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Attachment theory

Laura Palagini, Eleonora Petri, Martina Novi, Danila Caruso, Umberto Moretto, Dieter Riemann
Studies show that unhelpful cognitive processes play a role in insomnia, whereas interpersonal factors have been less studied in insomnia. Attachment theory can be used as a cognitive-interpersonal framework for understanding insomnia. Because attachment insecurity (vs security) is related to psychiatric disorders the objective was to study the attachment style in insomnia. To this aim sixty-four subjects with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) and 38 good sleepers were evaluate in a cross-sectional study with: Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kyle W Murdock, Annina Seiler, Diana A Chirinos, Luz M Garcini, Sally L Acebo, Sheldon Cohen, Christopher P Fagundes
Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Giulia Natalucci, Noemi Faedda, Dario Calderoni, Rita Cerutti, Paola Verdecchia, Vincenzo Guidetti
Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints in children and adolescents and comorbidity rates are very high and the major associated diseases are depression, anxiety, atopic disorders, sleep, and behavioral disorders. In recent years, it has been highlighted that difficulties regulating emotions such as alexithymia have also been associated with diagnosis of somatization. Methods: We carried out a mini review analyzing the relation between alexithymia and primary headache (e.g., migraine and tension type headache) in children and adolescents by synthesizing the relevant studies in the literature on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amanda Nioi, Charlotte Wendelboe-Nelson, Sue Cowan, Hilary Cowie, Shahzad Rashid, Peter Ritchie, Mark Cherrie, Terry C Lansdown, John W Cherrie
BACKGROUND: Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production...
February 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nicholas Plusnin, Christopher A Pepping, Emiko S Kashima
Terror management theory outlines how humans seek self-esteem and worldview validation to manage death-related anxiety. Accumulating evidence reveals that close relationships serve a similar role. However, to date, there has been no synthesis of the literature that delineates when close relationships buffer mortality concerns, under what conditions, on which specific outcomes, and for whom. This systematic review presents over two decades of research to address these questions. Findings from 73 reviewed studies revealed that close relationships serve an important role in buffering death-related anxiety...
February 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Papri Chakraborty, Abhijit Nag, Ganesan Paramasivam, Ganapati Natarajan, Thalappil Pradeep
We report the formation of supramolecular adducts between monolayer-protected noble metal nanoclusters and fullerenes, specifically focussing on a well-known silver cluster, [Ag29(BDT)12]3-, where BDT is 1,3-benzene dithiol. We demonstrate that C60 molecules link with the cluster at specific locations and protect the fragile cluster core, enhancing the stability of the cluster. A combination of studies including UV-vis, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS), collision-induced dissociation (CID), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed structural details of the fullerene-functionalized clusters, [Ag29(BDT)12(C60)n]3- (n=1-9)...
February 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Meifeng Hao, Dejuan Fa, Lihong Qian, Yuqing Miao
By hydrothermal reaction, the WO3@Bi2WO6/NiWO4 nanocomposite was prepared by the coprecipitation reaction between Bi3+/Ni2+ and WO2-4 in the presence of urea and PVP. It resulted in the formation of uniform and well-dispersed nanocomposite structures with ultrathin Bi2WO6/NiWO4 nanosheets attached with ultrafine WO3 nanoparticles. The nanocomposites exhibited a wide light absorbance up to 680 nm with low indirect band gaps of 2.54 eV, leading to outstanding photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of both Rhodamine B (Rh B) and Xylenol Orange (XO) under visible light...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Renée Lajiness-O'Neill, Judith Brooks, Angela Lukomski, Stephen Schilling, Alissa Huth-Bocks, Seth Warschausky, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Tristin Nyman, Tiffany Andersen, Natalie Morris, Thomas A Schmitt, Jennifer Bell-Smith, Barbara Moir, Elise K Hodges, James E Lyddy
OBJECTIVE: PediaTrac™, a 363-item web-based tool to track infant development, administered in modules of ∼40-items per sampling period, newborn (NB), 2--, 4--, 6--, 9-- and 12--months was validated. Caregivers answered demographic, medical, and environmental questions, and questions covering the sensorimotor, feeding/eating, sleep, speech/language, cognition, social-emotional, and attachment domains. METHODS: Expert Panel Reviews and Cognitive Interviews (CI) were conducted to validate the item bank...
