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Myocardial regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936745/circulating-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
Yihua Bei, Ting Chen, Daniel Dumitru Banciu, Dragos Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
Circulating exosomes could arrive in distant tissues via blood circulation, thus directly communicating with target cells and rapidly regulating intracellular signalings. Circulating exosomes and exosomal cargos are critically involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Circulating exosomes enriched with various types of biological molecules can be changed not only in the number but also in the composite cargos upon cardiac injury, such as myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and sepsis cardiomyopathy, which may further influence cardiomyocyte function and contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923324/regenerating-heart-using-a-novel-compound-and-human-wharton-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Shahram Rabbani, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad Imani, Mohammad Sahebjam, Ali Ghiaseddin, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Jalil Majd Ardakani, Maryam Tajik Rostami, Arash Jalali, Bahmanshir Mousanassab, Mahsa Kheradmandi, Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is a major problem in health system and most conventional therapy is not led to restoration of the health. Stem cell therapy is a method to regenerate the heart but today appropriate cell source and scaffold selection as extracellular matrix to achieve the best effect is disputing. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study a combination of human Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJMSCs) with a novel compound consisting polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid and chitosan is presented to heart regeneration...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903760/feasibility-of-detecting-myocardial-infarction-in-the-sheep-fetus-using-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cmr-imaging
#3
An Qi Duan, Mitchell C Lock, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Jack R Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Christopher K Macgowan, Mike Seed, Janna L Morrison
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has enabled the accurate assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, LGE CMR has not been performed successfully in the fetus, where it could be useful for animal studies of interventions to promote cardiac regeneration. We believe that LGE imaging could allow us to document the presence, extent and effect of MI in utero and would thereby expand our capacity for conducting fetal sheep MI research...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900504/platelet-targeted-delivery-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-to-the-ischemic-heart-restores-cardiac-function-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Melanie Ziegler, Xiaowei Wang, Bock Lim, Ephraem Leitner, Franco Klingberg, Victoria Ching, Yu Yao, Dexing Huang, Xiao-Ming Gao, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Jody J Haigh, Alex Bobik, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Ingo Ahrens, Karlheinz Peter
One of the major hurdles in intravenous regenerative cell therapy is the low homing efficiency to the area where these cells are needed. To increase cell homing toward areas of myocardial damage, we developed a bispecific tandem single-chain antibody (Tand-scFvSca-1+GPIIb/IIIa) that binds with high affinity to activated platelets via the activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa receptor, and to a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which express the stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) receptor. Methods: The Tand-scFvSca-1+GPIIb/IIIa was engineered, characterized and tested in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury applying left coronary artery occlusion for 60 min...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895052/the-effects-of-periostin-in-a-rat-model-of-isoproterenol-mediated-cardiotoxicity
#5
Mahmut Sözmen, Alparslan K Devrim, Yonca B Kabak, Tuba Devrim, Mert Sudagidan
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family, and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The present study was designed to investigate cardioprotective effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration in a rat model of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury. The experiment was performed on 84 adult male Sprague Dawley rats in 4 groups (n = 21): control group (1), periostin-treated group (2), ISO-treated group (3), and ISO + periostin-treated group (4)...
September 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882138/a-dual-therapy-of-off-pump-temporary-left-ventricular-extracorporeal-device-and-amniotic-stem-cell-for-cardiogenic-shock
#6
Toshinobu Kazui, Phat L Tran, Tia R Pilikian, Katie M Marsh, Raymond Runyan, John Konhilas, Richard Smith, Zain I Khalpey
BACKGROUND: Temporary mechanical circulatory support device without sternotomy has been highly advocated for severe cardiogenic shock patient but little is known when coupled with amniotic stem cell therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: This case reports the first dual therapy of temporary left ventricular extracorporeal device CentriMag with distal banding technique and human amniotic stem cell injection for treating a severe refractory cardiogenic shock of an 68-year-old female patient...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873339/non-invasive-strategies-for-stimulating-endogenous-repair-and-regenerative-mechanisms-in-the-damaged-heart
#7
REVIEW
Fiona C Lewis, Siri Deva Kumar, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes
The adult myocardium, including human, harbours a population of resident multi-potent cardiac stem cells (CSCs), which when stimulated under the right conditions can give rise to new cardiomyocytes and vasculature. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern CSC biology and their role in myocardial regeneration will allow the design and development of optimal therapeutic interventions. It is now evident that different growth factors and cytokines govern CSC survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as playing a role in activating cardiac repair mechanisms such as improving angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte survival and limiting fibrosis...
