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Smoking and oxidative stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341147/cadmium-stimulates-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-mouse-lung-fibrosis
#1
Xin Hu, Jolyn Fernandes, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
Increasing evidence suggests that Cd at levels found in the human diet can cause oxidative stress and activate redox-sensitive transcription factors in inflammatory signaling. Following inflammation, tissue repair often involves activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors in fibroblasts. In lungs, epithelial barrier remodeling is required to restore gas exchange and barrier function, and aberrant myofibroblast differentiation leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Contributions of exogenous exposures, such as dietary Cd, to pulmonary fibrosis remain incompletely defined...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336486/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-airway-disease
#2
Y S Prakash, Christina M Pabelick, Gary C Sieck
There is increasing appreciation that mitochondria serve cellular functions beyond oxygen sensing and energy production. Accordingly, it has become important to explore non-canonical roles of mitochondria in normal and pathophysiological processes that influence airway structure and function in the context of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Mitochondria can sense upstream processes such as inflammation, infection, tobacco smoke and environmental insults important in these diseases, and in turn can respond to such stimuli via altered mitochondrial protein expression, structure, and resultant dysfunction...
March 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336424/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-on-rpe-degeneration-in-non-neovascular-amd
#3
REVIEW
Sayantan Datta, Marisol Cano, Katayoon Ebrahimi, Lei Wang, James T Handa
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly specialized, unique epithelial cell that interacts with photoreceptors on its apical side and with Bruch's membrane and the choriocapillaris on its basal side. Due to vital functions that keep photoreceptors healthy, the RPE is essential for maintaining vision. With aging and the accumulated effects of environmental stresses, the RPE can become dysfunctional and die. This degeneration plays a central role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathobiology, the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in western societies...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330430/effect-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-on-airway-inflammation-in-murine-model-of-asthma
#5
Nour A Al-Sawalha, Ala'a M Migdadi, Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Nidal A Qinna
OBJECTIVE: There has been an increase in the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) worldwide, especially in the younger population, including asthma patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of waterpipe smoking on airway inflammation, cytokine levels and oxidative stress markers in an antigen-driven murine model of asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balb/c mice were divided into four groups; (1) control (received fresh air, ovalbumin sensitization and saline challenge), (2) WTS (received WTS, ovalbumin sensitization and saline challenge), (3) Ova S/C (received fresh air, ovalbumin sensitization and ovalbumin challenge) and (4) simultaneous WTS and Ova S/C (received WTS, ovalbumin sensitization and ovalbumin challenge)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327825/genotype-association-gstm1-null-and-gastric-cancer-evidence-based-meta-analysis
#6
Rívian Xavier Ribeiro, Cícera Isabella Leão Leite Nascimento, Antonio Márcio Teodoro Cordeiro Silva
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth among women, except for non-melanoma skin tumors, in Brazil. Epidemiological evidences reveal the multifactorial etiology of this cancer, highlighting risk factors such as: infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, advanced age, smoking, chronic alcohol abuse, eating habits and genetic polymorphisms. Considering the context of genetic polymorphisms, there is the absence of the GSTM1 gene. The lack of GSTM1 function to detoxify xenobiotics and promote defense against oxidative stress leads to increased DNA damage, promoting gastric carcinogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325523/total-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Katsuya Onishi
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often have multiple comorbid conditions that may interact with each other, confound the choice of treatments, and reduce mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important comorbidities of CVD, which causes serious consequences in patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure. COPD shares common risk factors such as tobacco smoking and aging with CVD, is associated with less physical activity, and produces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320639/exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-volatile-organic-compounds-among-recently-pregnant-rural-guatemalan-women-cooking-and-heating-with-solid-fuels
#8
John R Weinstein, Renée Asteria-Peñaloza, Anaité Diaz-Artiga, Gilberto Davila, S Katharine Hammond, Ian T Ryde, Joel N Meyer, Neal Benowitz, Lisa M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303426/the-mechanisms-of-air-pollution-and-particulate-matter-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Antonella Fiordelisi, Prisco Piscitelli, Bruno Trimarco, Enrico Coscioni, Guido Iaccarino, Daniela Sorriento
Clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate that short- and long-term exposure to air pollution increases mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Given the increased industrialization and the increased sources of pollutants (i.e., cars exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke, industry emissions, burning of fossil fuels, incineration of garbage), air pollution has become a key public health issue to solve. Among pollutants, the particulate matter (PM) is a mixture of solid and liquid particles which differently affects human health depending on their size (i...
