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Natural products

Immo Burkhardt, Jeroen S Dickschat
Isochamigrene, a side product of the trichodiene synthase, which is a key enzyme from the biosynthesis of the trichothecene mycotoxins from Fusarium spp., was enantioselectively synthesised and compared to the natural product from Fusarium sporotrichioides. As a result, its absolute configuration was assigned to (S)-isochamigrene. Implications for the recently extensively discussed cyclisation mechanism towards trichodiene and its side products are discussed.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tuan Anh Ho, Yifeng Wang, Louise J Criscenti
Kerogen plays a central role in hydrocarbon generation in an oil/gas reservoir. In a subsurface environment, kerogen is constantly subjected to stress confinement or relaxation. The interplay between mechanical deformation and gas adsorption of the materials could be an important process for shale gas production but unfortunately is poorly understood. Using a hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulation, we show here that a strong chemo-mechanical coupling may exist between gas adsorption and mechanical strain of a kerogen matrix...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Octavia Ramayanti, Mitch Brinkkemper, Sandra A W M Verkuijlen, Leni Ritmaleni, Mei Lin Go, Jaap M Middeldorp
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists in nasopharyngeal (NPC) and gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC) in a tightly latent form. Cytolytic virus activation (CLVA) therapy employs gemcitabine and valproic acid (GCb+VPA) to reactivate latent EBV into the lytic phase and antiviral valganciclovir to enhance cell death and prevent virus production. CLVA treatment has proven safe in phase-I/II trials with promising clinical responses in patients with recurrent NPC. However, a major challenge is to maximize EBV lytic reactivation by CLVA...
March 22, 2018: Cancers
Delphine Adam, Marta Maciejewska, Aymeric Naômé, Loïc Martinet, Wouter Coppieters, Latifa Karim, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Cave moonmilk deposits host an abundant and diverse actinobacterial population that has a great potential for producing novel natural bioactive compounds. In our previous attempt to isolate culturable moonmilk-dwelling Actinobacteria, only Streptomyces species were recovered, whereas a metagenetic study of the same deposits revealed a complex actinobacterial community including 46 actinobacterial genera in addition to streptomycetes. In this work, we applied the rehydration-centrifugation method to lessen the occurrence of filamentous species and tested a series of strategies to achieve the isolation of hard-to-culture and rare Actinobacteria from the moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles"...
March 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Xun Liu, Chunrui Sun, Scott Mlynarski, James P Morken
The convergent synthesis of candidate stereoisomers of the natural product arenolide was accomplished using recently developed catalytic boron-based reactions. Comparison of the spectral data for candidate structures with that reported for the authentic natural product revealed the likely stereostructure of the natural compound.
March 22, 2018: Organic Letters
Madhusudhanan Gogul Ramnath, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Nagarajan NagaSundaram, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari
BACKGROUND: Genus Isodon (Lamiaceae) is a prolific source for bioactive terpenoids. Nowadays, people move towards natural products because of undesirable effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. OBJECTIVE: In silico and in vitro approach were attempted to screen bioactive terpenoids isolated from Isodon wightii with acetylcholinesterase and histone deacetylase3 receptors, Methods: Terpenoids such as abietic acid, oleanolic acid, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin acetate were docked with AchE and HDAC3 receptors using AutoDock Vina (version 1...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Valentin Jossen, Christian van den Bos, Regine Eibl, Dieter Eibl
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-based therapies are of increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine. As economic considerations have shown, allogeneic therapy seems to be the most cost-effective method. Standardized procedures based on instrumented single-use bioreactors have been shown to provide billion of cells with consistent product quality and to be superior to traditional expansions in planar cultivation systems. Furthermore, under consideration of the complex nature and requirements of allogeneic hMSC-therapeutics, a new equipment for downstream processing (DSP) was successfully evaluated...
