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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342200/inhibiting-tgf-beta-signaling-preserves-the-function-of-highly-activated-in-vitro-expanded-natural-killer-cells-in-aml-and-colon-cancer-models
#1
Folashade Otegbeye, Evelyn Ojo, Stephen Moreton, Nathan Mackowski, Dean A Lee, Marcos de Lima, David N Wald
Natural killer cells harnessed from healthy individuals can be expanded ex vivo using various platforms to produce large doses for adoptive transfer into cancer patients. During such expansion, NK cells are increasingly activated and more efficient at killing cancer cells. Adoptive transfer however introduces these activated cells into a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated in part by excessive transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) from both cancer cells and their surrounding stroma...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342107/honokiol-improves-liver-steatosis-in-ovariectomized-mice
#2
Yeon-Hui Jeong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Eun-Joo Jeon, Su-Jin Park, Jin Taek Hwang, Ae Sin Lee, Kyong Won Lee, Mi Jeong Sung
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, and is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency are at a higher risk of progression to NAFLD. Estrogen has a protective effect against the progression of the disease. Currently, there are no safe and effective treatments for these liver diseases in postmenopausal women. Honokiol (Ho), a bioactive natural product derived from Magnolia spp, has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-oxidative properties...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#3
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341877/characterizing-the-effects-of-insertion-of-a-5-2%C3%A2-kb-region-of-a-vacv-genome-which-contains-known-immune-evasion-genes-on-mva-immunogenicity
#4
Melissa R Ryerson, Joanna L Shisler
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated Vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector candidate against many different pathogens. Its replication-restricted nature makes it a safe vaccine. However, higher doses or multiple boosts of MVA are necessary to elicit an immune response similar to wild-type VACV. Multiple strategies have been used to create modified MVA viruses that remain safe, but have increased immunogenicity. For example, one common strategy is to delete MVA immunomodulatory proteins in hopes of increasing the host immune response...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341828/biosensors-for-spatiotemporal-detection-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cells-and-tissues
#5
Marie Erard, Sophie Dupre-Crochet, Oliver Nusse
Redox biology has become a major issue in numerous areas of physiology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a broad range of roles from signal transduction to growth control and cell death. To understand the nature of these roles, accurate measurement of the reactive compounds is required. An increasing number of tools for ROS detection is available; however, specificity and sensitivity of these tools are often insufficient. Furthermore, their specificity has been rarely evaluated in complex physiological conditions...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341747/-3-1-d-quasiparticle-anisotropic-hydrodynamics-for-ultrarelativistic-heavy-ion-collisions
#6
Mubarak Alqahtani, Mohammad Nopoush, Radoslaw Ryblewski, Michael Strickland
We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from (3+1)D quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare particle spectra, average transverse momentum, and elliptic flow. The dynamical equations used for the hydrodynamic stage utilize aHydroQP, which naturally includes both shear and bulk viscous effects. The (3+1)D aHydroQP evolution obtained is self-consistently converted to hadrons using anisotropic Cooper-Frye freeze-out. Hadron production and decays are modeled using a customized version of therminator 2...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341625/biomimetic-total-syntheses-of-callistrilones-a-b-and-d
#7
Dattatraya H Dethe, Balu D Dherange, Saikat Das
A biomimetic total syntheses of antibacterial natural products (±)-callistrilones A, B, and D, the first triketone-phloroglucinol-monoterpene hybrids with an unprecedented [1]benzofuro[2,3-a]xanthene and [1]benzofuro[3,2-b]xanthene pentacyclic ring system along with the postulated biosynthetic intermediate, isolated from the leaves of Callistemon rigidus, were achieved. The total synthesis features highly regio- and diastereoselective catalytic Friedel-Crafts alkylation, palladium-catalyzed Wacker-type oxidative cyclization, Michael addition, and late-stage diastereoselective epoxide formation from the extremely hindered β face as key steps...
January 17, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341603/pokmt1-from-the-polyketomycin-biosynthetic-machinery-of-streptomyces-diastatochromogenes-t%C3%A3-6028-belongs-to-the-emerging-family-of-c-methyltransferases-that-act-on-coa-activated-aromatic-substrates
#8
Xun Guo, Ivana Crnovcic, Chin-Yuan Chang, Jun Luo, Jeremy R Lohman, Monica Papinski, Andreas Bechthold, Geoffrey P Horsman, Ben Shen
Recent biochemical characterizations of the MdpB2 CoA ligase and MdpB1 C-methyltransferase (C-MT) from the maduropeptin (MDP, 2) biosynthetic machinery revealed unusual pathway logic involving C-methylation occurring on a CoA-activated aromatic substrate. Here we confirmed this pathway logic for the biosynthesis of polyketomycin (POK, 3). Biochemical characterization unambiguously established that PokM3 and PokMT1 catalyze the sequential conversion of 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA, 4) to form 3,6-dimethylsalicylyl-CoA (3,6-DMSA-CoA, 6), which serves as the direct precursor for the 3,6-dimethylsalicylic acid (3,6-DMSA) moiety in the biosynthesis of 3...