March 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298141/using-multiple-biomarkers-and-determinants-to-obtain-a-better-measurement-of-oxidative-stress-a-latent-variable-structural-equation-model-approach
#10
Ronald C Eldridge, W Dana Flanders, Roberd M Bostick, Veronika Fedirko, Myron Gross, Bharat Thyagarajan, Michael Goodman
PURPOSE: Since oxidative stress involves a variety of cellular changes, no single biomarker can serve as a complete measure of this complex biological process. The analytic technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a possible solution to this problem by modeling a latent (unobserved) variable constructed from the covariance of multiple biomarkers. METHODS: Using three pooled datasets, we modeled a latent oxidative stress variable from five biomarkers related to oxidative stress: F2-isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products, mitochondrial DNA copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc), and C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammation marker closely linked to oxidative stress)...
March 16, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287274/the-effect-of-smoking-on-the-urinary-excretion-of-8-oxodg-and-8-oxoguo-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Anne-Sofie Sørensen, Laura Kofoed Kjær, Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Trine Henriksen, Vanja Cejvanovic, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Cramer Kjeldahl Christensen, Ivan Brandslund, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
Over the past decades, attention has been paid to understanding the impact of oxidative stress and related modifications of DNA and RNA on various human health risks. A recent meta-analysis comprising 1915 smokers and 3462 non-smokers found a significantly higher level of DNA oxidation measured as urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) excretion in smokers compared with non-smokers in a healthy population. We aimed to investigate if an increased urinary excretion of 8-oxodG in smokers versus never smokers and former smokers could be verified in a population with type 2 diabetes...
March 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285024/shorter-telomere-length-in-people-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study-from-australia
#12
Cherrie Galletly, Varinderpal S Dhillon, Dennis Liu, Ryan P Balzan, Lisa A Hahn, Michael F Fenech
Schizophrenia is a complex mental illness affecting the normal functioning of the brain, interfering with the ability to think, feel and act. It can be conceptualised as a syndrome of accelerated ageing, with early onset of cardiovascular disease and high rates of premature mortality. Telomere attrition increases with oxidative stress and is considered a biomarker of ageing. Previous studies have assessed abnormalities in telomere length in schizophrenia, but the results are inconsistent. The present study used a case-control design to assess whether people with schizophrenia have shortened telomeres, indicative of accelerated ageing...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282928/oxidative-stress-a-new-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-prognosis-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Javier Martinez-Useros, Weiyao Li, Marticela Cabeza-Morales, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of tumors, and its incidence is rising worldwide. Survival can be improved when tumors are detected at an early stage; however, this cancer is usually asymptomatic, and the disease only becomes apparent after metastasis. Several risk factors are associated to this disease. Chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and some infectious disease are the most relevant risk factors. Incidence of PDAC has increased in the last decades. It is hypothesized it could be due to other acquired risk habits, like smoking, high alcohol intake, and obesity...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274239/occupational-exposure-to-particles-and-mitochondrial-dna-relevance-for-blood-pressure
#14
Yiyi Xu, Huiqi Li, Maria Hedmer, Mohammad Bakhtiar Hossain, Håkan Tinnerberg, Karin Broberg, Maria Albin
BACKGROUND: Particle exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a primary target for oxidative stress generated by particle exposure. We aimed to elucidate the effects of occupational exposure to particle-containing welding fumes on different biomarkers of mtDNA function, and in turn, explore if they modify the association between particle exposure and cardiovascular response, measured as blood pressure. METHODS: We investigated 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males) from southern Sweden...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269983/variation-in-free-radical-yields-from-u-s-marketed-cigarettes
#15
