa Shin, Keiko Yasumatsu, Shingo Takai, Mayuko Inoue, Noriatsu Shigemura, Soichi Takiguchi, Seiji Nakamura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163195/members-of-bitter-taste-receptor-cluster-tas2r143-tas2r135-tas2r126-are-expressed-in-the-epithelium-of-murine-airways-and-other-non-gustatory-tissues
#2
Shuya Liu, Shun Lu, Rui Xu, Ann Atzberger, Stefan Günther, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159281/the-role-of-the-gustatory-system-in-the-coordination-of-feeding
#3
REVIEW
Vladimiros Thoma, Kimiko Kobayashi, Hiromu Tanimoto
To survive, all animals must find, inspect, and ingest food. Behavioral coordination and control of feeding is therefore a challenge that animals must face. Here, we focus on how the gustatory system guides the precise execution of behavioral sequences that promote ingestion and suppresses competing behaviors. We summarize principles learnt from Drosophila, where underlying sensory neuronal mechanisms are illustrated in great detail. Moreover, we compare these principles with findings in other animals, where such coordination plays prominent roles...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153259/reduction-of-olfactory-sensitivity-during-normobaric-hypoxia
#4
Tilman Huppertz, Jessica Freiherr, Bernhard Olzowy, Ulrich Kisser, Jutta Stephan, Gunther Fesl, Kathrin Haegler, Berend Feddersen, Rainald Fischer, Klaus Mees, Sven Becker
OBJECTIVE: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is caused by a low partial pressure of oxygen and may occur above 2500m. The aim of this research was to evaluate olfactory and gustatory abilities of healthy subjects during baseline conditions and after seven hours of normobaric hypoxia. METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects were assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks, as well as intensity and pleasantness ratings. Gustatory function was evaluated utilizing the Taste Strips. Experiments were carried out under baseline conditions (518m altitude) followed by a second testing session after seven hours of normobaric hypoxia exposure (comparable to 4000m altitude)...
November 15, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152779/morphogenesis-of-lingual-papillae-of-one-humped-camel-camelus-dromedarius-during-prenatal-life-a-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#5
A S Abou-Elhamd, M Abd-Elkareem, A El-Zuhry Zayed
This study was made on 24 camel fetuses of crown-rump vertebral length (CVRL) ranging from 10.5 cm to 105 cm CVRL (94-352 days old). These camel fetuses were classified into three groups representing the three trimesters of prenatal life. During the first trimester (94-142 days), lingual papillae (circumvallate and lentiform papillae) were demonstrated on the lingual root, but lingual body and the apex were almost free of papillae except for some scattered epithelial projections especially near the lateral borders of the body...
November 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143759/the-role-of-food-antioxidants-benefits-of-functional-foods-and-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-the-health-of-the-older-person-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Douglas W Wilson, Paul Nash, Harpal Singh Buttar, Keith Griffiths, Ram Singh, Fabien De Meester, Rie Horiuchi, Toru Takahashi
This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein...
October 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133804/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-and-expression-profiles-of-olfactory-genes-in-anoplophora-chinensis
#7
Jingzhen Wang, Ping Hu, Peng Gao, Jing Tao, Youqing Luo
Olfaction in insects is essential for host identification, mating and oviposition, in which olfactory proteins are responsible for chemical signaling. Here, we determined the transcriptomes of male and female adult antennae of Anoplophora chinensis, the citrus longhorned beetle. Among 59,357 unigenes in the antennal assembly, we identified 46 odorant-binding proteins, 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 44 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors, 23 ionotropic receptors, and 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133786/heterogeneity-in-the-drosophila-gustatory-receptor-complexes-that-detect-aversive-compounds
#8
Ha Yeon Sung, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Yeon Lim, Hyeyon Kim, Soo Min Oh, Sun Wook Hwang, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals must detect aversive compounds to survive. Bitter taste neurons express heterogeneous combinations of bitter receptors that diversify their response profiles, but this remains poorly understood. Here we describe groups of taste neurons in Drosophila that detect the same bitter compounds using unique combinations of gustatory receptors (GRs). These distinct complexes also confer responsiveness to non-overlapping sets of additional compounds. While either GR32a/GR59c/GR66a or GR22e/GR32a/GR66a heteromultimers are sufficient for lobeline, berberine, and denatonium detection, only GR22e/GR32a/GR66a responds to strychnine...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130618/the-taste-of-toxicity-a-quantitative-analysis-of-bitter-and-toxic-molecules
#9
Ido Nissim, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Masha Y Niv
The role of bitter taste-one of the few basic taste modalities-is commonly assumed to signal toxicity and alert animals against consuming harmful compounds. However, it is known that some toxic compounds are not bitter and that many bitter compounds have negligible toxicity while having important health benefits. Here we apply a quantitative analysis of the chemical space to shed light on the bitterness-toxicity relationship. Using the BitterDB dataset of bitter molecules, The BitterPredict prediction tool, and datasets of toxic compounds, we quantify the identity and similarity between bitter and toxic compounds...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128987/comparison-of-olfactory-and-gustatory-disorders-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Minoru Kouzuki, Tetsuya Suzuki, Masaya Nagano, Syouta Nakamura, Yuto Katsumata, Ayumi Takamura, Katsuya Urakami
