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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921765/assessing-fire-impacts-on-the-carbon-stability-of-fire-tolerant-forests
#1
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919820/prediction-models-for-the-mortality-risk-in-chronic-dialysis-patients-a-systematic-review-and-independent-external-validation-study
#2
Chava L Ramspek, Pauline Wm Voskamp, Frans J van Ittersum, Raymond T Krediet, Friedo W Dekker, Merel van Diepen
OBJECTIVE: In medicine, many more prediction models have been developed than are implemented or used in clinical practice. These models cannot be recommended for clinical use before external validity is established. Though various models to predict mortality in dialysis patients have been published, very few have been validated and none are used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to identify existing models for predicting mortality in dialysis patients through a review and subsequently to externally validate these models in the same large independent patient cohort, in order to assess and compare their predictive capacities...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919602/comparative-study-of-cytology-and-histopathology-of-cervical-lesion-in-via-positive-patients-and-its-correlation-with-high-risk-human-papilloma-virus
#3
N P Ansari, F M Saleh, S M Shahida, E N Rahman
Cervical cancer is the second most frequent type of cancer and leading cause of mortality among women worldwide. The present study was undertaken to assess precancerous and cancerous cervical lesion by cytology as well as HPV DNA identification and their comparison with histopathology in VIA positive cases. This descriptive, cross-sectional type of observational study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Mymensingh Medical College in collaboration with the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Department of Microbiology and Hygiene in Bangladesh Agriculture University for HPV DNA detection from July 2012 to June 2013...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919115/global-regional-and-national-under-5-mortality-adult-mortality-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-1970-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919101/3-4%C3%A2-6-implications-of-the-stratification-of-localised-gleason-7-prostate-cancer-by-number-and-percentage-of-positive-biopsy-cores-in-selecting-patients-for-active-surveillance
#5
J L Ruiz-Cerdá, L Lorenzo Soriano, D Ramos-Soler, L Marzullo-Zucchet, A Loras Monfort, F Boronat Tormo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the number and percentage of positive biopsy cores identify a Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer (PC) subgroup of similar biologic behaviour to Gleason 3+3. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An observational post-radical prostatectomy study was conducted of a cohort of 799 patients with localised low-risk (n=582, Gleason 6, PSA <10ng/ml and cT1c-2a) and favourable intermediate PC (n=217, Gleason 3+4, PSA ≤10 ng/ml and pT2abc). The Gleason 3+4 tumours were stratified by number (≤3 vs...
September 14, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917493/usefulness-of-myocardial-annular-velocity-change-during-mental-stress-to-predict-cardiovascular-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-from-the-responses-of-mental-stress-induced-myocardial-ischemia-to-escitalopram-treatment-trial
#6
Fawaz Alenezi, Beverly H Brummett, Stephen H Boyle, Zainab Samad, Michael A Babyak, Nabil Alzaeim, Jennifer Wilson, Minna M D Romano, Julia L Sun, Mads Ersboll, Christopher M O'Connor, Eric J Velazquez, Wei Jiang
Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is common and a prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study aimed at examining associations between mental stress-induced myocardial annular velocity (MAV) and cardiovascular outcome in patients with CAD. MAV, specifically, diastolic early (e'), diastolic late (a'), and systolic (s') velocities were obtained at rest and during mental stress testing in 224 patients with clinically stable CAD. Using Cox regression models, age, sex, and baseline-adjusted mental stress-induced MAV measures were examined as predictors of a priori defined composite event term that comprised all-cause mortality and/or nonfatal cardiovascular events, resulting in an unplanned hospitalization (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE])...