January 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341584/preparation-of-a-smart-and-portable-film-for-in-situ-sensing-of-iron-micro-corrosion
#9
Xiongfei Luo, Zhijun Chen, Shujun Li, Shou-Xin Liu, Jian Li
Corrosion of iron-containing materials, which presents serious economic and safety problems, normally begins with micro corrosion. If micro corrosion could be detected and repaired immediately, corrosion damage could be greatly reduced. Current technology and materials, however, are not able to detect micro corrosion of iron in a cheap and convenient manner. Here, we have used a natural product, ellagic acid (EA), to fabricate an EA-functionalized polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) film (EAF) for in-situ sensing of the initial stage of micro corrosion...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341438/natural-antisense-transcripts-in-diseases-from-modes-of-action-to-targeted-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Elżbieta Wanowska, Magdalena Regina Kubiak, Wojciech Rosikiewicz, Izabela Makałowska, Michał Wojciech Szcześniak
Antisense transcription is a widespread phenomenon in mammalian genomes, leading to production of RNAs molecules referred to as natural antisense transcripts (NATs). NATs apply diverse transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms to carry out a wide variety of biological roles that are important for the normal functioning of living cells, but their dysfunctions can be associated with human diseases. In this review, we attempt to provide a molecular basis for the involvement of NATs in the etiology of human disorders such as cancers and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341031/getting-more-than-you-paid-for-unauthorized-natural-substances-in-herbal-food-supplements-on-eu-market
#11
Marijana Zovko Končić
As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims...
January 16, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340953/mdpin1b-encodes-a-putative-auxin-efflux-carrier-and-has-different-expression-patterns-in-bc-and-m9-apple-rootstocks
#12
Zengyu Gan, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Lower promoter activity is closely associated with lower MdPIN1b expression in the M9 interstem, which might contribute to the dwarfing effect in apple trees. Apple trees grafted onto dwarfing rootstock Malling 9 (M9) produce dwarfing tree architecture with high yield and widely applying in production. Previously, we have reported that in Malus 'Red Fuji' (RF) trees growing on M9 interstem and Baleng Crab (BC) rootstock, IAA content was relatively higher in bark tissue of M9 interstem than that in scion or rootstock...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340862/effect-of-brewery-wastewater-obtained-from-different-phases-of-treatment-plant-on-seed-germination-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-maize-zea-mays-and-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan
#13
Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340859/comparative-proteomics-of-chromium-transformed-beas-2b-cells-by-2d-dige-and-maldi-tof-tof-ms
#14
Jian Lu, Miaomiao Tang, Yi Liu, Jin Wang, Zhanao Wu
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic, common heavy metal used in industrial production. There are two types of Cr in nature: hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and chromium trichloride (Cr(III)). Cr(III) is involved in the metabolism of sugars and lipids, whereas Cr(VI) is absorbed through the respiratory tract and skin and generates free radicals that result in secondary toxicity. Cr(VI) leads to cancer in the occupational population and is therefore recognized as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
January 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340796/the-complete-plastome-of-macaw-palm-acrocomia-aculeata-jacq-lodd-ex-mart-and-extensive-molecular-analyses-of-the-evolution-of-plastid-genes-in-arecaceae
#15
Amanda de Santana Lopes, Túlio Gomes Pacheco, Tabea Nimz, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Miguel P Guerra, Rubens O Nodari, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Marcelo Rogalski
The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections...
January 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340254/response-of-methane-production-via-propionate-oxidation-to-carboxylated-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-in-paddy-soil-enrichments
#16
Jianchao Zhang, Xingxuan Xia, Siliang Li, Wei Ran
Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) have become a growing concern in terms of their fate and toxicity in aqueous environments. Methane (CH4) is a major product of organic matter degradation in waterlogged environments. In this study, we determined the effect of MWCNTs-COOH on the production of CH4 from propionate oxidation in paddy soil enrichments. The results showed that the methanogenesis from propionate degradation was accelerated in the presence of MWCNTs-COOH. In addition, the rates of CH4 production and propionate degradation increased with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339554/synthetic-biology-strategies-for-improving-microbial-synthesis-of-green-biopolymers
#17
Lisa A Anderson, M Ahsanul Islam, Kristala L J Prather
Polysaccharide-based biopolymers have many material properties relevant to industrial and medical uses, including as drug delivery agents, wound healing adhesives, and food additives and stabilizers. Traditionally, polysaccharides are obtained from natural sources. Microbial synthesis offers an attractive alternative for sustainable production of tailored biopolymers. Here, we review synthetic biology strategies for select "green" biopolymers: cellulose, alginate, chitin, chitosan, and hyaluronan. Microbial production pathways, opportunities for pathway yield improvements, and advances in microbial engineering of biopolymers in various hosts are discussed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339425/secondary-metabolism-and-interspecific-competition-affect-accumulation-of-spontaneous-mutants-in-the-gacs-gaca-regulatory-system-in-pseudomonas-protegens
#18
Qing Yan, Lucas D Lopes, Brenda T Shaffer, Teresa A Kidarsa, Oliver Vining, Benjamin Philmus, Chunxu Song, Virginia O Stockwell, Jos M Raaijmakers, Kerry L McPhail, Fernando D Andreote, Jeff H Chang, Joyce E Loper
Secondary metabolites are synthesized by many microorganisms and provide a fitness benefit in the presence of competitors and predators. Secondary metabolism also can be costly, as it shunts energy and intermediates from primary metabolism. In Pseudomonas spp., secondary metabolism is controlled by the GacS-GacA global regulatory system. Intriguingly, spontaneous mutations in gacS or gacA (Gac- mutants) are commonly observed in laboratory cultures. Here we investigated the role of secondary metabolism in the accumulation of Gac- mutants in Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#19
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339307/anticoccidial-activity-of-fruit-peel-of-punica-granatum-l
#20
Shazia Ahad, Syed Tanveer, Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo
In the interests of food safety and public health, plants and their compounds are now re-emerging as an alternative approach to treat parasitic diseases. Here, we studied the anticoccidial effect of different solvent extracts of the fruit peel of Punica granatum-a commercial waste from pomegranate juice industries. The hope underlying these experiments was to find a sustainable natural product for controlling coccidiosis. The plant extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarity. Acute oral toxicity study was first carried out to see the safety of crude extracts...
January 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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