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Myocardial regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#1
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878328/targeting-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-for-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Y Wang, P Lu, D Zhao, J Sheng
The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is involved in the angiogenesis and development of the coronary vasculature in the embryonic heart. Recently, the Hh signal pathway has emerged as an important regulator that can increase cardiomyocyte proliferation, inhibit cardiomyocyte death and apoptosis, recruit endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs) into sites of myocardial ischemia, and direct stem cells to differentiate into cardiac muscle lineage. Experimental studies have tried to target the Hh signaling pathway for cardiac repair and regeneration...
November 22, 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875683/redox-paradox-can-hypoxia-heal-ischemic-hearts
#3
Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Sylvia M Evans
Adult cardiomyocytes are largely thought to lack proliferative and therefore regenerative potential. Reporting in Nature, Nakada et al. (2016) find that a hypoxic regime reduces mitochondrial metabolism and promotes proliferation in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, resulting in increased regeneration following myocardial infarction. These findings suggest the potential to transform post-MI care.
November 21, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866022/novel-approaches-toward-the-generation-of-bioscaffolds-as-a-potential-therapy-in-cardiovascular-tissue-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Fahimeh Shahabipour, Maciej Banach, Thomas P Johnston, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cardiovascular disease associated with myocardial infarction (MI) is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide, in part, due to the limited regenerative capacity of tissues. Although various approaches have been employed to generate bioartificial myocardial tissues, including surgical reconstruction and the use of biosynthetic or biological cell-free grafts, many challenges still remain. Natural biomaterials based on decellularization have made significant inroads into the development of favorable biomatrices for myocardial tissue regeneration...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859990/prospects-for-improving-neovascularisation-of-the-ischaemic-heart-lessons-from-development
#5
Nicola Smart
Neovascularisation of the ischaemic myocardium post-infarction is necessary to restore blood flow to vulnerable cardiomyocytes and will be indispensable for prospective regenerative strategies, to perfuse newly formed myocardium. Therapeutic attempts to enhance new vessel formation have, to date, yielded modest clinical benefits and innovative approaches are now needed. Intrinsic mechanisms are initiated by the heart in an attempt to rebuild injured vessels but these are poorly understood. Insight into the underlying mechanisms may reveal targets for therapeutically augmenting this low-level neovascular response...
November 17, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844250/differential-response-of-human-cardiac-stem-cells-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury
#6
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are popularly used in stem cell therapy for myocardial regeneration. The cell type that survives and maintains stem cell characteristics in the adverse microenvironment following ischemia-reperfusion injury is presumed to be ideal for transplantation. The study was therefore aimed at identifying the cell type with relatively greater resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury. CDCs were isolated from the right atrial appendage and MSCs from bone marrow of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
November 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837563/stem-cell-banking-and-its-impact-on-cardiac-regenerative-medicine
#7
Silvana Bardelli, Marco Moccetti
Cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, are the most frequent cause of death annually, even higher than any other pathologies. Specifically, patients who suffer from myocardial infarction may encounter adverse remodeling processes of the heart that can ultimately lead to heart failure. Prognosis of patients affected by heart failure is very poor with 5-year mortality close to 50 %. Despite the impressive progress in the clinical treatment of heart failure in recent years, heart transplantation is still required to avoid death as the result of the inexorable decline in cardiac function...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834668/chemical-enhancement-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#8
Tamer M A Mohamed, Nicole R Stone, Emily C Berry, Ethan Radzinsky, Yu Huang, Karishma Pratt, Yen-Sin Ang, Pengzhi Yu, Haixia Wang, Shibing Tang, Sergey Magnitsky, Sheng Ding, Kathryn N Ivey, Deepak Srivastava
BACKGROUND: -Reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) in situ represents a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration. A combination of three cardiac transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c and Tbx5 (GMT), can convert fibroblasts into iCMs, albeit with low efficiency in vitro METHODS: -We screened 5,500 compounds in primary cardiac fibroblasts to identify the pathways that can be modulated to enhance cardiomyocyte reprogramming. RESULTS: -We found that a combination of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitor SB431542 and the WNT inhibitor XAV939 increased reprogramming efficiency eight-fold when added to GMT-overexpressing cardiac fibroblasts...
