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Smoking and oxidative stress

Hsiang-Tsui Wang, Tzu-Ying Chen, Ching-Wen Weng, Chun-Hsiang Yang, Moon-Shong Tang
Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. Acr is also an active cytotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. The mechanisms via which Acr exerts its anti-cancer activity and cytotoxicity are not clear. In this study, we found that Acr induces cytotoxicity and cell death in human cancer cells with different activities of p53. Acr preferentially binds nucleolar ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to form Acr-deoxyguanosine adducts, and induces oxidative damage to both rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Longyan Tian, Yonglin Wang, Jun Yu, Dianguang Xiong, Hengjun Zhao, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae, a ubiquitous phytopathogenic fungus, forms resting structures, known as microsclerotia that play crucial roles in Verticillium wilt diseases. VdHog1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), controls microsclerotia formation, virulence, and stress response in V. dahliae. In this study, we present detailed evidence that the conserved upstream component of VdHog1, VdPbs2, is a key regulator of microsclerotia formation, oxidative stress and fungicide response and plant virulence in V. dahliae...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fariba Samadian, Nooshin Dalili, Ali Jamalian
Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Antonis Goulas, Dimitrios Agapakis, Athanassios Apostolidis, Dimitra Gouda, Sotirios Anastassiadis, Christina Trakatelli, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
Catalase represents perhaps the most effective antioxidant defense in the body under conditions of increased oxidative stress, and rs1001179 (CAT-262C >T) is its most extensively studied gene polymorphism. Using an established PCR-RFLP method for genotyping, we examined the association of rs1001179 with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma lipids using univariate analyses with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol abuse as covariates, in a group of dyslipidemic patients from northern Greece...
October 4, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Elizabeth Moses, Teresa Wang, Sean Corbett, George R Jackson, Eduard Drizik, Catalina Perdomo, Claudia Perdomo, Eric Kleerup, Daniel Brooks, George O'Connor, Steven Dubinett, Patrick Hayden, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum Spira
Little evidence is available regarding the physiological effects of exposure to electronic cigarette (ECIG) aerosol. We sought to determine the molecular impact of ECIG aerosol exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells. Gene expression profiling was conducted in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) grown at Air Liquid Interface and exposed to one of four different ECIG aerosols, traditional cigarette (TCIG) smoke, or clean air. Findings were validated experimentally with qPCR and a reactive oxygen species immunoassay...
October 3, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Sofia-Iris Bibli, I Andreadou, Constantinos Glynos, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Spyros G Zakynthinos, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Cigarette smoking is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Although conditioning decreases infarct size in hearts from healthy animals, co-morbidities may render it ineffective. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on intracellular myocardial signaling, infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion and the potential interference with ischemic conditioning. Exposure of mice to CS increased blood pressure, caused cardiac hypertrophy and up regulated the NOS/sGC/cGMP pathway. To test the effect of CS exposure on the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms, mice were subjected to regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion with no further intervention or application of preconditioning (PreC) or postconditioning (PostC)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Mark Taylor, Tony Carr, Oluwatobiloba Oke, Tomasz Jaunky, Damien Breheny, Frazer Lowe, Marianna Gaça
Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols...
July 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Clair Hartmann, Sebastian Hafner, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Markus Huber-Lang, Birgit Jung, Benedikt Nubaum, Oscar McCook, Michael Gröger, Florian Wagner, Sandra Weber, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Csaba Szabó, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Katja Wagner
Pre-traumatic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury (ALI). Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) protects against ALI and CS exposure-induced chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether genetic CSE knockout (CSE) would aggravate post-traumatic ALI after CS exposure. After 3-4 weeks of CS exposure, anesthetized wild type (WT) and CSE mice underwent blunt chest trauma, surgical instrumentation and 4 hours of lung-protective mechanical ventilation...
September 28, 2016: Shock
Sabina Ranjit, Narasimha M Midde, Namita Sinha, Benjamin J Patters, Mohammad A Rahman, Theodore J Cory, P S S Rao, Santosh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), naphthalene (NPh), phenanthrene (Phe), benzo(a)antharacene (BeA), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (BeF) are known carcinogenic polyaryl hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in cigarette smoke. This study was designed to examine the relative effect of these constituents on the cytotoxicity of monocytic cells and the possible mechanism of PAH-mediated cytotoxicity. METHODS: We examined the acute (6-24 hours) and chronic (7 days) effects of these PAHs on the expression of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity...