February 6, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Jukka Törrönen, Christoffer Tigerstedt
The article applies actor network theory (ANT) to autobiographical data on alcohol dependence to explore what ANT can offer to the analysis of 'addiction stories'. By defining 'addiction' as a relational achievement, as the effect of elements acting together as a configuration of human and non-human actors, the article demonstrates how the moving and changing attachments of addiction can be dynamically analyzed with concepts of 'assemblage', 'mediator', 'tendency', 'translation', 'trajectory', 'immutable mobile', 'fluid' and 'bush fire'...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Hui Huang, Yuan Lin, Pengcheng Peng, Jinju Geng, Ke Xu, Yan Zhang, Lili Ding, Hongqiang Ren
Start-up of biofilm process initiated by the deposition of soluble matters on biocarriers is a very important yet time-consuming procedure. However, rapid start-up methods especially in the enhancement of soluble matters deposition have been rarely addressed. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was applied to investigate the influences of calcium ion and rhamnolipid (RL) on the deposition of soluble matters from real and synthetic industrial wastewaters with different configurations of organics (bovine serum albumin and sodium alginate) and ionic strength on the model biocarriers polystyrene and polyamide...
January 8, 2018: Water Research
Xiancai Cao, Kevin P Madore, Dahua Wang, Daniel L Schacter
Attachment theories and studies have shown that Internal Working Models (IWMs) can impact autobiographical memory and future-oriented information processing relevant to close relationships. According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis (CESH), both remembering the past and imagining the future rely on episodic memory. We hypothesised that one way IWMs may bridge past experiences and future adaptations is via episodic memory. The present study investigated the association between attachment and episodic specificity in attachment-relevant and attachment-irrelevant memory and imagination among young and older adults...
February 5, 2018: Memory
Tal Cohen, Chon U Chan, L Mahadevan
Thin adhesive pads used to attach objects to each other often fail catastrophically. Here we consider the nature of failure of such a pad under loading parallel to the adhesive substrate. To determine the modes of failure of the pad and to understand what limits its load bearing capacity, we conduct experiments with finite pads composed of a soft adhesive layer with a stiff backing and load them parallel to the surface of adhesion. We find that two different peeling mechanisms emerge as a function of the slenderness of the adhesive pad: an interfacial peeling mechanism that starts close to the pulling end for very long pads, and an unstable curling mechanism that starts at the opposite end for relatively short pads...
February 5, 2018: Soft Matter
Shuangshuang Zhang, Shuanhu Qi, Leonid I Klushin, Alexander M Skvortsov, Dadong Yan, Friederike Schmid
We use Brownian dynamics simulations and analytical theory to compare two prominent types of single molecule transitions. One is the adsorption transition of a loop (a chain with two ends bound to an attractive substrate) driven by an attraction parameter ε and the other is the loop-stretch transition in a chain with one end attached to a repulsive substrate, driven by an external end-force F applied to the free end. Specifically, we compare the behavior of the respective order parameters of the transitions, i...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
M Borówko, S Sokołowski, T Staszewski, O Pizio
We study models of hairy nanoparticles in contact with a hard wall. Each particle is built of a spherical core with a number of ligands attached to it and each ligand is composed of several spherical, tangentially jointed segments. The number of segments is the same for all ligands. Particular models differ by the numbers of ligands and of segments per ligand, but the total number of segments is constant. Moreover, our model assumes that the ligands are tethered to the core in such a manner that they can "slide" over the core surface...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sara Aristizabal, Carolina Amador Carrascal, Ivan Z Nenadic, James F Greenleaf, Matthew W Urban
