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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760188/depression-in-type-1-diabetes-was-associated-with-high-levels-of-circulating-galectin-3
#1
Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander, Magnus Hillman
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in depression. The aim was to explore whether depression in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) was associated with high circulating galectin-3, controlling for metabolic variables, s-creatinine, life style factors, medication, and cardiovascular complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Participants were T1D patients (n=283, 56% men, age 18-59 years, diabetes duration ≥1 year)...
May 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724603/high-prevalence-of-olfactory-dysfunction-in-cervical-dystonia
#2
Milena Marek, Susanne Linnepe, Christine Klein, Thomas Hummel, Sebastian Paus
INTRODUCTION: Olfactory dysfunction has been established as a frequent non-motor symptom in neurodegenerative and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and hereditary ataxias. To expand knowledge of non-motor symptoms in dystonia, and to test for a potential endophenotype, we examined olfactory function in cervical dystonia (CD). METHODS: In patients with CD, and neurologically healthy controls, olfactory function was examined by "Sniffin' Sticks", a test of nasal chemosensory function based on pen-like odor dispensing devices...
April 25, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719346/the-relationship-between-the-lifestyle-of-the-elderly-in-shanghai-communities-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Ning Su, Wei Li, Xia Li, Tao Wang, Minjie Zhu, Yuanyuan Liu, Yanchen Shi, Shifu Xiao
Background: Those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are ten times more like to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) than the general population. MCI diagnosis and early intervention are helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of AD in its early stages, thus delaying its development and improving the quality of life for those with MCI. Aims: To analyze the relationship between the lifestyle of the elderly in Shanghai communities and mild cognitive impairment and to look for preventative lifestyle measures for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment...
December 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710725/prevalence-of-dementia-and-associated-risk-factors-a-population-based-study-in-the-philippines
#4
Jacqueline Dominguez, Ma Fe de Guzman, Macario Reandelar, Thien Kieu Thi Phung
BACKGROUND: The Philippines is experiencing rapid demographic aging and with it, the dementia epidemic. Prevalence of dementia and associated risk factors have not been studied in the Philippines. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of dementia prevalence and identify associated risk factors in the Filipino population. METHODS: 1460 participants 60 years and older were randomly selected from the Marikina City's senior registry...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#5
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618714/nicotine-and-methyl-vinyl-ketone-major-components-of-cigarette-smoke-extracts-increase-protective-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-cells-harboring-amyloid-%C3%AE-precursor-protein
#6
Yoichi Ohshima, Kazumi Iwata, Masakazu Ibi, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
The increased ratio of longer amyloid-β (Aβ1-42)/shorter amyloid-β (Aβ1-40) peptides, generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is known to promote the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the role of smoking in Aβ production, we determined the production of Aβ species in the presence of nicotine or methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), major components of cigarette smoke extracts, in Flp-In™ T-REx™ -293 (T-REx293) cells harboring a single copy of human APP. While treatment with nicotine or MVK did not affect the amount of APP, the levels of Aβ1-40 in the culture media were significantly increased...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618598/routine-assessment-and-promotion-of-physical-activity-in-healthcare-settings-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#7
REVIEW
Felipe Lobelo, Deborah Rohm Young, Robert Sallis, Michael D Garber, Sandra A Billinger, John Duperly, Adrian Hutber, Russell R Pate, Randal J Thomas, Michael E Widlansky, Michael V McConnell, Elizabeth A Joy
Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent major health risk factors, with 8 in 10 US adults not meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, and is associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Improving and maintaining recommended levels of physical activity leads to reductions in metabolic, hemodynamic, functional, body composition, and epigenetic risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Physical activity also has a significant role, in many cases comparable or superior to drug interventions, in the prevention and management of >40 conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression, Alzheimer disease, and arthritis...
May 1, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614682/non-genetic-risk-factors-for-degenerative-and-vascular-young-onset-dementia-results-from-the-inspired-and-kgow-studies
#8
Monica Cations, Brian Draper, Lee-Fay Low, Kylie Radford, Julian Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Perminder Sachdev, Peter Gonski, Gerald Anthony Broe, Adrienne Withall
BACKGROUND: Several brain reserve, vascular risk, and other modifiable factors have been associated with late-onset dementia, but their association with young onset dementia (YOD) has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of cognitive reserve enhancing factors, cardiovascular risk factors (including smoking), depression, alcohol use, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) with non-autosomal dominant degenerative and/or vascular YOD. METHODS: Data for this matched case-control study were taken from two larger studies conducted in NSW, Australia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606955/an-estimate-of-attributable-cases-of-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia-due-to-modifiable-risk-factors-the-impact-of-primary-prevention-in-europe-and-in-italy
#9
Flavia Mayer, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Fabrizio Marzolini, Gianluigi Ferrante, Valentina Minardi, Maria Masocco, Marco Canevelli, Teresa Di Fiandra, Nicola Vanacore
Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574698/biphasic-effects-of-thc-in-memory-and-cognition
#10
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese, Alberto Rubio-Casillas
A generally undesired effect of cannabis smoking is a reversible disruption of short term memory induced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. However, this paradigm has been recently challenged by a group of scientists who have shown that THC is also able to improve neurological function in old animals when chronically administered at low concentrations. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated that THC paradoxically promotes hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer Disease, protects from inflammation-induced cognitive damage and restores memory and cognitive function in old mice...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559956/the-role-of-apoe-polymorphism-in-the-relationship-between-serum-steroid-hormone-levels-and-cognition-in-older-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Xiaochen Huang, Shengqi Dong, Jie Zhen, Huiqiang Zhang, Tong Lin, Yuhong Zeng, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Linhong Yuan
