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Attachment theory

Christopher M Raymond, Marketta Kyttä, Richard Stedman
Over the past 40 years, the sense of place concept has been well-established across a range of applications and settings; however, most theoretical developments have "privileged the slow." Evidence suggests that place attachments and place meanings are slow to evolve, sometimes not matching material or social reality (lag effects), and also tending to inhibit change. Here, we present some key blind spots in sense of place scholarship and then suggest how a reconsideration of sense of place as "fast" and "slow" could fill them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Ernesto Martín Padilla, Diana Obando Posada, Pedro Sarmiento Medina
OBJECTIVE: Identify attitudes and behaviors that evidence and characterize family adherence to treatment in patients with severe mental disorder. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive, from an interpretative social approach. LOCATION: Chia, Colombia, with professionals in the psychiatric and geriatric settings. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve professionals in psychiatry, nursing and psychology, with experience in care of patients with serious mental disorder and their families...
October 9, 2017: Atencion Primaria
Ádám Kun, Ádám Radványi
The origin of the genetic code and translation is a "notoriously difficult problem". In this survey we present a list of questions that a full theory of the genetic code needs to answer. We assess the leading hypotheses according to these criteria. The stereochemical, the coding coenzyme handle, the coevolution, the four-column theory, the error minimization and the frozen accident hypotheses are discussed. The integration of these hypotheses can account for the origin of the genetic code. But experiments are badly needed...
October 11, 2017: Bio Systems
Bela Joos, Benjamin M Barlow, Catherine E Morris
Two features common to diverse sick excitable cells are "leaky" Nav channels and bleb damage-damaged membranes. The bleb damage, we have argued, causes a channel kinetics based "leakiness." Recombinant (node of Ranvier type) Nav1.6 channels voltage-clamped in mechanically-blebbed cell-attached patches undergo a damage intensity dependent kinetic change. Specifically, they experience a coupled hyperpolarizing (left) shift of the activation and inactivation processes. The biophysical observations on Nav1.6 currents formed the basis of Nav-Coupled Left Shift (Nav-CLS) theory...
October 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yoojin Chae, Miranda Goodman, Gail S Goodman, Natalie Troxel, Kelly McWilliams, Ross A Thompson, Phillip R Shaver, Keith F Widaman
This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interviewed about what occurred during the event. Children's age and attachment security scores positively predicted correct information in free recall and accuracy in answering specific questions...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Mohammad Zahidul H Khan, Ahmad I Alrawashdeh, Suad Aljohani, Yuming Zhao, Jolanta B Lagowski
π-Conjugated oligomers with relatively short molecular backbones can be used effectively in dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this paper, we present a systematic study on interactions between diphenylene-fluorene oligomers (DPFs) and single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four DFT methods are used in this work: the long range (LR)-corrected CAM-B3LYP, the dispersion (D)-corrected B97D, the LR- and D-corrected wB97XD, and the hybrid B3LYP. The DPFs examined in this study contain different functional groups attached to the π-conjugated backbone, including two different end groups, carboxaldehyde (ALD) and dithiafulvenyl (DTF), and three different side chains (SCs), C8H17, OC10H21, and SC10H21...
October 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund
How do glaciers move? This seemingly straightforward question provided the backdrop for a heated debate between the physicists John Tyndall (1820-1893) and James David Forbes (1809-1868) in the late 1850s and early 1860s. Forbes described the motion of glaciers as that of a viscous fluid. After visiting the Alps, Tyndall proposed an alternative theory that combined fracture and regelation. The glacial controversy ensued. Yet the debate was never simply about whether glaciers moved like honey, or if they moved by continuously breaking and re-attaching...
October 9, 2017: Annals of Science
Mads Troldborg, Dominic Duckett, Richard Allan, Emily Hastings, Rupert L Hough
A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10(-4) for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards...
September 25, 2017: Water Research
Michael M DuVall, Azim Jinha, Gudrun Schappacher-Tilp, Timothy R Leonard, Walter Herzog
Since the 1950's muscle contraction has been explained using a two filament system in which actin and myosin exclusively dictate active force in muscle sarcomeres. Decades later, a third filament called titin was discovered. This titin filament has recently been identified as an important regulator of active force, but has yet to be incorporated into contemporary theories of muscle contraction. When sarcomeres are actively stretched, a substantial and rapid increase in force occurs, which has been suggested to arise in part from titin-actin binding that is absent in passively stretched sarcomeres...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mary Ann Clute
This grounded theory study gathered descriptions the bereavement experience for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDD) through the eyes and voices of a small sample of grief counselors. The counselors described bereaved adults with IDD as individuals who faced potentially heightened effects of the broken attachment bonds, increased risk of coping obstacles, long histories of unrecognized losses, and disenfranchised grief. The participants described bereaved adults with IDD (who sought treatment) as getting pushed to the sidelines to deal with their losses in isolation and confusion...