2016: PloS One
Linli Zhou, Ying Jiang, Cansheng Zhu, Lili Ma, Qiling Huang, Xiaohong Chen
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). The aim of this study is to examine oxidant biomarkers including homocysteine (Hcys), bilirubin, uric acid, lipids, and potential environmental risk factors and to ascertain whether these data correlate with MSA in a Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, serum levels of Hcys, bilirubin, uric acid, and lipids were studied in 55 MSA patients and 76 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Hongjun Du, Xu Xiao, Travis Stiles, Christopher Douglas, Daisy Ho, Peter X Shaw
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD includes soft drusen and pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). As people age, such soft confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD) and result in the loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD and progressing to advanced stage of disease is still largely unknown...
February 2016: Open Journal of Ophthalmology
M A Birch-Machin, A Bowman
Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Luca Colarusso, Mauro Serafini, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Olof Nyren, Carlo La Vecchia, Marta Rossi, Weimin Ye, Alessandra Tavani, Hans-Olov Adami, Alessandra Grotta, Rino Bellocco
OBJECTIVE: Both observational studies and randomized trials have shown that a diet rich in antioxidants can reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, two conditions that, together with obesity and smoking, are established risk factors for stroke. However, the association between antioxidant intake and risk for stroke is poorly understood, particularly when studying possible interaction with sex. We investigated the relationship of nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) on risk for stroke in a large Swedish prospective cohort...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
M Maskey-Warzęchowska, P Nejman-Gryz, K Osinka, P Lis, K Malesa, K Górska, R Krenke
The effect of acute exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) on the respiratory system has been less extensively studied than the long term effects of smoking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute response to CS in smokers suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in healthy smokers. Nineteen stable COPD patients and 19 young healthy smokers were enrolled. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) before and 60 min after smoking a cigarette...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ruan Kruger, Moliehi Mothae, Wayne Smith
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking weakens the antioxidant defence system and is considered a lifestyle risk factor contributing to cardiovascular disease progression. Little information exists on these links in non-smoking versus smoking populations. We aimed to explore the associations of oxidative stress with markers of vascular function in a young, normotensive bi-ethnic population. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 237 non-smokers (108 black and 129 white) and 145 smokers (78 black and 67 white) from South Africa between ages 20 and 30 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Aline Martins de Carvalho, Antonio Anax Falcão de Oliveira, Ana Paula de Melo Loureiro, Gilka Jorge Figaro Gattás, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Marchioni
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between protein and arginine from meat intake and oxidative stress in a general population. METHODS: Data came from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital), a cross-sectional population-based study in Brazil (N = 549 adults). Food intake was estimated by a 24-h dietary recall. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma. Analyses were performed using general linear regression models adjusted for some genetic, lifestyle, and biochemical confounders...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Nagla A El-Sherbeeny, Manar A Nader, Ghalia M Attia, Hayam Ateyya
Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates...
September 16, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Jian Hou, Yuqing Yang, Xiji Huang, Yuanchao Song, Huizhen Sun, Jianshu Wang, Fan Hou, Chuanyao Liu, Weihong Chen, Jing Yuan
Indoor air pollutants from environmental tobacco smoke and cooking fume can induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which generate oxidatively damaged DNA in human body. Among 2224 adults, levels of FENO and urinary 8-oxodG were measured using a nano coulomb nitric oxide analyzer and a high performance liquid chromatography system with electrochemical detector, respectively. Association between aging with higher FENO levels and urinary 8-oxodG levels were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ellen L Burnham, Alicia McNally, Jeanette Gaydos, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cigarette smoking are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress, likely related to antioxidant depletion. Pulmonary oxidative stress may adversely affect innate immunity, leading to increased pneumonia susceptibility and severity, including development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In people with AUDs, most of whom smoke, antioxidant therapy can potentially restore immune cell function and attenuate pneumonia development. Challenges to human investigations of antioxidant therapies include an inability to identify pulmonary oxidative stress noninvasively and the optimal route to deliver pulmonary antioxidants...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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