September 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853068/immunohistochemical-study-of-the-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-kdr-flk-1-during-myocardial-infarction
#8
M G Klinnikova, M A Bakarev, D B Nikityuk, E L Lushnikova
Immunohistochemical study showed that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (KDR/Flk-1) is expressed in the cytoplasm of viable cardiomyocytes, mononuclear cells of the granulation tissue, and smooth muscle cells of intramural arteries at all terms of postinfarction reparative regeneration. Cardiomyocytes were highly heterogeneous by the intensity of staining. This feature was typical of cardiomyocytes in the ischemic area (no staining), as well as within various muscle bundles and one muscle bundle...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844036/from-state-of-the-art-cell-therapy-to-endogenous-cardiac-repair
#9
Werner Mohl, Timothy D Henry, Dejan Milasinovic, Filomain Nguemo, Juergen Hescheler, Emerson C Perin
Clinical heart failure prevention and contemporary therapy often involve breaking the vicious cycle of global haemodynamic consequences of myocardial decay. The lack of effective regenerative therapies results in a primary focus on preventing further deterioration of cardiac performance. The cellular transplantation hypothesis has been evaluated in many different preclinical models and a handful of important clinical trials. The primary expectation that cellular transplants will be embedded into failing myocardium and fuse with existing functioning cells appears unlikely...
August 25, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843326/valve-interventions-in-utero-understanding-the-timing-indications-and-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Aleksander Sizarov, Younes Boudjemline
Efficient use of fetal echocardiography has enabled early detection of congenital heart disease and of its often irreversible complications, such as ventricular hypoplasia in case of severe stenosis of the semilunar valves. Experience of the past 25 years has proved that balloon dilatation of the severely stenotic or atretic valve in fetuses as early as the 23rd week of gestation is technically feasible with a learning curve. Reported results regarding the ultimate biventricular circulation outcome after fetal valve intervention are at best controversial, with the desired improvements in the quality of life and cost-benefits of the postnatal treatment being as yet unconfirmed...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836732/concise-review-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cardiovascular-regeneration-emerging-research-directions-and-clinical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Marcin Majka, Maciej Sułkowski, Bogna Badyra, Piotr Musiałek
Experimental and early clinical data suggest that, due to several unique properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be more effective than other cell types for diseases that are difficult to treat or untreatable. Owing to their ease of isolation and culture as well as their secretory and immunomodulatory abilities, MSCs are the most promising option in the field of cell-based therapies. Although MSCs from various sources share several common characteristics, they also exhibit several important differences...
August 24, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832034/surface-modified-polymers-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#12
REVIEW
Ambigapathi Moorthi, Yu-Chang Tyan, Tze-Wen Chung
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to myocardial infarction and heart failure, is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The physiological system cannot significantly regenerate the capabilities of a damaged heart. The current treatment involves pharmacological and surgical interventions; however, less invasive and more cost-effective approaches are sought. Such new approaches are developed to induce tissue regeneration following injury. Hence, regenerative medicine plays a key role in treating CVD...
August 23, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828051/telocytes-a-hope-for-cardiac-repair-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Ruxandra Dragoi Galrinho, Catalin Gabriel Manole, Dragos Vinereanu
Cardiovascular diseases, particularly myocardial infarction, remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even though pharmacological and interventional therapies improved significantly in the last years. Moreover, despite encouraging results of cell - based therapies in experimental myocardial infarction models, clinical trials showed inconsistent and modest efficiency. Therefore the next step should be the revealing of a new cell type, capable of regenerating the damaged myocardium. Telocytes (TCs), a relatively new type of interstitial cells, were described few years ago and are credited with important roles in regenerative therapies...
December 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827151/endothelial-and-cardiac-progenitor-cells-for-cardiovascular-repair-a-controversial-paradigm-in-cell-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Vanessa Bianconi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Petri Kovanen, Francesco Bagaglia, Biagio Ricciuti, Paolo Calabrò, Giuseppe Patti, Matteo Pirro
Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into cardiovascular cell lineages and to stimulate tissue regeneration in a paracrine/autocrine manner; thus, they have been extensively studied as candidate cell sources for cardiovascular regeneration. Several preclinical and clinical studies addressing the therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in cardiovascular diseases have been performed. For instance, autologous EPC transplantation and EPC mobilization through pharmacological agents contributed to vascular repair and neovascularization in different animal models of limb ischemia and myocardial infarction...