July 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917160/is-magnet%C3%A2-recognition-associated-with-improved-outcomes-among-critically-ill-children-treated-at-freestanding-children-s-hospitals
#7
Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Kavisha M Shah, Jeffrey M Gossett, Joshua A Daily, Paul M Seib, Punkaj Gupta
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on high-quality care, we designed this study to evaluate the relationship between Magnet® recognition and patient outcomes in pediatric critical care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from an existing administrative national database. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting and multivariate models to compare outcomes between two study groups after adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 823,634 pediatric patients from 41 centers were included...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916667/cost-effectiveness-of-thrombectomy-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-the-thrace-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Hamza Achit, Marc Soudant, Kossar Hosseini, Aurélie Bannay, Jonathan Epstein, Serge Bracard, Francis Guillemin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The benefit of mechanical thrombectomy added to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke has been largely demonstrated. However, evidence of the economic incentive of this strategy is still limited, especially in the context of a randomized controlled trial. We aimed to analyze whether mechanical thrombectomy combined with IVT (IVMT) is cost-effective when compared with IVT alone. METHODS: Individual-level cost and outcome data were collected in the THRACE randomized controlled trial (Thrombectomie des Artères Cerébrales) including patients with acute ischemic stroke...
September 15, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916240/association-between-red-blood-cell-distribution-width-and-all-cause-mortality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Tao Zhang, Jing Li, Yan Lin, Hongtao Yang, Shili Cao
BACKGROUND: Considering results among previous studies regarding the relationship of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, we aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the potential association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature using electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Embase and Web of Science) to identify the studies reporting the association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915258/rapid-emergency-medicine-score-a-novel-prognostic-tool-for-predicting-the-outcomes-of-adult-patients-with-hepatic-portal-venous-gas-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Chen-June Seak, David Hung-Tsang Yen, Chip-Jin Ng, Yon-Cheong Wong, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Joanna Chen-Yeen Seak, Hsien-Yi Chen, Chen-Ken Seak
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the performance of Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS), and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in ascertaining the severity of illness and predicting the mortality of adult hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This will assist emergency physicians (EPs) in risk stratification. METHODS: Data for 66 adult HPVG patients who visited the EDs of 2 research hospitals between October 1999 and April 2016 were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914396/the-expected-benefit-of-preventive-mastectomy-on-breast-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-brca-mutation-carriers-by-age-at-mastectomy
#11
Vasily Giannakeas, Steven A Narod
PURPOSE: Preventive breast surgery is offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers to prevent breast cancer incidence and mortality. The clinical benefit of preventive mastectomy can be measured in several ways, including extension of life expectancy (mean years of life gained) and by estimating the probability of surviving until age 80. We sought to estimate the expected benefit of a preventive mastectomy at various ages, using these indices of mortality, by simulating hypothetical cohorts of women...
September 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913361/insulin-resistance-predicts-atherogenic-lipoprotein-profile-in-nondiabetic-subjects
#12
Flávia De C Cartolano, Gabriela D Dias, Maria C P de Freitas, Antônio M Figueiredo Neto, Nágila R T Damasceno
BACKGROUND: Atherogenic diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of insulin resistance (IR) in lipid metabolism in preclinical stages is generally underreported. For that, we evaluated the capacity of IR to predict an atherogenic lipid subfraction profile. METHODS: Complete clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis (lipid, glucose profile, LDL, and HDL subfractions and LDL phenotype and size) were performed in 181 patients...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913146/fetomaternal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-hepatitis-e-infection-still-an-important-fetomaternal-killer-with-an-unresolved-mystery-of-increased-virulence-in-pregnancy
#13
Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis is a prevalent infection in developing countries. While hepatitis B and C are deepening their roots in the developed world, hepatitis A and E are common in the developing world. The uniqueness of hepatitis is in its transformation from a relatively self-limiting disease in the non-pregnant state, to a highly virulent disease during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, for a period of six months from June 2016 to November 2016 [probably during an endemic peak of hepatitis E virus (HEV)] to observe the clinical outcomes in HEV-infected pregnant women...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912508/use-of-anthropogenic-linear-features-by-two-medium-sized-carnivores-in-reserved-and-agricultural-landscapes
#14
Georgina E Andersen, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Menna E Jones
Many carnivores are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. These changes create linear features and habitat edges that can facilitate foraging and/or travel. To understand the significance of anthropogenic linear features in the ecology of carnivores, fine-scaled studies are needed. We studied two medium-sized carnivores: the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the near threatened spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), in a mixed landscape of conservation and agricultural land. Using GPS tracking, we investigated their use of intact habitat versus linear features such as roads, fences and the pasture/cover interface...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911046/animal-models-for-studying-triazole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#15
Russell E Lewis, Paul E Verweij
Infections caused by triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus are associated with a higher probability of treatment failure and mortality. Because clinical experience in managing these infections is still limited, mouse models of invasive aspergillosis fulfill a critical void for studying treatment regimens designed to overcome resistance. The type of immunosuppression, the route of infection, the timing of antifungal administration, and the end points used to assess antifungal activity affect the interpretation of data from these models...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910913/-effect-of-transcutaneous-oximetry-on-prognosis-of-patients-with-severe-acute-respiratory-failure-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#16
L Dong, X H Zhang, F M Liang, T Yang, J Yan, Z Yan, L Li
Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of transcutaneous oximetry in patients with severe acute respiratory failure receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO). Methods: Forty-nine patients diagnosed as severe acute respiratory failure receiving Venous-Venous(V-V)ECMO were enrolled from January 2013 to December 2015 in intensive care unit(ICU) of Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University.The 10-min oxygen challenge test was performed using transcutaneous oximetry 6 h after the initiation of ECMO, and the 10-min oxygen challenge test value(OCT(10)) and oxygen challenge index(OCI) were calculated...
