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Smoking and oxidative stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146889/exhaled-markers-of-anti-oxidant-activity-and-oxidative-stress-in-stable-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-moderate-lung-disease
#1
Lucia Spicuzza, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Lucia Tardino, Nicola Ciancio, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla, Salvatore Leonardi
The sustained imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species contributes to lung damage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the antioxidant defense in the airways epithelial lining fluid and its transportation out of the cells may be altered in CF. The aim of this study was to assess the oxidants/anti-oxidants balance in the airways of patients with CF. We measured the concentrations of GSH, the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), a marker of oxidative stress, in the exhaled breath condensate of 17 non-smoking patients with CF, in stable phase, and in 17 age-matched healthy subjects...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138553/the-protective-effect-of-prmt6-overexpression-on-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-murine-emphysema-model
#2
Xue He, Tiao Li, Naixin Kang, Huihui Zeng, Siying Ren, Dandan Zong, Jinhua Li, Shan Cai, Ping Chen, Yan Chen
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a). H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3), which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysema...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125538/cigarette-smoke-regulates-the-competitive-interactions-between-nrf2-and-bach1-for-heme-oxygenase-1-induction
#3
Wen-Hsin Chang, Philip Thai, Jihao Xu, David C Yang, Reen Wu, Ching-Hsien Chen
Cigarette smoke has been shown to trigger aberrant signaling pathways and pathophysiological processes; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying smoke-induced gene expression remain to be established. Herein, we observed that two smoke-responsive genes, HO-1 and CYP1A1, are robustly induced upon smoke by different mechanisms in human bronchial epithelia. CYP1A1 is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, while induction of HO-1 is regulated by oxidative stress, and suppressed by N-acetylcysteine treatment...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123642/supporting-evidence-based-analysis-for-modified-risk-tobacco-products-through-a-toxicology-data-sharing-infrastructure
#4
Stéphanie Boué, Thomas Exner, Samik Ghosh, Vincenzo Belcastro, Joh Dokler, David Page, Akash Boda, Filipe Bonjour, Barry Hardy, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Julia Hoeng, Manuel Peitsch
The US FDA defines modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) as products that aim to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease associated with commercially marketed tobacco products.  Establishing a product's potential as an MRTP requires scientific substantiation including toxicity studies and measures of disease risk relative to those of cigarette smoking.  Best practices encourage verification of the data from such studies through sharing and open standards. Building on the experience gained from the OpenTox project, a proof-of-concept database and website ( INTERVALS) has been developed to share results from both in vivo inhalation studies and in vitro studies conducted by Philip Morris International R&D to assess candidate MRTPs...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110607/serum-carotenoids-and-risks-of-diabetes-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-a-chinese-population-sample
#5
C She, F Shang, K Zhou, N Liu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are associated with oxidative stress and carotenoids have antioxidant properties. This study aimed to test the relationship between serum carotenoid concentrations and the risk for DM and DR. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of the Chinese urban population. A total of 747 subjects, consisting of 272 DR patients, 190 diabetic patients without retinopathy, and 285 non-diabetes mellitus healthy controls, were recruited to this study...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104873/ginsenoside-rg1-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-induced-pulmonary-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway
#6
Sibin Guan, Weiguo Xu, Fengfeng Han, Wen Gu, Lin Song, Wenjing Ye, Qian Liu, Xuejun Guo
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process associated with airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which leads to progressive pulmonary destruction. Panax ginseng is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the main active components and was shown to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study investigated the hypothesis that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates EMT in COPD rats induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100417/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-alleviates-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-inflammation-and-emphysema
#7
Yong Wang, Zhen-Zhen Wu, Wei Wang
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are pathologic features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the COPD development, but the molecular mechanism by which it contributes to COPD etiology and the specific role it plays in COPD pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to determine the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of CS-induced airway inflammation and emphysema. Exposure to CS significantly increased the expression of ER stress markers in Beas-2B cells and in mouse lungs, possibly through the production of oxidative stress...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097215/redox-regulation-of-circadian-molecular-clock-in-chronic-airway-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Isaac K Sundar, Michael T Sellix, Irfan Rahman
At the cellular level, circadian timing is maintained by the molecular clock, a family of interacting clock gene transcription factors, nuclear receptors and kinases called clock genes. Daily rhythms in pulmonary function are dictated by the circadian timing system, including rhythmic susceptibility to the harmful effects of air born pollutants, exacerbations in patients with chronic airway disease and the immune-inflammatory response to infection. Further, evidence strongly suggests that the circadian molecular clock has a robust reciprocal interaction with redox signaling and plays a considerable role in the response to oxidative/carbonyl stress...
