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Joe T Sharick, Peter F Favreau, Amani A Gillette, Sophia M Sdao, Matthew J Merrins, Melissa C Skala
While NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can detect changes in flux through the TCA cycle and electron transport chain (ETC), it remains unclear whether NAD(P)H FLIM is sensitive to other potential fates of glucose. Glucose carbon can be diverted from mitochondria by the pentose phosphate pathway (via glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH), lactate production (via lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), and rejection of carbon from the TCA cycle (via pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, PDK), all of which can be upregulated in cancer cells...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alice Jara De Porcellinis, Hanne Nørgaard, Laura Maria Furelos Brey, Simon Matthé Erstad, Patrik R Jones, Joshua L Heazlewood, Yumiko Sakuragi
Cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 to biomass and through metabolic engineering can also act as photosynthetic factories for sustainable productions of fuels and chemicals. The Calvin Benson cycle is the primary pathway for CO2 fixation in cyanobacteria, algae and C3 plants. Previous studies have overexpressed the Calvin Benson cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and bifunctional sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase/fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (hereafter BiBPase), in both plants and algae, although their impacts on cyanobacteria have not yet been rigorously studied...
March 3, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Rui Huang, Hui Chen, Wei Zhou, Chunling Ma, Y-H Percival Zhang
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is one of the most important dehydrogenases responsible for generating reduced NADPH for anabolism and is also the rate-limiting enzyme in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. For in vitro biocatalysis, G6PDH must possess both high activity and good thermostability due to requirements of efficient use and low expense of biocatalyst. Here, we used directed evolution to improve thermostability of the highly active G6PDH from Zymomonas mobilis. Four generations of random mutagenesis and Petri-dish-based double-layer screening evolved the thermolabile wild-type enzyme to the thermostable mutant Mut 4-1, which showed a more than 124-fold increase in half-life time (t1/2 ) at 60 °C, a 3...
February 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fernanda Dias de Moraes, Francine Perri Venturini, Priscila Adriana Rossi, Ive Marchioni Avilez, Naiara Elisabete da Silva de Souza, Gilberto Moraes
The effects of cypermethrin-based insecticide (CBI), commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, were evaluated in matrinxa (Brycon amazonicus) exposed to sub-lethal concentration (20% of LC50) for 96 h. Physiological and biochemical effects were studied through biomarkers: lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid concentrations; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) assays in the liver and gills. Besides, ions Na+ , Cl- , and K+ ; protein and glucose concentrations were measured in the plasma...
March 2018: Ecotoxicology
Bamisaye Fisayo Abraham, Sulyman Abdulhakeem Olarewaju, Abegunde Ronke, Ajani Emmanuel Oladipo
Background: Diabetes mellitus is considered one of the 5 principal causes of death in the world and is recognized as a global public health issue because of its multifactorial facets affecting essential biochemical processes in the body. This study investigated the antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic activities of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii (C. planchonii) leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty adult female rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) weighing 153±3...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Yuhe R Yang, Jinglin Fu, Shaun Wootten, Xiaodong Qi, Minghui Liu, Hao Yan, Yan Liu
In living cells, compartmentalized or membrane-associated enzymes are often assembled into large networks to cooperatively catalyze cascade reaction pathways essential for cellular metabolism. Here, we report the assembly of an artificial 2D enzyme network of two cascade enzymes-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-on a wireframe DNA origami template. Swinging arms were used to facilitate the transport of the redox intermediate of NAD+ /NADH between enzyme pairs on the array...
February 2, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Tao Huang, Hailing Tan, Fangju Lu, Gong Chen, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries due to their safety to human health. Our previous study found that glucose concentration induced extracellular oxidoreduction potential (ORP) changes could influence extracellular water-soluble yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 in submerged fermentation. In this study, H2 O2 and dithiothreitol (DTT) were used to change the oxidoreduction potential for investigating the effects of oxidative or reductive substances on Monascus yellow pigment production by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Alaa El-Din H Sayed, Hamdy A M Soliman
The antioxidant role of the green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) was examined to remedy the toxic effects of (0.2mgl-1 ) 4-nonylphenol(4-NP). Biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzymes, liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis as well as histopathology of liver of African catfish Clarias gariepinus were considered. Catfishes were divided into four groups: first group (control), second group (0.2mgl-1 of 4-NP), third group (0.2mgl-1 of 4-NP +100mg GTE l-1 water), and fourth group (0...
March 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Maria Rosa Dmengeon Pedreiro de Souza, Tatiana Herrerias, Tania Zaleski, Mariana Forgati, Priscila Krebsbach Kandalski, Cintia Machado, Dilza Trevisan Silva, Cláudio Adriano Piechnik, Maurício Osvaldo Moura, Lucélia Donatti
Carbohydrate metabolism and the antioxidant defence system of heart and muscle of the Antarctic notothenioids Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps were evaluated in response to heat stress (8 °C) over 144 h. N. rossii heart exhibited decreased glycolysis and aerobic metabolism after up to 12 h of exposure to 8 °C, and anaerobiosis was inhibited within 24 h. However, these pathways were stimulated after 72 h at 8 °C. The consumption of glucose-6-phosphate, derived from hexokinase (HK), by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) decreased in N...