September 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906399/characteristics-of-infection-and-its-impact-on-short-term-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#17
Junjun Cai, Mengchen Zhang, Tao Han, Hui-Qing Jiang
Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality in liver failure. However, the type of infection, predictors of infection, and their impact on outcomes in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.A total of 389 patients with ACLF were admitted in this retrospective, corhort study. Once admitted, clinical data including first infection site, type (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or nosocomial), and second infection occurrence during hospitalization were collected. The outcome was mortality within 90 days...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905486/perioperative-allogeneic-blood-transfusion-does-not-adversely-impact-oncological-outcomes-after-radical-cystectomy-for-urinary-bladder-cancer-a-propensity-score-weighted-european-multicenter-study
#18
Malte W Vetterlein, Philipp Gild, Luis A Kluth, Thomas Seisen, Michael Gierth, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Maximilian Burger, Chris Protzel, Oliver W Hakenberg, Nicolas von Landenberg, Florian Roghmann, Joachim Noldus, Philipp Nuhn, Armin Pycha, Michael Rink, Felix K-H Chun, Matthias May, Margit Fisch, Atiqullah Aziz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific mortality (CSM), and other-cause mortality (OCM) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC), utilizing a contemporary European multicenter cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PROspective MulticEnTer RadIcal Cystectomy Series (PROMETRICS) includes data on 679 patients who underwent RC at 18 European tertiary care centers in 2011...
September 14, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905212/hub-and-spoke-stroke-network-in-the-veneto-region-a-retrospective-study-investigating-the-effectiveness-of-the-stroke-pathway-and-trends-over-time
#19
L Nardetto, B Giometto, G Moretto, D Mantoan, M Saia
After recognizing the pivotal role played by stroke unit (SU) admission in reducing mortality and dependency in stroke patients, the need to organize and monitor stroke networks has become an increasingly essential aspect of stroke care. We conducted a retrospective study of stroke patients admitted to hospitals in the Veneto region from 2007 to 2015 in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the stroke pathway and trends over time. Between 2007 and 2015, 61,062 stroke patients were discharged from Veneto hospitals: they were more frequently female, females were older than males, and had higher intrahospital mortality and a lower probability of undergoing systemic thrombolysis...
September 13, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903631/evaluation-of-overactive-bladder-and-nocturia-as-a-risk-factor-for-hip-fracture-in-climacteric-women-a-matched-pair-case-control-study
#20
Aysun Karabulut, Serap Simavlı, Ömer Demirtaş, Nusret Ök, Harun Reşit Güngör, Ali Zümrütbaş
The aim of this study was to investigate whether overactive bladder (OAB) influences hip fractures in climacteric women by comparing the frequency of OAB and nocturia symptoms in patients with hip fractures and their age-matched controls in pre-fracture period. A total of 30 climacteric patients with a history of hip fracture were compared to a control group of 51 women in terms of OAB, nocturia and nocturia-QoL. A questionnaire composed of structured questions and Turkish validated versions of the specific questionnaires for OAB, OAB-Quality of Life (OAB-q) and nocturia-QoL was directed to the two groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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