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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911536/biopharmaceutical-potentials-of-prosopis-spp-mimosaceae-leguminosa
#1
REVIEW
Santhaseelan Henciya, Prabha Seturaman, Arthur Rathinam James, Yi-Hong Tsai, Rahul Nikam, Yang-Chang Wu, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Fang Rong Chang
Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H(+), K(+), ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854435/n-terminal-prosomatostatin-and-risk-of-vascular-dementia
#2
Hannes Holm, Katarina Nägga, Erik D Nilsson, Fabrizio Ricci, Eduardo Cinosi, Olle Melander, Oskar Hansson, Erasmus Bachus, Martin Magnusson, Artur Fedorowski
BACKGROUND: Increased somatostatin plasma concentration has been found in patients with vascular dementia. However, it is unknown whether or not somatostatin levels may predict dementia development in the general population. To this end, we sought to assess the association of circulating N-terminal prosomatostatin (NT-proSST) with incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project, 5,347 study participants (mean age: 69 ± 6years; 70% men) provided plasma for the determination of NT-proSST concentration...
August 31, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840553/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-from-neurological-disease-to-cancer
#3
Ahmed Maher, Mohamed F Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Z Gad
Until the beginning of the 1980s, nitric oxide (NO) was just a toxic molecule of a lengthy list of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke and smog. In fact, NO had a very bad reputation of being destroyer of ozone, suspected carcinogen and precursor of acid rain. However, by the early 1990s it was well recognized by the medical research community. Over the last two decades, the picture has been totally changed. Diverse lines of evidence have converged to show that this sometime poison is a fundamental player in the everyday business of the human body...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806610/risk-factors-of-transition-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-death-a-cohort-study
#4
Haihong Xue, Qianqian Sun, Long Liu, Liye Zhou, Ruifeng Liang, Runlian He, Hongmei Yu
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors is essential for developing strategies that prevent or minimise transitions from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and death. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for progression to AD and death among Chinese individuals with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, population-based cohort study on 437 community-dwelling elderly MCI residents in Taiyuan, China from 2010 to 2014...
July 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796009/different-exposures-to-risk-factors-do-not-explain-the-inverse-relationship-of-occurrence-between-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-italian-nested-case-control-study
#5
Federica Prinelli, Fulvio Adorni, Maria Lea Correa Leite, Carla Pettenati, Antonio Russo, Simona Di Santo, Massimo Musicco
Several studies reported that cancer is less frequent in persons with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (AD/PD) and vice-versa. We evaluated whether a different distribution of known nongenetic risk factors for cancer and AD/PD, might explain their inverse relationship of occurrence. We nested 2 case-control studies in a subsample of a large cohort of 1,000,000 resident in Lombardy Region in Italy (n=1515), followed-up for cancer and AD/PD occurrence since 1991 until 2012. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AD/PD in subjects with and without cancer and the risk of cancer in those with and without AD/PD...
August 8, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762314/insights-into-nicotinic-receptor-signaling-in-nicotine-addiction-implications-for-prevention-and-treatment
#6
Wuyi Liu, Ming D Li
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) superfamily, which also includes the GABA, glycine, and serotonin receptors. Many nAChR subunits have been identified and shown to be involved in signal transduction on binding to them of either the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or exogenous ligands such as nicotine. The nAChRs are pentameric assemblies of homologous subunits surrounding a central pore that gates cation flux, and they are expressed at neuromuscular junctions throughout the nervous system...
August 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700830/spectral-and-photophysical-behavior-of-cytisine-in-n-hexane-experimental-evidence-for-the-s1-n-%C3%AF-%C3%A2-s0-fluorescence
#7
Ewa Krystkowiak, Anna K Przybył, Małgorzata Bayda, Julia Józkowiak, Andrzej Maciejewski
Spectral and photophysical properties of (-)-cytisine (the compound used as a smoking cessation aid and a potential drug in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) were investigated. The two conformers of cytisine, whose presence in the S0 state has been earlier proved by the NMR and IR methods as well as in theoretical calculation, in nonpolar n-hexane show a rarely observed prompt fluorescence from the S1(n,π*) excited state. This observation is unambiguously evidenced by very small radiative rate constants of these two emitting conformers, kF = 7...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692781/depression-as-a-risk-factor-of-organic-diseases-an-international-integrative-review
#8
Teodora Bica, Ruth Castelló, Loren L Toussaint, Pilar Montesó-Curto
PURPOSE AND DESIGN: This integrative review offers a systematic synthesis of the international literature regarding the role of depression as a risk factor in physical illnesses and the mechanisms of this connection. Special attention is paid to those modifiable factors. FINDINGS: Published studies of depression and physical illness and disease(N = 24) from five countries that were indexed in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), APA PsycNET, Scopus, Dialnet, and CUIDEN were examined...
July 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689644/childhood-stress-and-adversity-is-associated-with-late-life-dementia-in-aboriginal-australians
#9
Kylie Radford, Kim Delbaere, Brian Draper, Holly A Mack, Gail Daylight, Robert Cumming, Simon Chalkley, Cecilia Minogue, Gerald A Broe
OBJECTIVES: High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. SETTING: Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses...
October 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667909/graphical-review-the-redox-dark-side-of-e-cigarettes-exposure-to-oxidants-and-public-health-concerns
#10
REVIEW
Hua Cai, Chen Wang
Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i...