August 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821329/cardiac-progenitor-cell-recruitment-drives-fetal-cardiac-regeneration-by-enhanced-angiogenesis
#15
Carlos Zgheib, Maggie M Hodges, Myron W Allukian, Junwang Xu, Kara L Spiller, Joseph H Gorman, Robert C Gorman, Kenneth W Liechty
BACKGROUND: In contrast to adults, the fetal response to myocardial infarction (MI) is regenerative, requiring the recruitment of cardiac progenitor cells to replace infarcted myocardium. Macrophage contribution to tissue repair depends on their phenotype: M1 are proinflammatory and initiate angiogenesis; M2a are profibrotic and contribute to blood vessels maturation; and M2c are proremodeling and proangiogenesis. The goal of the present study was to expand on this work by examining cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, and the role of macrophages in promoting angiogenesis and cardiac regeneration in the fetal heart after MI...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819303/automated-segmentation-of-light-sheet-fluorescent-imaging-to-characterize-experimental-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-injury-and-repair
#16
René R Sevag Packard, Kyung In Baek, Tyler Beebe, Nelson Jen, Yichen Ding, Feng Shi, Peng Fei, Bong Jin Kang, Po-Heng Chen, Jonathan Gau, Michael Chen, Jonathan Y Tang, Yu-Huan Shih, Yonghe Ding, Debiao Li, Xiaolei Xu, Tzung K Hsiai
This study sought to develop an automated segmentation approach based on histogram analysis of raw axial images acquired by light-sheet fluorescent imaging (LSFI) to establish rapid reconstruction of the 3-D zebrafish cardiac architecture in response to doxorubicin-induced injury and repair. Input images underwent a 4-step automated image segmentation process consisting of stationary noise removal, histogram equalization, adaptive thresholding, and image fusion followed by 3-D reconstruction. We applied this method to 3-month old zebrafish injected intraperitoneally with doxorubicin followed by LSFI at 3, 30, and 60 days post-injection...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819182/impact-of-extracellular-matrix-on-engraftment-and-maturation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarct-model
#17
Tatsuki Ogasawara, Satomi Okano, Hajime Ichimura, Shin Kadota, Yuki Tanaka, Itsunari Minami, Motonari Uesugi, Yuko Wada, Naoto Saito, Kenji Okada, Koichiro Kuwahara, Yuji Shiba
Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes show great promise in regenerating the heart after myocardial infarction; however, several uncertainties exist that must be addressed before clinical trials. One practical issue is graft survival following transplantation. Although a pro-survival cocktail with Matrigel has been shown to enhance graft survival, the use of Matrigel may not be clinically feasible. The purpose of this study was to test whether a hyaluronan-based hydrogel, HyStem, could be a substitute for Matrigel...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819000/hypoxia-induced-myocardial-regeneration
#18
Wataru Kimura, Yuji Nakada, Hesham A Sadek
The underlying cause of systolic heart failure is the inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate damaged myocardium. In contrast, some vertebrate species and immature mammals are capable of full cardiac regeneration following multiple types of injury through cardiomyocyte proliferation. Little is known about what distinguishes proliferative cardiomyocytes from terminally differentiated, non-proliferative cardiomyocytes. Recently, several reports have suggested that oxygen metabolism and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in regulating the proliferative capacity of mammalian cardiomyocytes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805830/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis-of-visible-light-crosslinkable-gelatin-methacryloyl-gelma-hydrogels
#19
Iman Noshadi, Seonki Hong, Kelly E Sullivan, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo-Lara, Ali Tamayol, Su Ryon Shin, Albert E Gao, Whitney L Stoppel, Lauren D Black Iii, Ali Khademhosseini, Nasim Annabi
Photocrosslinkable materials have been frequently used for constructing soft and biomimetic hydrogels for tissue engineering. Although ultraviolet (UV) light is commonly used for photocrosslinking such materials, its use has been associated with several biosafety concerns such as DNA damage, accelerated aging of tissues, and cancer. Here we report an injectable visible light crosslinked gelatin-based hydrogel for myocardium regeneration. Mechanical characterization revealed that the compressive moduli of the engineered hydrogels could be tuned in the range of 5-56 kPa by changing the concentrations of the initiator, co-initiator and co-monomer in the precursor formulation...
August 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800128/adult-cardiac-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-robustly-myogenic-c-kit-expression-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-their-identification
#20
Carla Vicinanza, Iolanda Aquila, Mariangela Scalise, Francesca Cristiano, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Teresa Mancuso, Pina Marotta, Walter Sacco, Fiona C Lewis, Liam Couch, Victoria Shone, Giulia Gritti, Annalaura Torella, Andrew J Smith, Cesare Mn Terracciano, Domenico Britti, Pierangelo Veltri, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Daniele Torella
Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit(pos)) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit(pos) cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit(pos) cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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