October 30, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093578/deteriorations-of-pulmonary-function-elevated-carbon-monoxide-levels-and-increased-oxidative-stress-amongst-water-pipe-smokers
#9
Funda Karaduman Yalcin, Mukremin Er, H Canan Hasanoglu, Hatice Kilic, Aysegul Senturk, Aysegul Karalezli, Merve Ergin, Ozcan Erel
OBJECTIVES: A water pipe (hookah) is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT) and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093255/-mechanism-of-lung-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Tiao Li, Xue He, Yan Chen
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both serious threats to human health, resulting in a heavy economic burden for the society. Epidemiological studies have shown that lung cancer and COPD have a high comorbid rate. Cigarette smoking is a congenerous risk factor for both lung cancer and COPD, and may lead to these diseases by triggering certain similar pathways. The common pathogenesis of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves premature pulmonary failure, oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere length, genetic susceptibility, and epigenetics...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091892/nitric-oxide-bioavailability-dysfunction-involves-in-atherosclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Jing-Yi Chen, Zi-Xin Ye, Xiu-Fen Wang, Jian Chang, Mei-Wen Yang, Hua-Hua Zhong, Fen-Fang Hong, Shu-Long Yang
The pathological characteristics of atherosclerosis (AS) include lipid accumulation, fibrosis formation and atherosclerotic plaque produced in artery intima, which leads to vascular sclerosis, lumen stenosis and irritates the ischemic changes of corresponding organs. Endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with AS. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. NO is also a potent endogenous vasodilator and enters for the key processes that suppresses the formation vascular lesion even AS...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081982/the-making-of-a-miscreant-tobacco-smoke-and-the-creation-of-pathogen-rich-biofilms
#12
Samir A Shah, Sukirth M Ganesan, Saradhadevi Varadharaj, Shareef M Dabdoub, John D Walters, Purnima S Kumar
We have previously reported that oral biofilms in clinically healthy smokers are pathogen-rich, and that this enrichment occurs within 24 h of biofilm formation. The present investigation aimed to identify a mechanism by which smoking creates this altered community structure. By combining in vitro microbial-mucosal interface models of commensal (consisting of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Veillonella parvula) and pathogen-rich (comprising S...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081655/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-copd-from-bench-to-bedside
#13
REVIEW
Mariana A Antunes, José Roberto Lapa E Silva, Patricia Rm Rocco
COPD is the most frequent chronic respiratory disease and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The major risk factor for COPD development is cigarette smoke, and the most efficient treatment for COPD is smoking cessation. However, even after smoking cessation, inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress may persist and continue contributing to disease progression. Although current therapies for COPD (primarily based on anti-inflammatory agents) contribute to the reduction of airway obstruction and minimize COPD exacerbations, none can avoid disease progression or reduce mortality...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081601/resistin-as-a-prooxidant-factor-and-predictor-of-endothelium-damage-in-patients-with-mild-acute-pancreatitis-exposed-to-tobacco-smoke-xenobiotics
#14
Milena Ściskalska, Grzegorz Marek, Zygmunt Grzebieniak, Halina Milnerowicz
OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed to assess the influence of tobacco smoke exposure on the intensity of inflammation measured by IL-6, α1-antitripsin (AAT) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations, and Cd level and oxidative stress intensity measured by advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) concentration in the blood of healthy subjects and AP patients during hospitalization. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and resistin concentrations, markers of endothelium injury, were determined. RESULTS: An increased IL-6 concentration in healthy smokers compared to nonsmokers and AP patients compared to controls was shown...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080849/assessment-of-novel-tobacco-heating-product-thp1-0-part-6-a-comparative-in-vitro-study-using-contemporary-screening-approaches
#15
Mark Taylor, David Thorne, Tony Carr, Damien Breheny, Paul Walker, Christopher Proctor, Marianna Gaça
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for many adverse health conditions. Novel tobacco heating products (THPs) heat tobacco, reducing exposure to many of the harmful combustion toxicants in conventional cigarette emissions. In vitro studies have been employed to support the toxicological evaluation of chemicals and complex mixtures, including cigarette smoke. The use of automated robotics platforms for in vitro toxicological screening complements traditional testing approaches. Multiparametric toxicity and oxidative stress endpoints were used to assess in vitro biological responses elicited after exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) from two commercially available THPs, and the reference tobacco product 3R4F, in human bronchial epithelial cells...