November 2017: Omega
Irina V Fedorova, Michael A Krestyaninov, Lyubov P Safonova
The structural and energetic characteristics of protic ionic liquids (PILs) based on ethyl-, diethyl-, or triethylammonium cations with anions of phosphorus, trifluoroacetic, or p-toluenesulfonic acids have been investigated by density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. As a result of the interaction between acid and alkylamine, the H-bonded molecular complexes or H-bonded ion pairs have been obtained. The increasing number of ethyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom of amine and H-bond donor ability of acid causes a stronger H-bonding interaction leading to the formation of ion pairs...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Heather L Lawford, Anna-Beth Doyle, Dorothy Markiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have begun to find evidence that generativity, defined as concern for future generations as a legacy of the self, has relevance prior to midlife. Examination of predictors of generativity in adolescence contributes to an overall model of positive development in youth. Bowlby's theory of attachment, a well-established framework for understanding close relationships, was applied in this study of how adolescents' approach to close relationships predicts early generativity...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Personality
Noelia Bueno-Gómez
BACKGROUND: This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose...
September 29, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Dimitrios Mpoutas, Leonidas Tsetseris
Using density-functional theory (DFT) calculations we probe the spin polarization of functionalized two-dimensional (2D) phthalo-carbonitrides (pc-C3N2), i.e., 2D polymers of tetra-cyanoethylene. The attachment of various metal atoms at the cores of these covalent organic frameworks gives rise to diverse electronic and magnetic configurations. In particular, Fe- and Co-functionalized systems are ferromagnetic (FM) metals, or anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors within the DFT+U approach. Cu- and Cr-laden systems are AFM semiconductors, while FM and AFM spin structures of pc-C3N2 sheets decorated with Mn atoms are almost degenerate in terms of energy...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sadiq Naveed, Ahmed Waqas, Salman Majeed, Muhammad Zeshan, Nusrat Jahan, Muhammad Haaris Sheikh
Background: The field of child and adolescent psychiatry lags behind adult psychiatry significantly. In recent years, it has witnessed a significant increase in the publication of journals and articles. This study provides a detailed bibliometric analysis of articles published from 1980 to 2016, in the top seven journals of child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods: Using the Web of Science core collection, we selected 9,719 research papers published in seven psychiatric journals from 1980 to 2016. We utilized the Web of Science Analytics tool and Network Analysis Interface for Literature Studies (NAILS) Project scripts to delineate the general trends of publication in these journals...
2017: F1000Research
Haixing Li, Timothy Su, María Camarasa-Gómez, Daniel Hernangómez-Pérez, Simon Henn, Vladislav Pokorný, Caravaggio Dante Caniglia, Michael Inkpen, Richard Korytár, Michael Steigerwald, Colin Nuckolls, Ferdinand Evers, Latha Venkataraman
We report that the single molecule junction conductance of thiol-terminated silanes with Ag electrodes are higher than the conductance of those formed with Au electrodes. These results are in contrast to the trends in the metal work function Φ(Ag) < Φ(Au). As such, one would expect a better alignment of the Au Fermi level to the molecular orbital of silane that mediates charge transport. Additionally, this conductance trend is reversed when we replace the thiols with amines, highlighting the impact of metal-S covalent and metal-NH2 dative bonds in controlling the molecular conductance...
September 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Berna Akcinar, Daniel S Shaw
In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood...
September 21, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alexandra Pârvan
Attachment research shows that the formation of unconscious, insecure representations of the self, the other, and the self-other relations is linked to perpetration and receipt of violence. Attachment-focused therapy aims to change these internal schemata to more secure, adaptive representations by therapeutic work addressed to senses, emotions, and behavior. The paper proposes a new approach to altering the self and other representations in offenders and victims: it involves intellectual reflection on self, will, action and responsibility informed by Augustine's views, facilitated by actual relational experience, and translated into a distinct self-soothing strategy...
September 2017: Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology: PPP
Stuart Wood
Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in the wider context of art history, with reference to allied theories from social research. Tracing a century in art that has revised the performativity of found objects (starting with Duchamp's "Fountain"), and of found sound (crystallised by Cage's 4' 33) this paper proposes that music therapy might be a pioneer methodology of "found performance"...
September 18, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Paul Malik, Colin Phipps, Andrea Edginton, Jonathan Blay
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are ushering in the next era of targeted therapy against cancer. An ADC for cancer therapy consists of a potent cytotoxic payload that is attached to a tumour-targeted antibody by a chemical linker, usually with an average drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of 3.5-4. The theory is to deliver potent cytotoxic payloads directly to tumour cells while sparing healthy cells. However, practical application has proven to be more difficult. At present there are only two ADCs approved for clinical use...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
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