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Myocardial regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805830/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis-of-visible-light-crosslinkable-gelatin-methacryloyl-gelma-hydrogels
#1
Iman Noshadi, Seonki Hong, Kelly E Sullivan, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo-Lara, Ali Tamayol, Su Ryon Shin, Albert E Gao, Whitney L Stoppel, Lauren D Black Iii, Ali Khademhosseini, Nasim Annabi
Photocrosslinkable materials have been frequently used for constructing soft and biomimetic hydrogels for tissue engineering. Although ultraviolet (UV) light is commonly used for photocrosslinking such materials, its use has been associated with several biosafety concerns such as DNA damage, accelerated aging of tissues, and cancer. Here we report an injectable visible light crosslinked gelatin-based hydrogel for myocardium regeneration. Mechanical characterization revealed that the compressive moduli of the engineered hydrogels could be tuned in the range of 5-56 kPa by changing the concentrations of the initiator, co-initiator and co-monomer in the precursor formulation...
August 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800128/adult-cardiac-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-robustly-myogenic-c-kit-expression-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-their-identification
#2
Carla Vicinanza, Iolanda Aquila, Mariangela Scalise, Francesca Cristiano, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Teresa Mancuso, Pina Marotta, Walter Sacco, Fiona C Lewis, Liam Couch, Victoria Shone, Giulia Gritti, Annalaura Torella, Andrew J Smith, Cesare Mn Terracciano, Domenico Britti, Pierangelo Veltri, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Daniele Torella
Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit(pos)) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit(pos) cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit(pos) cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770214/cardiac-stem-cells-for-myocardial-regeneration-they-are-not-alone
#3
REVIEW
Yin Yee Leong, Wai Hoe Ng, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Jun Jie Tan
Heart failure is the number one killer worldwide with ~50% of patients dying within 5 years of prognosis. The discovery of stem cells, which are capable of repairing the damaged portion of the heart, has created a field of cardiac regenerative medicine, which explores various types of stem cells, either autologous or endogenous, in the hope of finding the "holy grail" stem cell candidate to slow down and reverse the disease progression. However, there are many challenges that need to be overcome in the search of such a cell candidate...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770021/effects-of-antioxidant-supplements-on-the-survival-and-differentiation-of-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Sara Shaban, Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El-Husseny, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Amr Muhammad Abdo Salem, Mediana Mamdouh, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Although physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required to maintain the self-renewal capacity of stem cells, elevated ROS levels can induce chromosomal aberrations, mitochondrial DNA damage, and defective stem cell differentiation. Over the past decade, several studies have shown that antioxidants can not only mitigate oxidative stress and improve stem cell survival but also affect the potency and differentiation of these cells. Further beneficial effects of antioxidants include increasing genomic stability, improving the adhesion of stem cells to culture media, and enabling researchers to manipulate stem cell proliferation by using different doses of antioxidants...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757472/hippo-signaling-pathway-in-cardiovascular-development-and-diseases
#5
Wang Yongyu, Yu Wei, Zhou Bin
Cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death in the world. Understanding the development of cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases will promote the generation of novel preventive and therapeutic strategy. The Hippo pathway is a recently identified signaling cascade that plays a critical role in organ size control, cell proliferation, apoptosis and fate determination of stem cells. Gene knockout and transgenic mouse models have revealed that the Hippo signaling pathway is involved in heart development, cardiomyocyte proliferation, apoptosis, hypertrophy and cardiac regeneration...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751220/the-epicardium-as-a-source-of-multipotent-adult-cardiac-progenitor-cells-their-origin-role-and-fate
#6
REVIEW
Anke M Smits, Esther Dronkers, Marie-José Goumans
Since the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian heart is limited, cardiac injury leads to the formation of scar tissue and thereby increases the risk of developing compensatory heart failure. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic approach but is facing problems with engraftment and clinical feasibility. Targeting an endogenous stem cell population could circumvent these limitations. The epicardium, a membranous layer covering the outside of the myocardium, is an accessible cell population which plays a key role in the developing heart...
July 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745213/emerging-roles-of-meis1-in-cardiac-regeneration-stem-cells-and-cancer
#7
Merve Aksoz, Raife Dilek Turan, Esra Albayrak, Fatih Kocabas
Meis1 is a member of three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) homeodomain transcription factors. Studies in the last decade have shown that Meis1 has crucial roles in cardiac regeneration, stem cell function, and tumorigenesis. We have recently demonstrated that knocking out of Meis1 in adult cardiomyocytes resulted in the induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation. This suggests that targeting of Meis1 might be utilized in the manipulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycle post cardiac injuries. In addition, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) specific deletion of Meis1 leads to in vivo expansion of HSCs pool...
