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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#1
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882038/alzheimer-and-vascular-dementia-in-the-elderly-patients
#2
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Narindar Kumar, Khalid Imran, Asif Ali, Nadia Shams, Taha Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency of Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia in the elderly patients. METHODS: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ziauddin Hospital Karachi from 1(st) October 2013 to 31(st) March 2014. Patients with symptoms of dementia for more than 6 months duration, and Mini Mental State Examination score <24 were included in this study. Patients who fell in category of dementia were assessed for duration of symptoms...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875364/attenuation-of-choroidal-thickness-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-evidence-from-an-italian-prospective-study
#3
Alessandro Trebbastoni, Michela Marcelli, Fabiana Mallone, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Letizia Imbriano, Alessandra Campanelli, Carlo de Lena, Magda Gharbiya
INTRODUCTION: To compare the 12-month choroidal thickness (CT) change between Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and normal subjects. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 39 patients with a diagnosis of mild to moderate AD and 39 age-matched control subjects were included. All the subjects underwent neuropsychological (Mini Mental State Examination, Alzheimer disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) and ophthalmological evaluation, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography, at baseline and after 12 months...
November 21, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770636/two-novel-loci-cobl-and-slc10a2-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-african-americans
#4
Jesse Mez, Jaeyoon Chung, Gyungah Jun, Joshua Kriegel, Alexandra P Bourlas, Richard Sherva, Mark W Logue, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Joseph D Buxbaum, Goldie S Byrd, Paul K Crane, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Denis Evans, M Daniele Fallin, Tatiana Foroud, Alison Goate, Neill R Graff-Radford, Kathleen S Hall, M Ilyas Kamboh, Walter A Kukull, Eric B Larson, Jennifer J Manly, Jonathan L Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Gerard D Schellenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lindsay A Farrer
INTRODUCTION: African Americans' (AAs) late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) genetic risk profile is incompletely understood. Including clinical covariates in genetic analyses using informed conditioning might improve study power. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs employing informed conditioning in 1825 LOAD cases and 3784 cognitively normal controls. We derived a posterior liability conditioned on age, sex, diabetes status, current smoking status, educational attainment, and affection status, with parameters informed by external prevalence information...
October 20, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753980/pl-02-2-perspective-on-elderly-hypertension-in-asia
#5
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, accumulating evidence also indicates that hypertension has been linked with non-cardiovascular diseases including dementia, cancer, oral health diseases and so on. In general, elderly individuals tend to have multiple diseases as getting older. Preventing of hypertension is also benefit for other diseases.In the Hisayama Study, hypertension increased the risk of vascular dementia, but were not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and that subjects with hypertension in midlife and normotension and hypertension in late-life increased risks of incident vascular dementia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727284/orthostatic-hypotension-and-the-long-term-risk-of-dementia-a-population-based-study
#6
Frank J Wolters, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688858/is-it-possible-to-delay-or-prevent-age-related-cognitive-decline
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Michel
Already in the 90s, Khachaturian stated that postponing dementia onset by five years would decrease the prevalence of the late onset dementia by 50%. After two decades of lack of success in dementia drug discovery and development, and knowing that worldwide, currently 36 million patients have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a number that will double by 2030 and triple by 2050, the World Health Organization and the Alzheimer's Disease International declared that prevention of cognitive decline was a 'public health priority...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648178/population-attributable-fraction-of-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-disease-a-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#8
Narjes Hazar, Leila Seddigh, Zahra Rampisheh, Marzieh Nojomi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. METHODS: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642891/pl-02-2-perspective-on-elderly-hypertension-in-asia
#9
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, accumulating evidence also indicates that hypertension has been linked with non-cardiovascular diseases including dementia, cancer, oral health diseases and so on. In general, elderly individuals tend to have multiple diseases as getting older. Preventing of hypertension is also benefit for other diseases.In the Hisayama Study, hypertension increased the risk of vascular dementia, but were not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and that subjects with hypertension in midlife and normotension and hypertension in late-life increased risks of incident vascular dementia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612576/dose-response-gradients-between-a-composite-measure-of-six-risk-factors-and-cognitive-decline-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Mary L Adams, Joseph Grandpre