May 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632787/risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-or-dementia-following-a-cancer-diagnosis
#11
Erin J Aiello Bowles, Rod L Walker, Melissa L Anderson, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risks after a cancer diagnosis in a population-based prospective cohort, the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. METHODS: We followed community-dwelling people aged ≥65 years without dementia at study entry for incident dementia and AD from 1994-2015. We linked study data with cancer registry data and categorized cancer diagnoses as prevalent (diagnosed before ACT study enrollment) or incident (diagnosed during follow-up)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584824/smoking-history-and-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-in-a-community-based-clinic-population
#12
Erin K Saito, Natalie Diaz, Julia Chung, Aaron McMurtray
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cigarette smoking and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not fully determined, and previous reports disagree, with some studies suggesting an increased relative risk and others a decreased odds ratio. Consequently, we wanted to determine if the prevalence of past cigarette smoking observed in a community-based clinic sample of patients with AD would be more consistent with the expected value obtained from a model using either an increased relative risk or a decreased odds ratio to estimate the effect of smoking on development of AD...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550245/amyloid-burden-in-obstructive-sleep%C3%A2-apnea
#13
Chang-Ho Yun, Ho-Young Lee, Seung Ku Lee, Hyun Kim, Hyung Suk Seo, Seong Ae Bang, Sang Eun Kim, Douglas N Greve, Rhoda Au, Chol Shin, Robert J Thomas
To test the hypothesis that excessive amyloid deposition is a biological link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Alzheimer's disease, we determined whether OSA increases cerebral amyloid burden, relative to controls, using Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging. The subjects were adult participants (age 50-65 years) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Polysomnography, brain MRI including 3D images, and a detailed neuro-cognitive function test battery were done in 2011-2012. Nineteen OSA subjects (Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥15/h, 21...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541558/drinking-water-contamination-from-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-an-ecological-mortality-study-in-the-veneto-region-italy
#14
Marina Mastrantonio, Edoardo Bai, Raffaella Uccelli, Vincenzo Cordiano, Augusto Screpanti, Paolo Crosignani
: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. : The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS)...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527214/associations-of-spatial-disparities-of-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-rates-with-soil-selenium-and-sulfur-concentrations-and-four-common-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#15
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: Associations between environmental factors and spatial disparity of mortality rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the US are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To find associations between 41 trace elements, four common risk factors, and AD mortality rates in the48 contiguous states. METHODS: Isopleth maps of AD mortality rates of the 48 states and associated factors were examined. Correlations between state average AD mortality rates and concentrations of 41 soil elements, wine consumption, percentage of current smokers, obesity, and diagnosed diabetes of the 48 states between 1999 and 2014 were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511080/cadmium-and-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-in-u-s-adults-updated-evidence-with-a-urinary-biomarker-and-extended-follow-up-time
#16
Qing Peng, Kelly M Bakulski, Bin Nan, Sung Kyun Park
Cadmium has been linked to impaired cognitive function in adults and may cause behavioral, physiological and molecular abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animals. Evidence linking cadmium and AD in humans is limited, but supportive. In the most recent epidemiologic study, blood cadmium in U.S. adults was positively associated with elevated AD mortality 7-13 years later. The association between urinary cadmium - an arguably more appropriate biomarker for studying chronic diseases - and AD mortality has not yet been explored...
August 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484660/major-depressive-symptoms-increase-3-year-mortality-rate-in-patients-with-mild-dementia
#17
Jindong Ding Petersen, Frans Boch Waldorff, Volkert Dirk Siersma, Thien Kieu Thi Phung, Anna Carina Klara Magdalena Bebe, Gunhild Waldemar
Depression and dementia are commonly concurrent and are both associated with increased mortality among older people. However, little is known about whether home-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with mild dementia coexisting with depressive symptoms have excess mortality. We conducted a post hoc analysis based on data from the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study of 330 individuals who were diagnosed with mild dementia within the past 12 months. Thirty-four patients were identified with major depressive symptoms (MD-S) at baseline...
2017: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431562/effects-of-the-common-polymorphism-in-the-human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-gene-on-the-lung
#18
Aoi Kuroda, Ahmed E Hegab, Gao Jingtao, Shuji Yamashita, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Tohru Sakamoto, Hideyasu Yamada, Satoshi Suzuki, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Takanori Asakura, Mari Ozaki, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in detoxification of aldehydes. High expression of ALDHs is a marker for stem cells of many organs including the lungs. A common polymorphism in ALDH2 gene (ALDH2*2) results in inactivation of the enzyme and is associated with alcohol flushing syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases and some cancers. The effect of this ALDH2 polymorphism on the lung and its stem cells has not been thoroughly examined...
April 21, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428346/sugar-and-artificially-sweetened-beverages-and-the-risks-of-incident-stroke-and-dementia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Matthew P Pase, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Hugo J Aparicio, Claudia L Satizabal, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri, Paul F Jacques
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. METHODS: We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [SD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [SD, 6] years; 46% men)...
May 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426638/decreased-central-nervous-system-grey-matter-volume-gmv-in-smokers-affects-cognitive-abilities-a-systematic-review
#20
Martina Vňuková, Radek Ptáček, Jiří Raboch, George B Stefano
Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality, tobacco is consumed by approximately 22% of the adult population worldwide. Smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects brain processing, and is a recognized risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Tobacco toxins (e.g., nicotine at high levels) inhaled in smoke may cause disorders resulting in preclinical brain changes. Researchers suggest that there are differences in brain volume between smokers and non-smokers. This review examines these differences in brain grey matter volume (GMV)...
April 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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