Reema Goel, Zachary Bitzer, Samantha M Reilly, Neil Trushin, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, Jason Liao, Ryan J Elias, John P Richie
Free radicals in tobacco smoke are thought to be an important cause of smoking-induced diseases, yet the variation in free radical exposure to smokers from different brands of commercially available cigarettes is unknown. We measured the levels of highly reactive gas-phase and stable particulate-phase radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with and without the spin-trapping agent phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), respectively, in 27 popular US cigarettes and the 3R4F research cigarette, machine-smoked according to the FTC protocol...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266114/interaction-of-lifestyle-behaviour-or-systemic-diseases-with-dental-caries-and-periodontal-diseases-consensus-report-of-group-2-of-the-joint-efp-orca-workshop-on-the-boundaries-between-caries-and-periodontal-diseases
#16
Iain L C Chapple, Philippe Bouchard, Maria Grazia Cagetti, Guglielmo Campus, Maria-Clotilde Carra, Fabio Cocco, Luigi Nibali, Philippe Hujoel, Marja L Laine, Peter Lingstrom, David J Manton, Eduardo Montero, Nigel Pitts, Hélène Rangé, Nadine Schlueter, Wim Teughels, Svante Twetman, Cor Van Loveren, Fridus Van der Weijden, Alexandre R Vieira, Andreas G Schulte
Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requirement for a pathogenic plaque biofilm, yet they exhibit distinct pathophysiologies. Multiple exposures contribute to their causal pathways, and susceptibility involves risk factors that are inherited (e.g. genetic variants), and those that are acquired (e...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265620/glycine-functionalized-copper-ii-hydroxide-nanoparticles-with-high-intrinsic-superoxide-dismutase-activity
#17
Karsten Korschelt, Ruben Ragg, Carmen S Metzger, Martin Kluenker, Michael Oster, Bastian Barton, Martin Panthöfer, Dennis Strand, Ute Kolb, Mihail Mondeshki, Susanne Strand, Jürgen Brieger, M Nawaz Tahir, Wolfgang Tremel
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide (O2(-)) radicals into molecular oxygen (O2) and H2O2 as a first line of defense against oxidative stress. Here, we show that glycine-functionalized copper(ii) hydroxide nanoparticles (Gly-Cu(OH)2 NPs) are functional SOD mimics, whereas bulk Cu(OH)2 is insoluble in water and catalytically inactive. In contrast, Gly-Cu(OH)2 NPs form water-dispersible mesocrystals with a SOD-like activity that is larger than that of their natural CuZn enzyme counterpart...
March 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265414/pesticide-metabolite-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-farmers-exposed-to-pesticide
#18
Kang Myoung Lee, Sang-Yoo Park, Kyungsuk Lee, Sung-Soo Oh, Sang Baek Ko
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and isoprostane which has been used as an index of lipid injury, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which has been used as an index of DNA damage, and dialkyl-phosphate (DAP), which has been used to quantify pesticide exposure, and to investigate the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 84 male farmers exposure to pesticide...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264101/deletion-of-efemp1-is-protective-against-the-development-of-sub-rpe-deposits-in-mouse-eyes
#19
James B Stanton, Alan D Marmorstein, Youwen Zhang, Lihua Y Marmorstein
Purpose: EFEMP1 (fibulin-3) is mutated in Malattia Leventinese/Doyne's honeycomb retinal dystrophy (ML/DHRD), an inherited macular dystrophy similar to AMD. Both ML/DHRD and AMD are characterized by the presence of sub-RPE deposits. Efemp1 knockout mice do not develop sub-RPE deposits. This study was to test whether sub-RPE deposits can be induced in Efemp1 knockout mice by experimentally applied stress conditions that cause wild-type mice to develop sub-RPE deposits. Methods: Efemp1 knockout and control mice at 6, 18, or 24 months old were fed with a synthetic high-fat diet (HFD)...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257627/blood-mercury-concentrations-are-associated-with-decline-in-liver-function-in-an-elderly-population-a-panel-study
#20
Mee-Ri Lee, Youn-Hee Lim, Bo-Eun Lee, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and is known to affect many diseases. However, few studies have examined the effects of mercury exposure on liver function in the general population. We examined the association between blood mercury concentrations and liver enzyme levels in the elderly. METHODS: We included 560 elderly participants (60 years or older) who were recruited from 2008 to 2010 and followed up to 2014. Subjects visited a community welfare center and underwent a medical examination and measurement of mercury levels up to five times...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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