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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632334/functional-analysis-of-female-biased-odorant-binding-protein-6-for-volatile-and-nonvolatile-host-compounds-in-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#1
L Sun, Q Wang, S Yang, Q Wang, Z Zhang, A Khashaveh, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
The polyphagous mirid bug Adelphocoris lineolatus relies heavily on olfactory cues to track suitable host plants. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of its olfactory detection could contribute to the development of effective pest management strategies. In the present study, we report the expression profile of the odorant binding protein gene A. lineolatus odorant binding protein 6 (AlinOBP6). Quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggest that AlinOBP6 is female adult antennae-biased. Cellular immunolocalization analyses show that AlinOBP6 is highly expressed in the lymph of both multiporous sensilla basiconica and uniporous sensilla chaetica...
June 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623665/position-paper-on-olfactory-dysfunction
#2
T Hummel, K L Whitcroft, P Andrews, A Altundag, C Cinghi, R M Costanzo, M Damm, J Frasnelli, H Gudziol, N Gupta, A Haehner, E Holbrook, S C Hong, D Hornung, K B Hüttenbrink, R Kamel, M Kobayashi, I Konstantinidis, B N Landis, D A Leopold, A Macchi, T Miwa, R Moesges, J Mullol, C A Mueller, G Ottaviano, G C Passali, C Philpott, J M Pinto, V J Ramakrishnan, P Rombaux, Y Roth, R A Schlosser, B Shu, G Soler, P Stjärne, B A Stuck, J Vodicka, A Welge-Luessen
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is an increasingly recognised condition, associated with reduced quality of life and major health outcomes such as neurodegeneration and death. However, translational research in this field is limited by heterogeneity in methodological approach, including definitions of impairment, improvement and appropriate assessment techniques. Accordingly, effective treatments for smell loss are limited. In an effort to encourage high quality and comparable work in this field, among others, we propose the following ideas and recommendations...
June 17, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#3
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606563/participants-with-pharmacologically-impaired-taste-function-seek-out-more-intense-higher-calorie-stimuli
#4
Corinna A Noel, Meaghan Sugrue, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests a weaker sense of taste in people with obesity, with the assumption that this debilitated taste response increases the desire for more intensely tasting stimuli to compensate for decreased taste input. However, empirical testing of this supposition remains largely absent. METHOD: In a randomized, repeated measure design, 51 healthy subjects were treated with varying concentrations of a tea containing Gymnema sylvestre (GS), to temporarily and selectively diminish sweet taste perception, or a control tea...
June 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602232/the-neurobiology-of-gustation-in-insect-disease-vectors-progress-and-potential
#5
REVIEW
Richard Benton
For insect vectors of human diseases, mealtimes are a key moment of infection. Understanding how and when such species decide on what to feed is both an interesting problem in sensory neurobiology and a source of information for intervention of these behaviors to control spread of infectious agents. Here I review the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of gustation in insect disease vectors, covering blood-feeders as well as scavengers that spread pathogens indirectly. I also consider how these behaviors are modulated over short and long timescales, and describe efforts to artificially modulate them...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600222/taste-bud-derived-bdnf-maintains-innervation-of-a-subset-of-trkb-expressing-gustatory-nerve-fibers
#6
Tao Tang, Jennifer Rios-Pilier, Robin Krimm
Taste receptor cells transduce different types of taste stimuli and transmit this information to gustatory neurons that carry it to the brain. Taste receptor cells turn over continuously in adulthood, requiring constant new innervation from nerve fibers. Therefore, the maintenance of innervation to taste buds is an active process mediated by many factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Specifically, 40% of taste bud innervation is lost when Bdnf is removed during adulthood. Here we speculated that not all gustatory nerve fibers express the BDNF receptor, TrkB, resulting in subsets of neurons that vary in their response to BDNF...
June 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598376/floral-volatiles-from-vigna-unguiculata-are-olfactory-and-gustatory-stimulants-for-oviposition-by-the-bean-pod-borer-moth-maruca-vitrata
#7
Bo Feng, Kai Qian, Yong-Jun Du
Abstract: We investigated the role of floral odors from cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), in mediating oviposition of the bean pod borer moth, Maruca vitrata, a serious pest of grain legumes that flies to host plants at the flowering stage and oviposits onto flowers and buds. The flower of the host plant V. unguiculata was a stimulus for egg-laying by M. vitrata in an oviposition bioassay. Commercial longifolene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, geraniol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were used as stimulus. Each one elicited dose-dependent electroantennogram responses in female M...
June 9, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595328/genetic-lineage-tracing-in-taste-tissues-using-sox2-creert2-strain
#8
Makoto Ohmoto, Wenwen Ren, Yugo Nishiguchi, Junji Hirota, Peihua Jiang, Ichiro Matsumoto
Taste cells in taste buds are epithelial sensory cells. Old taste bud cells die and are replaced by new ones generated from taste stem cells. Identifying and characterizing adult taste stem cells is therefore important to understand how peripheral taste tissues are maintained. SOX2 is expressed in oral epithelium including gustatory papillae and has been proposed to be a marker of adult taste stem/progenitor cells. Nevertheless, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. Here, by single-color genetic lineage tracing using Sox2-CreERT2 strain, we reveal that all types of taste bud cells distributed throughout the oral epithelium are derived from stem cells that express SOX2...