November 10, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823982/angptl8-reverses-established-adriamycin-cardiomyopathy-by-stimulating-adult-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#9
Shuyuan Chen, Jiaxi Chen, Xing-Li Meng, Jin-Song Shen, Jing Huang, Pintong Huang, Zhaoxia Pu, Nathan H McNeill, Paul A Grayburn
Established adriamycin cardiomyopathy is a lethal disease. When congestive heart failure develops, mortality is approximately 50% in a year. It has been known that ANGPTLs has various functions in lipid metabolism, inflammation, cancer cell invasion, hematopoietic stem activity and diabetes. We hypothesized that ANGPTL8 is capable of maintaining heart function by stimulating adult cardiac progenitor cells to initiate myocardial regeneration. We employed UTMD to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids with the human ANGPTL8 gene to the liver of rats with adriamycin cardiomyopathy...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822229/micro-and-macrostructured-plga-gelatin-scaffolds-promote-early-cardiogenic-commitment-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#10
Caterina Cristallini, Elisa Cibrario Rocchietti, Mariacristina Gagliardi, Leonardo Mortati, Silvia Saviozzi, Elena Bellotti, Valentina Turinetto, Maria Paola Sassi, Niccoletta Barbani, Claudia Giachino
The biomaterial scaffold plays a key role in most tissue engineering strategies. Its surface properties, micropatterning, degradation, and mechanical features affect not only the generation of the tissue construct in vitro, but also its in vivo functionality. The area of myocardial tissue engineering still faces significant difficulties and challenges in the design of bioactive scaffolds, which allow composition variation to accommodate divergence in the evolving myocardial structure. Here we aimed at verifying if a microstructured bioartificial scaffold alone can provoke an effect on stem cell behavior...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807762/stem-cell-derived-exosomes-autophagy-extracellular-matrix-turnover-and-mirnas-in-cardiac-regeneration-during-stem-cell-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Priyanka Prathipati, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra
Stem cell therapy (SCT) raises the hope for cardiac regeneration in ischemic hearts. However, underlying molecular mechanisms for repair of dead myocardium by SCT in the ischemic heart is poorly understood. Growing evidences suggest that cardiac matrix stiffness and differential expressions of miRNAs play a crucial role in stem cell survival and differentiation. However, their roles on transplanted stem cells, for myocardial repair of the ischemic heart, remain unclear. Transplanted stem cells may act in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner to regenerate the dead myocardium...
November 2, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807283/cardiac-repair-in-guinea-pigs-with-human-engineered-heart-tissue-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Florian Weinberger, Kaja Breckwoldt, Simon Pecha, Allen Kelly, Birgit Geertz, Jutta Starbatty, Timur Yorgan, Kai-Hung Cheng, Katrin Lessmann, Tomas Stolen, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, Godfrey Smith, Hermann Reichenspurner, Arne Hansen, Thomas Eschenhagen
Myocardial injury results in a loss of contractile tissue mass that, in the absence of efficient regeneration, is essentially irreversible. Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes has beneficial but variable effects. We created human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) strips from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and hiPSC-derived endothelial cells. The hEHTs were transplanted onto large defects (22% of the left ventricular wall, 35% decline in left ventricular function) of guinea pig hearts 7 days after cryoinjury, and the results were compared with those obtained with human endothelial cell patches (hEETs) or cell-free patches...
November 2, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799944/repair-injured-heart-by-regulating-cardiac-regenerative-signals
#13
REVIEW
Wen-Feng Cai, Guan-Sheng Liu, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Zhi-Li Wen, Yigang Wang
Cardiac regeneration is a homeostatic cardiogenic process by which the sections of malfunctioning adult cardiovascular tissues are repaired and renewed employing a combination of both cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, while high-quality regeneration can be performed in amphibians and zebrafish hearts, mammalian hearts do not respond in kind. Indeed, a long-term loss of proliferative capacity in mammalian adult cardiomyocytes in combination with dysregulated induction of tissue fibrosis impairs mammalian endogenous heart regenerative capacity, leading to deleterious cardiac remodeling at the end stage of heart failure...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798600/hypoxia-induces-heart-regeneration-in-adult-mice
#14
Yuji Nakada, Diana C Canseco, SuWannee Thet, Salim Abdisalaam, Aroumougame Asaithamby, Celio X Santos, Ajay Shah, Hua Zhang, James E Faber, Michael T Kinter, Luke I Szweda, Chao Xing, Ralph Deberardinis, Orhan Oz, Zhigang Lu, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Wataru Kimura, Hesham A Sadek