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop olfactory and gustatory disorders. However, the order of failure and relevance of the pathophysiology are unclear. We compared olfactory identification and whole mouth gustation in patients with AD to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to healthy controls (HC) and assessed correlations with pathophysiology. Patients with AD (n = 40), MCI (n = 34), and HC (n = 40) were recruited. We performed the Odor Stick Identification Test for Japanese (OSIT-J), gustatory test by the intraoral dropping method using taste solutions, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale Japanese version (ADAS-J cog), Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS), and measurement of amyloid β (Aβ) 42 and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) 181 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#11
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#12
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116191/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-starvation-induced-behaviors-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Kouhei Shimaji, Ryo Tanaka, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Hideki Yoshida, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequencing analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expression of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107795/gustatory-lid-retraction-an-unusual-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorder
#14
Arif O Khan, Zabila Khan
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves that often include abnormal synkinesis. Among the most common ophthalmic congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are Duane retraction syndrome and the Marcus-Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. This report documents gustatory lid retraction as an unusual congenital cranial dysinnervation.
October 28, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107518/transsynaptic-mapping-of-second-order-taste-neurons-in-flies-by-trans-tango
#15
Mustafa Talay, Ethan B Richman, Nathaniel J Snell, Griffin G Hartmann, John D Fisher, Altar Sorkaç, Juan F Santoyo, Cambria Chou-Freed, Nived Nair, Mark Johnson, John R Szymanski, Gilad Barnea
Mapping neural circuits across defined synapses is essential for understanding brain function. Here we describe trans-Tango, a technique for anterograde transsynaptic circuit tracing and manipulation. At the core of trans-Tango is a synthetic signaling pathway that is introduced into all neurons in the animal. This pathway converts receptor activation at the cell surface into reporter expression through site-specific proteolysis. Specific labeling is achieved by presenting a tethered ligand at the synapses of genetically defined neurons, thereby activating the pathway in their postsynaptic partners and providing genetic access to these neurons...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107239/mini-review-gustatory-reception-of-chemicals-affecting-host-feeding-in-aedine-mosquitoes
#16
REVIEW
Jackson T Sparks, Joseph C Dickens
Mosquitoes vector dangerous human diseases during blood feeding. Gustatory (taste) receptor neurons in the mosquito provide important chemical information including the nature and suitability of a potential host. Here we discuss the behavior, neurophysiology and molecular mechanisms associated with feeding in aedine mosquitoes, important vectors of emerging diseases including Zika fever, chikungunya and dengue fever. We describe how interactions between feeding stimulation and deterrency at the peripheral neural receptor level provide input to higher order neural processing centers affecting decisions to feed...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103093/enhancement-of-gustatory-neural-responses-by-parasympathetic-nerve-in-the-frog
#17
Toshihide Sato, Yukio Okada
The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093172/a-computational-analysis-of-signal-fidelity-in-the-rostral-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#18
Alison Boxwell, David Terman, Marion Frank, Yuchio Yanagawa, Joseph B Travers
Neurons in the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) convey taste information to both local circuits and pathways destined for forebrain structures. This nucleus is more than a simple relay, however, since rNST neurons differ in response rates and tuning curves relative to primary afferent fibers. To systematically study the impact of convergence and inhibition on firing frequency and breadth of tuning (BOT) in rNST, we constructed a mathematical model of its two major cell types: projection neurons and inhibitory neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081083/ionotropic-receptor-76b-is-required-for-gustatory-aversion-to-excessive-na-in-drosophila
#19
Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, KyeongJin Kang
Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na(+)-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080021/plasticity-in-the-interoceptive-system
#20
Fernando Torrealba, Carlos Madrid, Marco Contreras, Karina Gómez
The most outstanding manifestations of the plastic capacities of brain circuits and their neuronal and synaptic components in the adult CNS are learning and memory. A reduced number of basic plastic mechanisms underlie learning capacities at many levels and regions of the brain. The interoceptive system is no exception, and some of the most studied behavioral changes that involve learning and memory engage the interoceptive pathways at many levels of their anatomical and functional organization.In this chapter, we will review four examples of learning, mostly in rats, where the interoceptive system has a role...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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