July 24, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744119/spatiotemporal-delivery-of-nanoformulated-liraglutide-for-cardiac-regeneration-after-myocardial-infarction
#8
Quan Qi, Lei Lu, Haiqing Li, Zhize Yuan, Gaoxian Chen, Miao Lin, Zhengwen Ruan, Xiaofeng Ye, Zeyu Xiao, Qiang Zhao
The local, intramyocardial injection of proteins into the infarcted heart is an attractive option to initiate cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). Liraglutide, which was developed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, has been implicated as one of the most promising protein candidates in cardiac regeneration. A significant challenge to the therapeutic use of this protein is its short half-life in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects and long-term retention of liraglutide loaded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NP-liraglutide) on experimental MI...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743269/mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sternum-the-type-of-heart-disease-ischemic-or-valvular-does-not-influence-the-cell-culture-establishment-and-growth-kinetics
#9
Lucinara Dadda Dias, Karina Rabello Casali, Carine Ghem, Melissa Kristocheck da Silva, Grasiele Sausen, Patrícia Bonini Palma, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Renato A K Kalil, Beatriz D Schaan, Nance Beyer Nardi, Melissa Medeiros Markoski
BACKGROUND: In an attempt to increase the therapeutic potential for myocardial regeneration, there is a quest for new cell sources and types for cell therapy protocols. The pathophysiology of heart diseases may affect cellular characteristics and therapeutic results. METHODS: To study the proliferative and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), isolated from bone marrow (BM) of sternum, we made a comparative analysis between samples of patients with ischemic (IHD) or non-ischemic valvular (VHD) heart diseases...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729726/heart-regeneration-and-repair-after-myocardial-infarction-translational-opportunities-for-novel-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Robin P Choudhury, Paul R Riley
Current therapies for heart failure after myocardial infarction are limited and non-curative. Although regenerative approaches are receiving significant attention, clinical efforts that involve transplantation of presumed stem and progenitor cells have largely failed to deliver. Recent studies of endogenous heart regeneration in model organisms, such as zebrafish and neonatal mice, are yielding mechanistic insights into the roles of cardiomyocyte proliferation, resident stem cell niches, neovascularization, the immune system and the extracellular matrix...
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690194/examining-a-role-for-pkg-i%C3%AE-oxidation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Olena Rudyk, Philip Eaton
BACKGROUND: Protein kinase G (PKG) Iα is the end-effector kinase that mediates nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and oxidant-dependent vasorelaxation to maintain blood pressure during health. A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is attenuated NO production, which in part is caused by NO Synthase (NOS) uncoupling, which in turn increases oxidative stress because of superoxide generation. NOS uncoupling promotes PKG Iα oxidation to the interprotein disulfide state, likely mediated by superoxide-derived hydrogen peroxide, and because the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway otherwise negatively regulates oxidation of the kinase to its active disulfide dimeric state...
September 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670973/cellular-mechanisms-underlying-cardiac-engraftment-of-stem-cells
#12
Pushpinder Kanda, Darryl R Davis
Over the past decade, it has become clear that long-term engraftment of any ex vivo expanded cell product transplanted into injured myocardium is modest and all therapeutic regeneration is mediated by stimulation of endogenous repair rather than differentiation of transplanted cells into working myocardium. Given that increasing the retention of transplanted cells boosts myocardial function, focus on the fundamental mechanisms limiting retention and survival of transplanted cells may enable strategies to help to restore normal cardiac function...