March 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Paulo B de Freitas, Sandra M S F Freitas, Mechelle M Lewis, Xuemei Huang, Mark L Latash
We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis and explored the reliability of several outcome variables across different spaces of analysis during a very simple four-finger accurate force production task. Fourteen healthy, young adults performed the accurate force production task with each hand on 3 days. Small spatial finger perturbations were generated by the "inverse piano" device three times per trial (lifting the fingers 1 cm/0.5 s and lowering them). The data were analyzed using the following main methods: (1) computation of indices of the structure of inter-trial variance and motor equivalence in the space of finger forces and finger modes, and (2) analysis of referent coordinates and apparent stiffness values for the hand...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Giorgio Smaldone, Raffaele Marrone, Giuseppe Palma, Paolo Sarnelli, Aniello Anastasio
The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery . Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting) were analyzed...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Adele Repossi, Elisa Zironi, Teresa Gazzotti, Andrea Serraino, Giampiero Pagliuca
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a metal complex composed of a central cobalt ion bonded to six ligands. It is essential for major biological functions such as protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the maintenance of the central nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. Since mammals cannot synthesize cobalamin, dietary intake represents the only natural source for humans. Dairy products can provide significant levels of cobalamin; moreover, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) panel has set the recommended intake at 4 μg/day for adults...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Jalal Jamalian, Hana Heshmati, Soroush Haghighi-Manesh
Antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Zataria multiflora (thyme) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) against Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production was studied in potato dextrose agar (PDA) and potato dextrose broth (PDB), as well as in Iranian white cheese as a food model. The results showed that the inhibitory potential of EOs in the PDB medium is more than PDA medium. Clove EO on PDB medium prevented fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production at 300 and 100 ppm, respectively. However, the thyme EO was not able to inhibit fungal growth completely and showed the strongest inhibition effect at 400 ppm...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Vahid Mahdavi, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini, Anousheh Sharifan
In this study, the effect of chitosan film (CF) with different concentrations of anise essential oil AEO (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) on the quality of chicken burger during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) were examined over a period of 12 days. For this purpose, at the first, the physical and mechanical properties of the produced films were studied. Then, the chicken burger was covered with the produced films. Different treatment were analyzed by biochemical properties such as moisture and thiobarbituric acid, bacteriological properties such as total viable counts and total psychrotrophic counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , and Escherichia coli ...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Claudio Cantini, Patrizia Salusti, Marco Romi, Alessandra Francini, Luca Sebastiani
A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Parisa Fatourachi, Behnaz Faramarziyan Azimi Maragheh, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Behnaz Valipour, Alireza Dehnad, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Aim: In this study we attempt to indicate anti-carcinogenic influence of ether extracted metabolites of Streptomyces Levis sp. on gene expression in colon cancer. Background: Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. In recent decades, researchers have been seeking the treatment for cancer. Natural products are valuable compounds with fewer side effects in comparison to chemotherapy drugs. Methods: Secondary metabolites were extracted with the inoculation of bacterial sample in Mueller Hinton Broth...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Bing Zhao, Qiao-Juan Shi, Zhen-Zhong Zhang, Shu-Yan Wang, Xi Wang, Hao Wang
Ischemic stroke is a highly complex pathological process that is divided into acute, subacute and chronic phases. Paeonol is a biologically active natural product with a variety of pharmacological effects, including those on neuronal activity. However, the effects of paeonol on subacute/chronic ischemic stroke have remained to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of paeonol against subacute and chronic cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Luca Giacomelli, Stefano Togni, Martino Meneghin, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Giada Maramaldi
Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to evaluate the acute clinical application of a multicomponent powder (Vitachelox® ), including three naturally occurring standardized extracts rich in polyphenols (grape seed extract, green tea extract, oak wood/bark extract), on healthy volunteers by measuring prevention of any metal deposition within the stratum corneum (SC) following a 6-h exposure period in a polluted environment. Patients and methods: In this in vivo study, we evaluated the skin protective activity of the multicomponent powder formulated in a base emulsion compared to a relevant placebo cream...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Noha M Badawi, Mahmoud H Teaima, Khalid M El-Say, Dalia A Attia, Mohamed A El-Nabarawi, Mohey M Elmazar
Background: Pomegranate extract (PE) is a natural product with potent antioxidant and anticancer activity because of its polyphenols content. The main purpose of this study was to maximize the PE chemotherapeutic efficacy by loading it in an optimized solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) formula. Materials and methods: The influence of independent variables, which were lipid concentration (X1 ), surfactant concentration (X2 ) and cosurfactant concentration (X3 ), on dependent ones, which were particle size (Y1 ), polydispersity index (Y2 ), zeta potential (Y3 ), entrapment efficiency (Y4 ) and cumulative % drug release (Y5 ), were studied and optimized using the Box-Behnken design...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sophie L Mader, Alois Bräuer, Michael Groll, Ville R I Kaila
The recently discovered FeII /α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AsqJ from Aspergillus nidulans stereoselectively catalyzes a multistep synthesis of quinolone alkaloids, natural products with significant biomedical applications. To probe molecular mechanisms of this elusive catalytic process, we combine here multi-scale quantum and classical molecular simulations with X-ray crystallography, and in vitro biochemical activity studies. We discover that methylation of the substrate is essential for the activity of AsqJ, establishing molecular strain that fine-tunes π-stacking interactions within the active site...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Chun Gwon Park, Christina A Hartl, Daniela Schmid, Ellese M Carmona, Hye-Jung Kim, Michael S Goldberg
Cancer immunotherapy can confer durable benefit, but the percentage of patients who respond to this approach remains modest. The ability to concentrate immunostimulatory compounds at the site of disease can overcome local immune tolerance and reduce systemic toxicity. Surgical resection of tumors may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by removing the concentrated immunosuppressive microenvironment; however, it also removes tumor-specific leukocytes as well as tumor antigens that may be important to establishing antitumor immunity...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Lucie Bacakova, Jana Zarubova, Martina Travnickova, Jana Musilkova, Julia Pajorova, Petr Slepicka, Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova, Vaclav Svorcik, Zdenka Kolska, Hooman Motarjemi, Martin Molitor
Stem cells can be defined as units of biological organization that are responsible for the development and the regeneration of organ and tissue systems. They are able to renew their populations and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Therefore, these cells have great potential in advanced tissue engineering and cell therapies. When seeded on synthetic or nature-derived scaffolds in vitro, stem cells can be differentiated towards the desired phenotype by an appropriate composition, by an appropriate architecture, and by appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, particularly if the scaffold properties are combined with a suitable composition of cell culture media, and with suitable mechanical, electrical or magnetic stimulation...
March 18, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
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