We created a composite risk factor index which includes 6 risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, depression, sedentary lifestyle, and current smoking) previously shown to be associated with cognitive decline (CD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System results for 95,147 adults ages ≥45years we found that 77.3% of study adults reported ≥1 risk factor (RF) while <1% reported all 6. Reporting any RFs increased risk for CD and CVD, with a dose-response gradient shown for increasing numbers of RFs from 0 to 6...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553771/interaction-of-bdnf-rs6265-variants-and-energy-and-protein-intake-in-the-risk-for-glucose-intolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-in-middle-aged-adults
#11
James W Daily, Sunmin Park
OBJECTIVES: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of BDNF variants with type 2 diabetes and the interactions of different BDNF genotypes with dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes in middle-aged adults. METHODS: The study population included 8840 adults ages 40 to 65 y from the Ansan and Asung areas in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, a cross-sectional study of Korean adults, conducted from 2001 to 2002...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530818/cigarette-smoking-impairs-nitric-oxide-mediated-cerebral-blood-flow-increase-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512384/links-between-the-brain-and-retina-the-effects-of-cigarette-smoking-induced-age-related-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-macular-degeneration
#13
Sha Sha Yu, Xin Tang, Yuen-Shan Ho, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Kin Chiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503360/peripheral-biomarkers-of-stroke-focus-on-circulatory-micrornas
#14
REVIEW
Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world. Stroke occurs when blood flow stops, and that stoppage results in reduced oxygen supply to neurons in the brain. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer from stroke. Recent research has implicated multiple cellular changes in stroke patients, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory responses, and changes in mRNA and proteins. Recent research has also revealed that stroke is associated with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502303/update-on-vascular-dementia
#15
Ayesha Khan, Raj N Kalaria, Anne Corbett, Clive Ballard
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472882/active-cigarette-smoking-in%C3%A2-cognitively-normal-elders-and-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#16
Timothy C Durazzo, Magdalena Korecka, John Q Trojanowski, Michael W Weiner, Ruth O' Hara, John W Ashford, Leslie M Shaw
Neurodegenerative diseases and chronic cigarette smoking are associated with increased cerebral oxidative stress (OxS). Elevated F2-isoprostane levels in biological fluid is a recognized marker of OxS. This study assessed the association of active cigarette smoking with F2-isoprostane in concentrations in cognitively-normal elders (CN), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Smoking and non-smoking CN (n = 83), MCI (n = 164), and probable AD (n = 101) were compared on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iPF2α-III and 8,12, iso-iPF2α-VI F2-isoprostane concentrations...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447427/smoking-and-cerebral-oxidative-stress-and%C3%A2-air-pollution-a-dreadful-equation-with%C3%A2-particulate-matter-involved-and-one-more-powerful-reason-not-to-smoke-anything
#17
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417104/hyperhomocysteinemia-impairs-regional-blood-flow-involvements-of-endothelial-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide
#18
REVIEW
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Increasing evidence support the idea that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is responsible for pathogenesis underlying cerebral, coronary, renal, and other vascular circulatory disorders and for hypertension. Impaired synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium or increased production of asymmetric dimethylarginine and activated oxygen species are involved in the impairment of vasodilator effects of NO. Impaired circulation in the brain derived from reduced synthesis and actions of NO would be an important triggering factor to dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
September 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335042/alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-early-signs-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
Shaun Frost, Robyn Guymer, Khin Zaw Aung, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, Pierrick Bourgeat, Olivier Salvado, Christopher C Rowe, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, And The Aibl Research Group
This study investigated signs of age related macular degeneration (AMD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These age-related diseases primarily affect different parts of the central nervous system but are substantially similar in terms of abnormal extracellular deposits, metabolic and oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and microvascular abnormalities. While AMD is a retinal disease, AD is reported to affect not only the brain but also the retina, with Aβ deposits, neurodegeneration and vascular changes. Large population based studies have provided conflicting results regarding the comorbidity of AD and AMD...
June 2, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274026/long-term-stability-of-volatile-nitrosamines-in-human-urine
#20
James A Hodgson, Tiffany H Seyler, Lanqing Wang
Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are established teratogens and carcinogens in animals and classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans by the IARC. High levels of VNAs have been detected in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. VNA exposure may lead to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (e.g., inflammation), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes) and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). To conduct epidemiological studies on the effects of VNA exposure, short-term and long-term stabilities of VNAs in the urine matrix are needed...
July 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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