The adult mammalian heart is incapable of regeneration following cardiomyocyte loss, which underpins the devastating impact of cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has become clear that the mammalian heart is not a post-mitotic organ. For example, the neonatal heart is capable of regenerating lost myocardium(1), and the adult heart is capable of modest self-renewal(2,3). In both these scenarios, cardiomyocyte renewal occurs through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and is regulated by aerobic respiration-mediated oxidative DNA damage(4,5)...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798352/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-p38-target-regenerating-islet-derived-3%C3%AE-expression-is-upregulated-in-cardiac-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-heart
#15
Hanna Säkkinen, Jani Aro, Leena Kaikkonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Juha Näpänkangas, Heikki Tokola, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Regenerating islet-derived 3γ (Reg3γ) is a multifunctional protein, associated with various tissue injuries and inflammatory states. Since chronic inflammation is characteristics also for heart failure, the aim of this study was to characterize Reg3γ expression in cardiac inflammatory conditions. Reg3γ expression was studied in experimental rat models of myocardial infarction (MI) and pressure overload in vivo. For cell culture studies neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were used. In addition, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3b and p38α MAPK in vivo and in vitro was performed...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796891/cardiac-telocytes-in-regeneration-of-myocardium-after-myocardial-infarction
#16
Liao Zhaofu, Cai Dongqing
Recent research progress has revealed that a novel type of interstitial cells termed cardiac telocytes (CTs) is found in the interstitium of the heart. We demonstrated that CTs are distributed both longitudinally and within the cross network in the myocardium and that the density of CTs in the atrium-atria and base of the myocardium is higher than that in the middle of the myocardium, while the density of CTs in the epicardium is higher than that in the endocardium. In addition, we documented, for the first time, that the network of CTs in the infarct zone of the myocardium is destroyed during myocardial infarction (MI)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796884/telocytes-in-cardiac-tissue-architecture-and-development
#17
Daniele Bani
The heart is a paradigm of organ provided with unique three-dimensional tissue architecture that is molded during complex organogenesis processes and is required for the heart's physiological function. The cardiac stroma plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of the normal heart architecture, as well as of its changes occurring in cardiac diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac stroma, including the epicardium, myocardial interstitium, and endocardium, contains typical telocytes: these cells establish complex spatial relationships with cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells suggestive for a regulatory role over three-dimensional organization of heart tissues...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790620/immune-modulation-of-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration-the-art-of-mending-broken-hearts
#18
REVIEW
Ivana Zlatanova, Cristina Pinto, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre
The accumulation of immune cells is among the earliest responses that manifest in the cardiac tissue after injury. Both innate and adaptive immunity coordinate distinct and mutually non-exclusive events governing cardiac repair, including elimination of the cellular debris, compensatory growth of the remaining cardiac tissue, activation of resident or circulating precursor cells, quantitative and qualitative modifications of the vascular network, and formation of a fibrotic scar. The present review summarizes the mounting evidence suggesting that the inflammatory response also guides the regenerative process following cardiac damage...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786170/bioengineering-of-injectable-encapsulated-aggregates-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-therapy-of-myocardial-infarction
#19
Shuting Zhao, Zhaobin Xu, Hai Wang, Benjamin E Reese, Liubov V Gushchina, Meng Jiang, Pranay Agarwal, Jiangsheng Xu, Mingjun Zhang, Rulong Shen, Zhenguo Liu, Noah Weisleder, Xiaoming He
It is difficult to achieve minimally invasive injectable cell delivery while maintaining high cell retention and animal survival for in vivo stem cell therapy of myocardial infarction. Here we show that pluripotent stem cell aggregates pre-differentiated into the early cardiac lineage and encapsulated in a biocompatible and biodegradable micromatrix, are suitable for injectable delivery. This method significantly improves the survival of the injected cells by more than six-fold compared with the conventional practice of injecting single cells, and effectively prevents teratoma formation...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780890/novel-protective-effects-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-rats-and-its-molecular-mechanisms
#20
Fenfen Ma, Wenwen Li, Xinghui Li, Ba Hieu Tran, Rinkiko Suguro, Ruijuan Guan, Cuilan Hou, Huijuan Wang, Aijie Zhang, Yichun Zhu, YiZhun Zhu
Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has shown the ability to regenerate tissue by promoting cell proliferation. Here, we investigated for the first time whether PEMF treatment could improve the myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and uncovered its underlying mechanisms. In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field(PEMF)has a novel effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion(I/R)injury. The number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were increased in PEMF treating rats...
October 25, 2016: Bioscience Reports
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