November 16, 2017: Biochimie
Huan Lu, Huili Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transketolase (TKT) on cell proliferation, cell migration and interaction with other metabolism-associated genes in A549 lung cancer cells. A549 cells were transfected with three TKT-specific small interfering (si)RNAs, screened for the optimal transfection concentration, and sequenced with flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometric analysis...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
Kishu Kitayama, Masakazu Yashiro, Tamami Morisaki, Yuichiro Miki, Tomohisa Okuno, Haruhito Kinoshita, Tatsunari Fukuoka, Hiroaki Kasashima, Go Masuda, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Katsunobu Sakurai, Naoshi Kubo, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in the proliferation of gastric cancer under hypoxia. Four hypoxia-resistant gastric cancer cell lines and four parent cell lines were used. Reverse transcription-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the following metabolism-related enzymes: pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2), glutaminase (GLS), enolase 1 (ENO1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and PKM1. The effects of these enzymes on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells were examined using siRNAs, shikonin as a PKM2 inhibitor, or BPTES as a GLS inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo...
December 2017: Cancer Science
Kevin E Acero-Navarro, Mariella Jiménez-Ramírez, Miguel A Villalobos, Rocío Vargas-Martínez, Hugo V Perales-Vela, Roberto Velasco-García
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) (EC plays an important role in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa because it generates NADPH, an essential cofactor for several biosynthetic pathways and antioxidant enzymes. P. aeruginosa G6PDH is also a key enzyme in the metabolism of various carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, fructose, and mannitol. Understanding the kinetic characteristics and mechanisms that control the activity of this enzyme is crucial for future studies in this context...
February 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Gong Chen, Qi Bei, Tao Huang, Zhenqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments are promising sources for food and medicine due to their natural food-coloring functions and pharmaceutical values. The innovative technology of extractive fermentation is used to promote pigment productivity, but reports of pigment trans-membrane secretion mechanism are rare. In this study, tracking of pigment accumulation and secretion in extractive fermentation of Monascus anka GIM 3.592 was investigated. RESULTS: The increased vacuole size in mycelia correlated with fluorescence intensity (r > 0...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Hasan Toz, Yeter Değer
In the present study, the effects of chitosan on erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme activities in lead toxicity-induced rats were investigated. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups of control (C), lead group (Pb group), lead + chitosan group (Pb + CS group), and chitosan group (CS group). Lead groups were administered 50 mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally (ip) for 5 days and chitosan groups were administered 200 mg/kg chitosan for 28 days via gavage...
October 2, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Larisse de Freitas-Silva, Marta Rodríguez-Ruiz, Hayet Houmani, Luzimar Campos da Silva, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used worldwide. In susceptible plants, glyphosate affects the shikimate pathway and reduces aromatic amino acid synthesis. Using Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of 20μM glyphosate, we analyzed H2O2, ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation content as well as antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activity. We also examined the principal NADPH-generating system components, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
S Haunshi, Arun Kumar Burramsetty, T R Kannaki, K S Raja Ravindra, R N Chatterjee
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I helicase receptors, and C-type lectin receptors play a critical role in innate immunity as a first line of defense against invading pathogens through recognition of pathogen and/or damage-associated molecular patterns. Genetic makeup of birds is known to play a role in resistance or susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was carried out to elucidate the differential expression of PRR and some of the cytokine genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of indigenous chicken breeds such as Ghagus and Nicobari and an exotic chicken breed, White Leghorn (WLH)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Manoel Benício Teixeira Ribeiro, Vinicius Guzzoni, Jeffrey M Hord, Gisele Nunes Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela Vieira de Andrade, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, João Luiz Q Durigan
Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial process, some of which involves fat infiltration. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is postulated to play a role on sarcopenia during aging, which is believed to be due alterations in glucose homeostasis in the skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia, along with intramuscular lipids, is associated with physical inactivity. Resistance training (RT) has been indicated to minimize the age-induced muscle skeletal adaptations. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT on mRNA levels of regulatory components related to intramyocellular lipid, glucose metabolism and fiber size in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of aged rats...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hualiang Liang, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Jun Xie, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin, Wenjing Pan
This study evaluated the mechanisms governing insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in juvenile fish fed with graded levels of dietary arginine. The results showed that, compared with the control group (0.87%), 2.31% dietary arginine level resulted in the upregulation of the relative gene expression of IRS-1, PI3K and Akt in the insulin signaling pathway, while 2.70% dietary arginine level led to inhibition of these genes. 1.62% dietary arginine level upregulated glycolysis by increasing GK mRNA level; 2...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anna Kiersztan, Nina Trojan, Aleksandra Tempes, Paweł Nalepa, Joanna Sitek, Katarzyna Winiarska, Michał Usarek
Our recent study has shown that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administered to rabbits partially ameliorated several dexamethasone (dexP) effects on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis, insulin resistance and plasma lipid disorders. In the current investigation, we present the data on DHEA protective action against dexP-induced oxidative stress and albuminuria in rabbits. Four groups of adult male rabbits were used in the in vivo experiment: (1) control, (2) dexP-treated, (3) DHEA-treated and (4) both dexP- and DHEA-treated...
November 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso
Plant peroxisomes are recognized organelles that - with their capacity to generate greater amounts of H2O2 than other subcellular compartments - have a remarkable oxidative metabolism. However, over the last 15 years, new information has shown that plant peroxisomes contain other important molecules and enzymes, including nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite, a NADPH-recycling system, Ca(2+) and lipid-derived signals, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and nitro-fatty acid (NO2-FA). This highlights the potential for complex interactions within the peroxisomal nitro-oxidative metabolism, which also affects the status of the cell and consequently its physiological processes...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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