June 8, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578042/visual-attention-to-food-cues-is-differentially-modulated-by-gustatory-hedonic-and-post-ingestive-attributes
#9
David Garcia-Burgos, Junpeng Lao, Simone Munsch, Roberto Caldara
Although attentional biases towards food cues may play a critical role in food choices and eating behaviours, it remains largely unexplored which specific food attribute governs visual attentional deployment. The allocation of visual attention might be modulated by anticipatory postingestive consequences, from taste sensations derived from eating itself, or both. Therefore, in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the attentional mechanisms involved in the processing of food-related cues, we recorded the eye movements to five categories of well-standardised pictures: neutral non-food, high-calorie, good taste, distaste and dangerous food...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571710/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-carpomya-vesuviana-and-their-binding-affinity-to-the-male-borne-semiochemicals-and-host-plant-volatiles
#10
Yawei Li, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Ding Yang, Zhihong Li, Xianglin Zhang, Shuifang Zhu, Yanxue Yu, Naizhong Chen
Carpomya vesuviana (Costa; Diptera: Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest that causes serious damage to jujube fruits. However, the mechanism of olfaction, which is critical for host identification, is not well understood in this pest. In this study, we have identified for the first time five protein types involved in the olfactory signal transduction of C. vesuviana by using transcriptome sequencing. These include 6 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 odorant receptors (ORs), 22 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554155/salivary-secretion-and-disgust-a-pilot-study
#11
Carmelo M Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A Kuran, Robert D Rafal
Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i...
May 26, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#12
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532581/unilateral-nasal-obstruction-induces-degeneration-of-fungiform-and-circumvallate-papillae-in-rats
#13
Jui-Chin Hsu, Ippei Watari, Yukiha Funaki, Satoshi Kokai, Takashi Ono
BACKGROUND: In clinical orthodontic treatment, chronic respiratory disturbance or mouth breathing has been concerned symptoms and screening criteria. In this study, to analyze the relation between nasal obstruction and taste sensing, a unilateral nasal obstruction model was performed to investigate the taste papillae and taste buds in rats. METHODS: Fourteen 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (n = 7 each). The experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction at 8 days of age...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522094/continuous-positive-air-pressure-improves-orthonasal-olfactory-function-of-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#14
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Werner Cassel, Luisa Mittendorf, Robert Pellegrino, Ulrich Koehler, Christian Güldner, Philipp Otto Georg Dworschak, Olaf Hildebrandt, Hanna Daniel, Thomas Günzel, Afshin Teymoortash, Thomas Hummel
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) might be affected by olfactory impairment. However, more evidence is needed on the effect that OSA has on the chemical senses (olfaction and gustatory) of these patients, and whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment might help to reverse possible impairment. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 44 OSA patients (17 female and 27 male, mean age 54 ± 9...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516981/botulinum-toxin-therapy-functional-silencing-of-salivary-disorders
#15
A Lovato, D A Restivo, G Ottaviano, G Marioni, R Marchese-Ragona
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic bacterium. BTX therapy is a safe and effective treatment when used for functional silencing of the salivary glands in disorders such as sialoceles and salivary fistulae that may have a post-traumatic or post-operative origin. BTX injections can be considered in sialoceles and salivary fistulae after the failure of or together with conservative treatments (e.g. antibiotics, pressure dressings, or serial aspirations)...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511547/smell-and-taste-impairment-after-total-laryngectomy
#16
Giuseppe Riva, Matteo Sensini, Andrea Corvino, Giancarlo Pecorari, Massimiliano Garzaro
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this observational study is the evaluation of olfactory and gustatory impairments in laryngectomized long-term survivors compared to control subjects. Correlation between smell and taste alterations, age, and previous adjuvant treatments in laryngectomees was investigated. METHODS: Fifty control subjects and 50 patients who underwent total laryngectomy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma were evaluated. All subjects underwent symptoms evaluation, oropharyngeal exam, endoscopic fiberoptic nasal examination, and Taste Strips and Sniffin' Sticks tests...
July 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507513/appetitive-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-associative-memory-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Saori Nishijima, Ichiro N Maruyama
Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US). It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506924/olfactory-and-gustatory-functions-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Francois Kazour, Sami Richa, Thomas Desmidt, Mathieu Lemaire, Boriana Atanasova, Wissam El Hage
Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502972/distribution-innervation-and-cellular-organization-of-taste-buds-in-the-sea-catfish-plotosus-japonicus
#19
Tatsufumi Nakamura, Naoki Matsuyama, Masato Kirino, Masanori Kasai, Sadao Kiyohara, Takanori Ikenaga
The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493338/age-related-changes-of-gustatory-function-depend-on-alteration-of-neuronal-circuits
#20
Emilia Iannilli, Franziska Broy, Severine Kunz, Thomas Hummel
Studies on age-related gustatory function report a reduction of the taste function, but the degeneration of the peripheral papillae alone cannot explain this reduction. In the present study, we apply psychophysics and gustatory event-related potentials (gERPs) to explore age-related differences in the processing of gustatory information as indicated by the cerebral sources of the gERP. A total of 96 subjects (47 female), subdivided into four groups with increasing age, participated in the study. After olfactory and gustatory screening for normal function, the subjects were invited to two sessions of gERP acquisition...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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