July 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670398/microrna-1825-induces-proliferation-of-adult-cardiomyocytes-and-promotes-cardiac-regeneration-post-ischemic-injury
#13
Raghav Pandey, Sebastian Velasquez, Shazia Durrani, Min Jiang, Michelle Neiman, Jeffrey S Crocker, Joshua B Benoit, Jack Rubinstein, Arghya Paul, Rafeeq Ph Ahmed
In mammals, proliferative capacity of cardiomyocytes is lost soon after birth, while zebrafish and other lower organisms like newts are known to regenerate injured hearts even at an adult age. Here, we show that miR-1825 can induce robust proliferation of adult rat cardiomyocytes and can improve cardiac function in-vivo post myocardial infarction. Rat adult cardiomyocytes transfected with miR-1825 showed a significant increase in DNA synthesis, mitosis, cytokinesis, and an increase in cell number when compared to cel-miR-67 transfected control...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667562/the-innate-immune-response-in-myocardial-infarction-repair-and-regeneration
#14
Rebecca Gentek, Guillaume Hoeffel
Following myocardial infarction (MI), resident innate immune cells such as macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, and mast cells rapidly coordinate their function to contain inflammation by removing dying cells and promoting cardiomyocyte replenishment. To sustain local tissue repair functions, hematopoietic progenitors are mobilized from the bone marrow to the spleen to generate subsequent myeloid cells such as monocytes and neutrophils, which are rapidly recruited at the site of MI. A finely tuned balance between local adaptation and recruitment controls the overall outcome of the cardiac tissue regeneration versus repair and scar formation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662151/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-attenuates-cardiac-apoptosis-via-regulation-of-cardiac-mirna-23a-and-mirna-92a-in-a-rat-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#15
Yi-Sun Song, Hyun-Woo Joo, In-Hwa Park, Guang-Yin Shen, Yonggu Lee, Jeong Hun Shin, Hyuck Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim
Bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) therapy improves the recovery of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of BM-MSC-derived paracrine factors and cardiac miRNAs on myocardial regeneration after MI. In our study, MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659386/fate-predetermination-of-cardiac-myocytes-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#16
Isil Tekeli, Anna Garcia-Puig, Mario Notari, Cristina García-Pastor, Isabelle Aujard, Ludovic Jullien, Angel Raya
Adult zebrafish have the remarkable ability to regenerate their heart upon injury, a process that involves limited dedifferentiation and proliferation of spared cardiomyocytes (CMs), and migration of their progeny. During regeneration, proliferating CMs are detected throughout the myocardium, including areas distant to the injury site, but whether all of them are able to contribute to the regenerated tissue remains unknown. Here, we developed a CM-specific, photoinducible genetic labelling system, and show that CMs labelled in embryonic hearts survive and contribute to all three (primordial, trabecular and cortical) layers of the adult zebrafish heart...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655642/the-use-and-abuse-of-cre-lox-recombination-to-identify-adult-cardiomyocyte-renewal-rate-and-origin
#17
REVIEW
Iolanda Aquila, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Pina Marotta, Michele Torella, Vincenzo Mollace, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Daniele Torella
The adult mammalian heart, including the human, is unable to regenerate segmental losses after myocardial infarction. This evidence has been widely and repeatedly used up-to-today to suggest that the myocardium, contrary to most adult tissues, lacks an endogenous stem cell population or more specifically a bona-fide cardiomyocyte-generating progenitor cell of biological significance. In the last 15 years, however, the field has slowly evolved from the dogma that no new cardiomyocytes were produced from shortly after birth to the present consensus that new cardiomyocytes are formed throughout lifespan...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650345/preexisting-endothelial-cells-mediate-cardiac-neovascularization-after-injury
#18
Lingjuan He, Xiuzhen Huang, Onur Kanisicak, Yi Li, Yue Wang, Yan Li, Wenjuan Pu, Qiaozhen Liu, Hui Zhang, Xueying Tian, Huan Zhao, Xiuxiu Liu, Shaohua Zhang, Yu Nie, Shengshou Hu, Xiang Miao, Qing-Dong Wang, Fengchao Wang, Ting Chen, Qingbo Xu, Kathy O Lui, Jeffery D Molkentin, Bin Zhou
The mechanisms that promote the generation of new coronary vasculature during cardiac homeostasis and after injury remain a fundamental and clinically important area of study in the cardiovascular field. Recently, it was reported that mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition (MEndoT) contributes to substantial numbers of coronary endothelial cells after myocardial infarction. Therefore, the MEndoT has been proposed as a paradigm mediating neovascularization and is considered a promising therapeutic target in cardiac regeneration...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649106/-aging-and-homeostasis-aging-control-through-cardiac-regenerative-medicine
#19
Katsuhisa Matsuura
Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the developed countries and various physical conditions in heart failure attribute to the impaired physical activities, which promotes aging. The principle cause of heart failure is the loss of self-renewal ability of cardiomyocytes in various injuries such as myocardial infarction. The replacement of injured tissues with the regenerated human myocardial tissues using technologies on tissue engineering and iPS cell will provide us the novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure and the related aging issues...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646026/exosomes-promising-sacks-for-treating-ischemic-heart-disease
#20
Gui-Hao Chen, Jun Xu, Yue-Jin Yang
Ischemic heart disease(IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite development of continuously improving therapeutic strategies, morbidity and mortality of patients with IHD remains relatively high. Exosomes are a subpopulation of vesicles that are universally recognized as major mediators in intercellular communication. Numerous preclinical studies showed that these tiny vesicles were protective in IHD, through such actions as alleviating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, promoting angiogenesis, inhibiting fibrosis and facilitating cardiac regeneration...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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