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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301876/autophagy-inhibitor-chloroquine-increases-sensitivity-to-cisplatin-in-qbc939-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-by-mitochondrial-ros
#1
Xianzhi Qu, Jiyao Sheng, Luyan Shen, Jing Su, Yunjie Xu, Qi Xie, Yao Wu, Xuewen Zhang, Liankun Sun
The tumor cells have some metabolic characteristics of the original tissues, and the metabolism of the tumor cells is closely related to autophagy. However, the mechanism of autophagy and metabolism in chemotherapeutic drug resistance is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of autophagy and glucose metabolism in chemotherapeutic drug resistance by using cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells with primary cisplatin resistance and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We found that QBC939 cells with cisplatin resistance had a higher capacity for glucose uptake, consumption, and lactic acid generation, and higher activity of the pentose phosphate pathway compared with HepG2 cells, and the activity of PPP was further increased after cisplatin treatment in QBC939 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260828/differential-site-based-expression-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway-related-proteins-among-breast-cancer-metastases
#2
Yoon Jin Cha, Woo Hee Jung, Ja Seung Koo
Purpose. We aimed to investigate the expression of pentose phosphate pathway- (PPP-) related proteins in metastatic breast cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Methods. Tissue samples from 126 metastatic breast cancers were included in a tissue microarray. Expression of PPP-related proteins [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2)] was determined by immunohistochemistry...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251267/systematic-comparison-of-co-expression-of-multiple-recombinant-thermophilic-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli-bl21-de3
#3
Hui Chen, Rui Huang, Y-H Percival Zhang
The precise control of multiple heterologous enzyme expression levels in one Escherichia coli strain is important for cascade biocatalysis, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, natural product synthesis, and studies of complexed proteins. We systematically investigated the co-expression of up to four thermophilic enzymes (i.e., α-glucan phosphorylase (αGP), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH)) in E. coli BL21(DE3) by adding T7 promoter or T7 terminator of each gene for multiple genes in tandem, changing gene alignment, and comparing one or two plasmid systems...
March 1, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224472/effects-of-weight-reduction-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-metabolic-variables-in-saudi-obese-subjects-in-aseer-province-of-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohammed A Bawahab, Abdullah S Assiri, Walid Abdel Maksoud, Ayyub Patel, Osama Kadoumi, Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Riyad Mohammed Khalil Alessih, Syed Saleem Haider
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of oxidative stress, status of protective antioxidants enzymes, inflammatory biomarkers, and some metabolic health variables in the blood and to compare the results between those of the normal controls and obese patients submitted to sleeve gastrectomy-induced weight loss over a 1-year follow-up period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in Aseer Central Hospital and Abha Private Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to January 2013 on 50 normal (BMI = 22-25 kg/m(2)) control subjects and 50 obese (BMI = 45-50 kg/m(2)) patients...
February 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215807/proteomic-responses-of-european-flounder-to-temperature-and-hypoxia-as-interacting-stressors-differential-sensitivities-of-populations
#5
Nicolas Pédron, Sébastien Artigaud, José-Luis Zambonino Infante, Nicolas Le Bayon, Grégory Charrier, Vianney Pichereau, Jean Laroche
In the context of global change, ectotherms are increasingly impacted by abiotic perturbations. Along the distribution area of a species, the populations at low latitudes are particularly exposed to temperature increase and hypoxic events. In this study, we have compared the proteomic responses in the liver of European flounder populations, by using 2-D electrophoresis. One southern peripheral population from Portugal vs two northern core populations from France, were reared in a common garden experiment. Most of the proteomic differences were observed between the two experimental conditions, a cold vs a warm and hypoxic conditions...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142094/arsenic-induced-stress-activates-sulfur-metabolism-in-different-organs-of-garlic-allium-sativum-l-plants-accompanied-by-a-general-decline-of-the-nadph-generating-systems-in-roots
#6
Carmelo Ruíz-Torres, Rafael Feriche-Linares, Marta Rodríguez-Ruíz, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out...
