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Attachment theory

Femmie Juffer, Estelle Struis, Claudia Werner, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Secure attachment relationships are essential for children's current and later development. From attachment theory and research, it can be derived that sensitive parenting is the key to positive parent-child relationships. Is it possible to design effective interventions to enhance sensitive parenting? In this article, we review elements that are crucial for effective attachment-based interventions, and we proceed with illustrations from the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD)...
July 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
Eduard Carbonell-Sanromà, Jeremy Hieulle, Manuel Vilas-Varela, Pedro Brandimarte, Mikel Iraola, Ana Barragán, Jingcheng Li, Mikel Abadía, Martina Corso, Daniel Sanchez-Portal, Diego Peña, Jose Ignacio Pascual
We report on the on-surface synthesis of 7 armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) substituted with nitrile (CN) functional groups. The CN groups are attached to the GNR backbone by modifying the 7-AGNR precursor. While many of these groups survive the on-surface synthesis, the reaction process causes the cleavage of some CN from the ribbon backbone and the on-surface cycloisomerization of few nitriles onto pyridine rings. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory reveal that CN groups behave as very efficient n-dopants, significantly downshifting the bands of the ribbon, and introducing deep impurity levels associated to the nitrogen electron lone pairs...
June 21, 2017: ACS Nano
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
Swatantra Pratap Singh, Saumyen Guha, Purnendu Bose, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan
The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of abiotic hydrolysis of ES-isomers, i.e., Endosulfan-1 (ES-1) and Endosulfan-2 (ES-2) using a combination of experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Hydrolysis of both ES-1 and ES-2 resulted in the formation of Endosulfan Alcohol (ES-A). The rate of hydrolysis was first order in all cases and increased with both pH and temperature. Rate expressions describing the hydrolysis rates of ES-1 and ES-2 as a function of pH and temperature were obtained and validated with independent data sets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Agne Ivanauskaite, Ramunas Lygaitis, Steponas Raisys, Karolis Kazlauskas, Gediminas Kreiza, Dmytro Volyniuk, Dalius Gudeika, Saulius Jursenas, Juozas V Grazulevicius
Seven new derivatives of phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole having differenet substituents at the 1st and the 2nd positions of the phenanthroimidazole moiety were synthesized and characterized. The comparative study of their properties was performed employing thermal, optical, electrochemical and photoelectrical measurements. The properties of the newly synthesized compounds were compared with those of earlier reported derivatives of phenanthroimidazole and several interesting new findings were disclosed. Density functional theory calculations accompanied by optical spectroscopy measurements have shown the possibility of tuning the emission properties (excited-stated decay rate, fluorescence quantum yield, etc...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Katja Brenk-Franz, Bernhard Strauß, Fabian Tiesler, Christian Fleischhauer, Nico Schneider, Jochen Gensichen
OBJECTIVE: The conceptual model of attachment theory has been applied to understand the predispositions of patients in medical care and the patient-provider relationship. In patients with chronic conditions insecure attachment was connected to poorer self-management. The patient-provider relationship is associated with a range of health related outcomes and self-management skills. We determined whether the quality of the patient-provider relationship mediates the link between adult attachment and self-management among primary care patients with multiple chronic diseases...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Zixing Wang, Vidya Kochat, Prafull Pandey, Sanjay Kashyap, Soham Chattopadhyay, Atanu Samanta, Suman Sarkar, Praveena Manimunda, Xiang Zhang, Syed Asif, Abhisek K Singh, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel M Ajayan
Ultrathin ceramic coatings are of high interest as protective coatings from aviation to biomedical applications. Here, a generic approach of making scalable ultrathin transition metal-carbide/boride/nitride using immiscibility of two metals is demonstrated. Ultrathin tantalum carbide, nitride, and boride are grown using chemical vapor deposition by heating a tantalum-copper bilayer with corresponding precursor (C2 H2 , B powder, and NH3 ). The ultrathin crystals are found on the copper surface (opposite of the metal-metal junction)...
June 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
Nicole Schäfer, Harald Karutz, Olaf Schenk
Background Advances in neonatal care have reduced mortality but increased morbidity in babies born pre-maturely or after high-risk pregnancies. However, this often increases the burden on the family and the parents in particular. A systematic review of the literature was conducted that demonstrated the importance of psychosocial support for parents of children in neonatal care. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed, Psyndex, CINAHI and medpilot was conducted. Reference lists of the included articles were also searched for relevant publications...
June 7, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Yang Gao, Yi-Lun Hong, Li-Chang Yin, Zhangting Wu, Zhiqing Yang, Mao-Lin Chen, Zhibo Liu, Teng Ma, Dong-Ming Sun, Zhenhua Ni, Xiu-Liang Ma, Hui-Ming Cheng, Wencai Ren
The ultrafast growth of high-quality uniform monolayer WSe2 is reported with a growth rate of ≈26 µm s(-1) by chemical vapor deposition on reusable Au substrate, which is ≈2-3 orders of magnitude faster than those of most 2D transition metal dichalcogenides grown on nonmetal substrates. Such ultrafast growth allows for the fabrication of millimeter-size single-crystal WSe2 domains in ≈30 s and large-area continuous films in ≈60 s. Importantly, the ultrafast grown WSe2 shows excellent crystal quality and extraordinary electrical performance comparable to those of the mechanically exfoliated samples, with a high mobility up to ≈143 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and ON/OFF ratio up to 9 × 10(6) at room temperature...