Currently, dynamic elastography techniques estimate the linear elastic shear modulus of different body tissues. New methods that investigate other properties of soft tissues such as anisotropy, viscosity, and shear nonlinearity would provide more information about the structure and function of the tissue and might provide a better contrast than tissue stiffness and hence provide more effective diagnostic tools for some diseases. It has previously been shown that shear wave velocity in a medium changes due to an applied stress, a phenomenon called acoustoelasticity (AE)...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Milovan Šuvakov, Miroslav Andjelković, Bosiljka Tadić
Multilevel self-assembly involving small structured groups of nano-particles provides new routes to development of functional materials with a sophisticated architecture. Apart from the inter-particle forces, the geometrical shapes and compatibility of the building blocks are decisive factors. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of these processes is essential for the design of assemblies of desired properties. Here, we introduce a computational model for cooperative self-assembly with the simultaneous attachment of structured groups of particles, which can be described by simplexes (connected pairs, triangles, tetrahedrons and higher order cliques) to a growing network...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huijuan You, Shiwen Guo, Shimin Le, Qingnan Tang, Mingxi Yao, Xiaodan Zhao, Jie Yan
Many small protein domains or nucleic acids structures undergo two-state unfolding-refolding transitions during mechanical stretching using single-molecule techniques. Here, by applying the Jarzynski equality (JE), we analytically express the folding energy of a molecule as a function of the experimentally measured transition points ξ* obtained with two typical time-varying mechanical constraints: the force constraints F(t) and the position constraints R(t) of a Hookian spring attached to one end of the molecule...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Angela Parise, Aurelio Alvarez-Ibarra, Xiaojing Wu, Xiaodong Zhao, Julien Pilmé, Aurélien de la Lande
We report original analyses of attosecond electron dynamics of molecules subject to collisions by high energy charged particles based on Real-Time Time-Dependent-Density-Functional-Theory simulations coupled to Topological Analyses of the Electron Localization Function (TA-TD-ELF). We investigate irradiation of water and guanine. TA-TD-ELF enables qualitative and quantitative characterizations of bond breaking and formation, of charge migration within topological basins, or of electron attachment to the colliding particle...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ibon Alkorta, M Merced Montero-Campillo, Jose Elguero, Manuel Yañez, Otilia Mo
The ability of a set of beryllium-substituted cyclohexane derivatives to trap electrons was determined by evaluating their electron affinities at the G4(MP2) level of theory. The nature of bonding and the effect of the different substituents attached to beryllium were studied by different computational methods (QTAIM, ELF, NBO and analysis of the spin density), revealing the existence of a one-electron/Be3 cyclic bonding in di and tri-substituted species. This peculiar bond is the key for the high electron affinity values found in the tri-BeX derivatives (X = F, Cl, CN), such as the triberyllium cyano derivatives of cyclohexane, reaching values of 294 kJ·mol-1, only marginally smaller than the values reported for tetracyanoethylene (305 kJ·mol-1) and for some fullerenes (306 kJ·mol-1)...
January 29, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yang Wang, Sergio Díaz-Tendero, Manuel Alcami, Fernando Martin
Understanding the relationship between structure and stability is one of the fundamental aspects of fullerene chemistry, as the number of possible cage isomers is very large and complexity increases by orders of magnitude when chemical groups are attached to the fullerene cage. The well-established stability rules valid for neutral fullerenes do not apply to many charged or functionalized fullerenes. Here we present the theory, implementation and applications of two simple topology-based models that allow one to predict the relative stability of charged and functionalized fullerenes without the need for quantum chemistry calculations: (i) the charge stabilization index (CSI) model, based on the concepts of cage connectivity and frontier π orbitals, which offers a general framework for the relative stability of both positively and negatively charged fullerenes, as well as endohedral metallofullerenes, and (ii) the exohedral fullerene stabilization index (XSI) model, which incorporates all key factors governing the stability of exohedral fullerenes, namely, π delocalization, σ strain and steric hindrance between addends...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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