September 4, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074535/flaxseed-consumption-inhibits-chemically-induced-lung-tumorigenesis-and-modulates-expression-of-phase-ii-enzymes-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-j-mice
#16
Shireen Chikara, Sujan Mamidi, Avinash Sreedasyam, Kishore Chittem, Ralph Pietrofesa, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Neil Dyer, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Katie M Reindl
Flaxseed consumption is associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in lung injury models, and has shown anti-cancer effects for breast and prostate tissues. However, the chemopreventive potential of flaxseed remains unexplored for lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of flaxseed on tobacco smoke carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in an A/J mouse model. Mice exposed to NNK were fed a control diet or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet for 26 weeks. Flaxseed-fed mice showed reduced lung tumor incidence (78%) and multiplicity, with an average of 2...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070578/is-mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-driving-mechanism-linking-copd-to-nonsmall-cell-lung-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Francois Ng Kee Kwong, Andrew G Nicholson, Celeste L Harrison, Philip M Hansbro, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at increased risk of developing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, irrespective of their smoking history. Although the mechanisms behind this observation are not clear, established drivers of carcinogenesis in COPD include oxidative stress and sustained chronic inflammation. Mitochondria are critical in these two processes and recent evidence links increased oxidative stress in COPD patients to mitochondrial damage. We therefore postulate that mitochondrial damage in COPD patients leads to increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of carcinogenesis...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058203/low-levels-of-lead-and-glutathione-markers-of-redox-status-in-human-blood
#18
Caterina Vacchi-Suzzi, Laura Viens, James M Harrington, Keith Levine, Roxanne Karimi, Jaymie R Meliker
Exposure to lead (Pb) is implicated in a plethora of health threats in both adults and children. Increased exposure levels are associated with oxidative stress in the blood of workers exposed at occupational levels. However, it is not known whether lower Pb exposure levels are related to a shift toward a more oxidized state. To assess the association between blood lead level (BLL) and glutathione (GSH) redox biomarkers in a population of healthy adults, BLL and four GSH markers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio and redox potential E h ) were measured in the blood of a cross-sectional cohort of 282 avid seafood-eating healthy adults living on Long Island (NY)...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053025/e-cigarette-use-causes-a-unique-innate-immune-response-in-the-lung-involving-increased-neutrophilic-activation-and-altered-mucin-secretion
#19
Boris Reidel, Giorgia Radicioni, Phillip Clapp, Amina A Ford, Sabri Abdelwahab, Meghan E Rebuli, Prashamsha Haridass, Neil E Alexis, Ilona Jaspers, Mehmet Kesimer
RATIONALE: E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and little is known about their potential adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of e-cigarette use on the airways. METHODS: Induced sputum samples from cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and non-smokers, were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, and the total and individual concentrations of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were determined by light scattering/refractometry and labeled mass spectrometry, respectively...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049509/prenatal-air-pollution-and-newborns-predisposition-to-accelerated-biological-aging
#20
Dries S Martens, Bianca Cox, Bram G Janssen, Diana B P Clemente, Antonio Gasparrini, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Harry A Roels, Michelle Plusquin, Tim S Nawrot
Importance: Telomere length is a marker of biological aging that may provide a cellular memory of exposures to oxidative stress and inflammation. Telomere length at birth has been related to life expectancy. An association between prenatal air pollution exposure and telomere length at birth could provide new insights in the environmental influence on molecular longevity. Objective: To assess the association of prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with newborn telomere length as reflected by cord blood and placental telomere length...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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