Background: Epidemiology studies have indicated an association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genetic polymorphism and circulating steroid hormone levels with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The established physiologic relationship between apolipoproteins and steroid hormone indicate an important role of ApoE polymorphism in impacting the relationship between serum steroid hormones and cognition in the elderly. Study design: A total of 500 Chinese adults aged between 50 and 75 participated in this community-based cross-sectional study...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541536/reduced-vascular-risk-factors-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-compared-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519962/-prevention-of-dementia-with-special-reference-to-lifestyle-and-vascular-risk-factors
#13
Haruo Hanyu
There is a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and dementia, including cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, sleep-apnea syndrome), psychosocial factors (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., low level of physical or mental activity, smoking status), and head trauma. In the elderly, weight loss associated with frailty and sarcopenia is another risk factor for dementia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia has declined in the US and European countries during the last 20 years...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509901/apolipoprotein-e-dna-methylation-and-late-life-disease
#14
Ida K Karlsson, Alexander Ploner, Yunzhang Wang, Margaret Gatz, Nancy L Pedersen, Sara Hägg
Background: This study aims to investigate if DNA methylation of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus affects the risks of dementia, Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: DNA methylation across the APOE gene has previously been categorized into three distinct regions: a hypermethylated region in the promoter, a hypomethylated region in the first two introns and exons and a hypermethylated region in the 3'exon that also harbours the APOE ε2 and ε4 alleles...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380913/review-vascular-dementia-clinicopathologic-and-genetic-considerations
#15
REVIEW
H V Vinters, C Zarow, E Borys, J D Whitman, S Tung, W G Ellis, L Zheng, H C Chui
The incidence and severity of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) increase with advancing age, as does the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Not surprisingly, heterogeneous forms of CVD may coexist with AD changes in the 'ageing brain'. These include angiopathies (affecting both large and small arteries) that result from 'classical' risk factors (hypertension, smoking and diabetes) and others (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that are biochemically closely linked to AD. The morphologic consequences of these various vascular diseases are infarcts and/or haemorrhages of varying sizes within the brain, which lead to neurocognitive decline that may mimic AD - though the vascular abnormalities are usually detectable by neuroimaging...
April 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338817/correlation-of-stress-hyperglycemia-after-ischemic-stroke-with-early-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#16
Yi Dong Zhou, Huai Wu Yuan, Ren Jie Ji, Ben Yan Luo
Objective To investigate the influence and forecast value of stress hyperglycemia on the early vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in stroke patients.Methods Totally 422 patients with acute non-diabetic stroke were divided into three groups according to the fasting plasma glucose level:the euglycemia group (<6.1 mmol/L),the mild stress hyperglycemia group (6.1-7.0 mmol/L),and the severe stress hyperglycemia group (≥7.0 mmol/L).Mini-mental state examination,Alzheimer's disease rating scale cognitive subscale,and clinical dementia rating scale were used to evaluate early cognition in post-stroke patients,and patients were divided into three groups accordingly:normal cognitive function group,mild VCI group,and vascular dementia group...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301614/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-2-and-3-as-targets-for-treating-nicotine-addiction
#17
REVIEW
Alan J Cross, Robert Anthenelli, Xia Li
Tobacco smoking, driven by the addictive properties of nicotine, continues to be a worldwide health problem. Based on the well-established role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in drug addiction, novel medication development strategies seek to halt nicotine consumption and prevent relapse to tobacco smoking by modulating glutamate transmission. The presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) are key autoreceptors on glutamatergic terminals that maintain glutamate homeostasis...
November 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212772/modifiable-pathways-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mendelian-randomisation-analysis
#18
Susanna C Larsson, Matthew Traylor, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Stephen Burgess, Hugh S Markus
OBJECTIVE: To determine which potentially modifiable risk factors, including socioeconomic, lifestyle/dietary, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory factors, are associated with Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with the modifiable risk factors as instrumental variables. SETTING: International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project. PARTICIPANTS: 17 008 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 37 154 controls...
December 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209923/plasma-microparticles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-vascular-dysfunction
#19
Soheila Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Noroozian, Esmaeil Mortaz, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Cerebrovascular lesions, a potent stimulus for endothelial cell activation, trigger cognitive and degenerative changes and contribute to pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circulating microparticles (MPs) are actively involved in the pathogenesis of AD and cerebrovascular diseases, which share common vascular risk factors. We examined the plasma changes of endothelial MPs (EMPs) and platelet MPs (PMPs) in AD patients with vascular risk factors. The plasma Annexin V+ CD 41a- CD144+ EMPs and Annexin V+ CD41a+ CD144- PMPs of 37 patients with AD, with or without vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary artery disease, and smoking), and 10 age-matched controls were quantified by flow cytometry...
February 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201555/background-and-distribution-of-lobar-microbleeds-in-cognitive-dysfunction
#20
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yuichiro Ii, Masayuki Maeda, Maki Umino, Yukito Ueda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Akihiro Shindo, Akira Taniguchi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Objectives: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in memory clinic patients. It has been generally accepted that deep CMBs (D-CMBs) result from hypertensive vasculopathy (HV), whereas strictly lobar CMBs (SL-CMBs) result from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) which frequently coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mixed CMBs (M-CMBs) have been partially attributed to HV and also partially attributed to CAA. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between SL-CMBs and M-CMBs in terms of clinical features and regional distribution...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
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