April 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113117/induction-of-apoptosis-and-dna-damage-by-4-nonylphenol-in-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-and-the-antioxidant-role-of-cydonia-oblonga
#7
Alaa El-Din H Sayed, Heba S Hamed
In this study, we assessed the toxic effects of sub lethal concentration (0.1mgl(-1)) 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus for 14 days and the ability of the quince leaf extract to alleviate the effects of (4-NP). Fish were categorized into four groups: control, exposure to 0.1mgl(-1) 4-NP, exposure to 0.1mgl(-1) 4-NP with quince leaf extract (10ml/30L water), and exposure to 0.1mgl(-1) 4-NP with quince leaf extract (20ml/30L water)...
January 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108222/diquat-induced-cellular-pyridine-nucleotide-redox-changes-and-alteration-of-metabolic-enzyme-activities-in-colonic-carcinoma-cells
#8
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
Previously we have shown that the redox cycler menadione (MQ) induced cellular pyridine nucleotide redox imbalance that was linked to a decrease in aerobic glycolysis and perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory activity due to the redox cycling of the compound; these processes were potentiated by low glucose. In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation and exposure to the redox cycling diquat (DQ)...
February 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068639/effects-of-argan-oil-on-the-mitochondrial-function-antioxidant-system-and-the-activity-of-nadph-generating-enzymes-in-acrylamide-treated-rat-brain
#9
Birsen Aydın
Argan oil (AO) is rich in minor compounds such as polyphenols and tocopherols which are powerful antioxidants. Acrylamide (ACR) has been classified as a neurotoxic agent in animals and humans. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction is one of the most probable molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ACR (50mg/kg i.p. three times a week), AO (6ml/kg,o.p, per day) or together for 30days. The activities of cytosolic enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes, mitochondrial metabolic function, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assessed in rat brain...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979696/acute-exposure-to-the-penconazole-containing-fungicide-topas-partially-augments-antioxidant-potential-in-goldfish-tissues
#10
Viktor V Husak, Nadia M Mosiichuk, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
Penconazole is a systemic fungicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation Topas. Although triazole fungicides are widely found in the aquatic environment, little is known about their acute toxicity on fish. In this study we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to Topas on some parameters of homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the levels of markers of oxidative stress and parameters of the antioxidant defense system of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Gills appeared to be the main target organ of Topas toxicity, showing the greatest number of parameters affected...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899136/exposure-of-the-mosquito-vector-culex-pipiens-to-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-relictum-effect-of-infected-blood-intake-on-immune-and-antioxidant-defences-fecundity-and-survival
#11
Jessica Delhaye, Consolée Aletti, Olivier Glaizot, Philippe Christe
BACKGROUND: The intake of a Plasmodium-infected blood meal may affect mosquito physiology and a series of trade-offs may occur, in particular between immune defences, reproduction and self-maintenance. We evaluated the cost of exposure to Plasmodium in the mosquito vector by investigating the effect of exposure on fecundity and survival and the implication of immune and antioxidant defences in mediating this cost. METHODS: We used the natural Culex pipiens-Plasmodium relictum association...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886975/in-vitro-metabolic-engineering-of-bioelectricity-generation-by-the-complete-oxidation-of-glucose
#12
Zhiguang Zhu, Y-H Percival Zhang
The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis...