June 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
Bing Zhang, Hong Hu, Aipeng Ye, Peng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is very important for assessing and monitoring hydrocephalus, head trauma and hypertension patients, which could lead to elevated ICP or even devastating neurological damage. The mortality rate due to these diseases could be reduced through ICP monitoring, because precautions can be taken against the brain damage. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a surface acoustic wave (SAW) pressure sensor to realize ICP monitoring, which is capable of wireless and passive transmission with antenna attached...
May 26, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Carlos Kubli-Garfias, Ricardo Vázquez-Ramírez, Cynthia Trejo-Muñoz, Arturo Berber
Imidazoquinolines are powerful immunostimulants (IMMS) that function through Toll-like receptors, particularly TLR7 and TLR8. In addition to enhancing the immune response, IMMS also function as antineoplastic drugs and vaccine adjuvants. These small compounds display almost the same molecular structure, except in some cases in which atom in position 1 varies and changes the imidazole characteristics. A variable acyclic side chain is also always attached at atom in position 2, while another chain may be attached at atom in position 1...
2017: PloS One
William W Driscoll, Michael Travisano
The evolution of multicellular life requires cooperation among cells, which can be undermined by intra-group selection for selfishness. Theory predicts that selection to avoid non-cooperators limits social interactions among non-relatives, yet previous evolution experiments suggest that intra-group conflict is an outcome, rather than a driver, of incipient multicellular life cycles. Here we report the evolution of multicellularity via two distinct mechanisms of group formation in the unicellular budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Junfeng Wang, Wen Liu, Tianzhong Liu
The attached cultivation for microalga has many superiorities over the conventional aqua-suspend methods, which make it a promising pathway to supply feedstock for microalgae based bio-refinery attempts. In this review, the current reports on bioreactor, application, modeling, substratum material and engineering aspects were summarized and the future research and developments should be focused on the following aspects: 1) Build principles and guidelines for rational structure design by studying the relationship of physiological properties with typical structures and light regimes; 2) Set up theory foundation of substratum material selection by studying the physic-chemical properties of algal cells and substratum materials; 3) Further understanding the mass transfer behaviors of both CO2 and nutrients in biofilm for enhanced growth rate and products accumulation; 4) New equipment and machines for inoculation, harvesting and moisture keeping should be developed and integrated with bioreactor structure...
May 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Tania E Sandoval, Stacey F Bent
The adsorption of the homotrifunctional 1,2,3-benzenetriol on Ge(100)-2 × 1 has been investigated by density functional theory calculations, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the adsorption can occur through OH dissociation of all three hydroxyl groups, and that all three reaction pathways are kinetically and thermodynamically favorable. A coverage-dependent analysis shows that at low coverage, the molecule reacts to form a mix of trifold and dually bound adsorbates...
June 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ximena B Arriaga, Madoka Kumashiro, Jeffry A Simpson, Nickola C Overall
We propose the Attachment Security Enhancement Model (ASEM) to suggest how romantic relationships can promote chronic attachment security. One part of the ASEM examines partner responses that protect relationships from the erosive effects of immediate insecurity, but such responses may not necessarily address underlying insecurities in a person's mental models. Therefore, a second part of the ASEM examines relationship situations that foster more secure mental models. Both parts may work in tandem. We posit that attachment anxiety should decline most in situations that foster greater personal confidence and more secure mental models of the self...
June 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
James N Bull, Jan R R Verlet
Nonvalence states of molecular anions play key roles in processes, such as electron mobility, in rare-gas liquids, radiation-induced damage to DNA, and the formation of anions in the interstellar medium. Recently, a class of nonvalence bound anion state has been predicted by theory in which correlation forces are predominantly responsible for binding the excess electron. We present a direct spectroscopic observation of this nonvalence correlation-bound state (CBS) in the para-toluquinone trimer cluster anion...
May 2017: Science Advances
Helena Moreira, Ana Fonseca, Phillip R Shaver, Mario Mikulincer, Maria Cristina Canavarro
According to attachment theory, the main goal of the caregiving behavioral system is to relieve others' distress and promote their health and welfare. This is accomplished through a set of caregiving behaviors that are the primary strategy of this system. However, some individuals develop nonoptimal or secondary strategies (hyperactivation or deactivation). The Caregiving System Scale (CSS) is a self-report measure that assesses these nonoptimal caregiving strategies. This study examined the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the CSS using a bifactor model and a 2-factor correlated model; it also examined validity evidence for CSS scores in relation to other relevant variables...
May 29, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Bridget Kool, Michelle R Wise, Roshini Peiris-John, Lynn Sadler, Faith Mahony, Susan Wells
BACKGROUND: Teaching clinical audit skills to nascent health professionals is one strategy to improve frontline care. The undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Auckland provides improvement science theory and skills in Year 5 teaching, and the opportunity to put this into practice during an Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) clinical attachment in Year 6. In 2015, a revised medical school curriculum at the university resulted in a planned reduction of the O&G attachment from five weeks to four, necessitating revision of the Year 6 Quality Improvement (QI) project...
May 26, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Doyeon Kwak, Wonjoon Kim
It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties...
2017: PloS One
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