January 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884717/activity-based-evaluation-of-a-traditional-ayurvedic-medicinal-plant-saraca-asoca-roxb-de-wilde-flowers-as-estrogenic-agents-using-ovariectomized-rat-model
#13
Gauri Swar, Sunita Shailajan, Sasikumar Menon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, Ashok, is a popular traditional plant used for gynecological disorders. In India, the juice of Ashok flowers is traditionally consumed as a tonic by women in case of uterine disorders. But despite the use, its estrogenic potency is not yet evaluated and thus lacks the scientific recognition and acclaim. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the estrogenic potential of standardized ethanolic extract of Saraca asoca flowers (SAF) using ovariectomized (OVX) female albino Wistar rat model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880809/molecular-analysis-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gene-mutations-in-bangladeshi-individuals
#14
Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Md Tarikul Islam, Grace Eckhoff, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammod Shahidullah, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Sarabon Tahura, Manzoor Hussain, Shahida Akhter, Nazmun Nahar, Tahmina Shirin, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870966/biochemical-effects-of-fipronil-and-its-metabolites-on-lipid-peroxidation-and-enzymatic-antioxidant-defense-in-tadpoles-eupemphix-nattereri-leiuperidae
#15
Hortênsia S Gripp, Juliane S Freitas, Eduardo A Almeida, Márcia C Bisinoti, Altair B Moreira
Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental change and pollution because they have both aquatic and terrestrial life cycle stages and high skin permeability. Particularly during the larval stages, when these animals are restricted to small, transient ponds, exposure to high concentrations of pesticides is inevitable in agricultural areas. Given that pesticide application increases during the summer, which coincides with the reproductive season and the occurrence of most neotropical tadpoles in their natural environment, strong indications exist that tadpoles are developing in contaminated ponds...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825349/an-easy-and-efficient-permeabilization-protocol-for-in-vivo-enzyme-activity-assays-in-cyanobacteria
#16
Randi Engelberth Rasmussen, Simon Matthé Erstad, Erick Miguel Ramos-Martinez, Lorenzo Fimognari, Alice Jara De Porcellinis, Yumiko Sakuragi
BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that thrive in diverse ecosystems and play major roles in the global carbon cycle. The abilities of cyanobacteria to fix atmospheric CO2 and to allocate the fixed carbons to chemicals and biofuels have attracted growing attentions as sustainable microbial cell factories. Better understanding of the activities of enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism would lead to increasing product yields. Currently cell-free lysates are the most widely used method for determination of intracellular enzyme activities...
November 8, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818934/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Robert S Lee-Young, Nolan J Hoffman, Kate T Murphy, Darren C Henstridge, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Andrew L Siebel, Peter Iliades, Borivoj Zivanovic, Yet H Hong, Timothy D Colgan, Michael J Kraakman, Clinton R Bruce, Paul Gregorevic, Glenn K McConell, Gordon S Lynch, Grant R Drummond, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Jerry R Greenfield, Mark A Febbraio
OBJECTIVE: The development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early physiological defect, yet the intracellular mechanisms accounting for this metabolic defect remained unresolved. Here, we have examined the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. METHODS: Multiple mouse disease states exhibiting insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, as well as obese humans defined as insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, or pre-diabetic, were examined...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717462/plastidic-p2-glucose-6p-dehydrogenase-from-poplar-is-modulated-by-thioredoxin-m-type-distinct-roles-of-cysteine-residues-in-redox-regulation-and-nadph-inhibition
#18
Manuela Cardi, Mirko Zaffagnini, Alessia De Lillo, Daniela Castiglia, Kamel Chibani, José Manuel Gualberto, Nicolas Rouhier, Jean-Pierre Jacquot, Sergio Esposito
A cDNA coding for a plastidic P2-type G6PDH isoform from poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) has been used to express and purify to homogeneity the mature recombinant protein with a N-terminus His-tag. The study of the kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme showed an in vitro redox sensing modulation exerted by reduced DTT. The interaction with thioredoxins (TRXs) was then investigated. Five cysteine to serine variants (C145S - C175S - C183S - C195S - C242S) and a variant with a double substitution for Cys(175) and Cys(183) (C175S/C183S) have been generated, purified and biochemically characterized in order to investigate the specific role(s) of cysteines in terms of redox regulation and NADPH-dependent inhibition...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703849/atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-require-increased-dietary-levels-of-b-vitamins-when-fed-diets-with-high-inclusion-of-plant-based-ingredients
#19
Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Kristin Hamre, Marit Espe, Bente Elisabeth Torstensen, Joana Silva, Ann-Cecilie Hansen, Rune Waagbø, Johan S Johansen, Monica Sanden, Nini H Sissener
Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638050/redox-status-in-a-model-of-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Mattia Zaccarin, Valentina Bosello-Travain, Maria Luisa Di Paolo, Marco Falda, Matilde Maiorino, Giovanni Miotto, Stefano Piccolo, Antonella Roveri, Fulvio Ursini, Rina Venerando, Stefano Toppo
Reversible oxidation of Cys residues is a crucial element of redox homeostasis and signaling. According to a popular concept in oxidative stress signaling, the oxidation of targets of signals can only take place following an overwhelming of the cellular antioxidant capacity. This concept, however, ignores the activation of feedback mechanisms possibly leading to a paradoxical effect. In a model of cancer stem cells (CSC), stably overexpressing the TAZ oncogene, we observed that the increased formation of oxidants is associated with a globally more reduced state of proteins...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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