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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776012/evolving-self-view-and-body-image-concerns-in-female-post-operative-bariatric-surgery-patients
#1
Tamara O Perdue, Ann Schreier, Melvin Swanson, Janice Neil, Robert Carels
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research study explores the experience of post-operative bariatric surgery patients as they adjust to diminished weight and differentiates that adjustment from the more general concept of body image. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective way to reduce weight and co-morbidities associated with obesity. Complete success requires that patients must adjust psychologically as they lose weight. If this does not occur, bariatric patients may experience a 'mind-body lag' in which the patient's internal body image lags behind the external changes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771220/mindful-self-hypnosis-for-self-care-an-integrative-model-and-illustrative-case-example
#2
Gary R Elkins, R Lynae Roberts, Lauren Simicich
The combination of mindfulness and self-hypnosis could provide a tool that is easily implemented by individuals who want to care for their well-being in times of high stress. Each discipline has been shown to be effective in relieving stress, and integration could further facilitate change while creating a tool that is highly accessible. There are many similarities between the two practices, such as focusing of attention and the emphasis on mind-body connection. However, important distinctions in psychological (e...
July 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#3
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760510/electron-phonon-interaction-in-efficient-perovskite-blue-emitters
#4
Xiwen Gong, Oleksandr Voznyy, Ankit Jain, Wenjia Liu, Randy Sabatini, Zachary Piontkowski, Grant Walters, Golam Bappi, Sergiy Nokhrin, Oleksandr Bushuyev, Mingjian Yuan, Riccardo Comin, David McCamant, Shana O Kelley, Edward H Sargent
Low-dimensional perovskites have-in view of their high radiative recombination rates-shown great promise in achieving high luminescence brightness and colour saturation. Here we investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the luminescence of single crystals of two-dimensional perovskites, showing that reducing these interactions can lead to bright blue emission in two-dimensional perovskites. Resonance Raman spectra and deformation potential analysis show that strong electron-phonon interactions result in fast non-radiative decay, and that this lowers the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY)...
May 14, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755383/seeing-more-than-human-autism-and-anthropomorphic-theory-of-mind
#5
REVIEW
Gray Atherton, Liam Cross
Theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the process of taking another's perspective. Anthropomorphism can be seen as the extension of ToM to non-human entities. This review examines the literature concerning ToM and anthropomorphism in relation to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), specifically addressing the questions of how and why those on the spectrum both show an increased interest for anthropomorphism and may even show improved ToM abilities when judging the mental states of anthropomorphic characters...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755333/top-mysteries-of-the-mind-insights-from-the-default-space-model-of-consciousness
#6
Ravinder Jerath, Connor Beveridge
Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755058/when-the-eyes-are-shut-the-strange-case-of-girolamo-cardano-s-idolum-in-i-somniorum-synesiorum-libri-iiii-i-1562
#7
Anna Corrias
In his treatise on dreams Somniorum Synesiorum Libri IIII, published in 1562, the Italian Renaissance philosopher and physician Girolamo Cardano distinguishes between idola and visiones (or visa). Historians have discussed the reasons for such a distinction without taking into account Cardano's original theory of sense-perception. In this article I shall argue that, in order to interpret the meaning of idola and visiones in Cardano's theory of dreams, one should bear in mind his view that hearing is superior to sight and that while idola are essentially based on sound, visiones depend on images...
2018: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751984/age-related-trajectories-of-social-cognition-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-exploratory-study
#8
Charlie A Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Carrie E Bearden, Daniel H Mathalon, Scott W Woods, Jason K Johannesen
BACKGROUND: Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. METHOD: Emotion perception (EP) and theory of mind (ToM) were assessed in 675 CHR and 263 healthy comparison (HC) participants aged 12-35...
May 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749634/from-automata-to-animate-beings-the-scope-and-limits-of-attributing-socialness-to-artificial-agents
#9
REVIEW
Ruud Hortensius, Emily S Cross
Understanding the mechanisms and consequences of attributing socialness to artificial agents has important implications for how we can use technology to lead more productive and fulfilling lives. Here, we integrate recent findings on the factors that shape behavioral and brain mechanisms that support social interactions between humans and artificial agents. We review how visual features of an agent, as well as knowledge factors within the human observer, shape attributions across dimensions of socialness. We explore how anthropomorphism and dehumanization further influence how we perceive and interact with artificial agents...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745293/mothers-insightfulness-regarding-their-children-s-inner-world-associations-with-mothers-history-of-sexual-abuse-and-lack-of-resolution-of-the-trauma
#10
Nina Koren-Karie, Rachel Getzler-Yosef
The study examined the insightfulness of mothers who experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA). Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that mothers who experienced CSA will be less insightful than those who did not experience CSA, and that state of mind with no marked signs of lack of resolution of the trauma can buffer against its negative effects. The insightfulness of 30 mothers who experienced CSA and 30 demographically matched mothers but with no CSA was assessed using the Insightfulness Assessment...
May 10, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744972/are-socio-emotional-and-neurocognitive-functioning-predictors-of-therapeutic-outcomes-for-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Anna Oldershaw, Tony Lavender, Ulrike Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Emotional, social, and neurocognitive factors are theorised to maintain anorexia nervosa (AN). Yet whether they predict outcomes or relate to clinical change remains unclear. METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive adult outpatient eating disorder service referrals presenting with AN, who participated in a randomised controlled trial comparing 2 psychotherapies, were assessed for emotional processing, social cognition, and neurocognition pretherapy and posttherapy...
May 10, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742460/low-grade-inflammation-decreases-emotion-recognition-evidence-from-the-vaccination-model-of-inflammation
#12
Leonie Jt Balter, Sasha Hulsken, Sarah Aldred, Mark T Drayson, Suzanne Higgs, Jet Jcs Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jane E Raymond, Jos A Bosch
The ability to adequately interpret the mental state of another person is key to complex human social interaction. Recent evidence suggests that this ability, considered a hallmark of 'theory of mind' (ToM), becomes impaired by inflammation. However, extant supportive empirical evidence is based on experiments that induce not only inflammation but also induce discomfort and sickness, factors that could also account for temporary social impairment. Hence, an experimental inflammation manipulation was applied that avoided this confound, isolating effects of inflammation and social interaction...
May 6, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741966/feminine-identity-and-functional-benefits-are-key-factors-in-women-s-decision-making-about-upper-limb-prostheses-a-case-series
#13
Linda Resnik, Shana Klinger, Anisha Gill, Sarah Ekerholm Biester
PURPOSE: Although the DEKA Arm promises new abilities, it is unclear if women with upper limb amputation are willing to avail themselves of this new technology. The study purpose was to understand key factors and tradeoffs that shape women's attitudes towards the DEKA Arm. METHODS: This case series includes three women with transradial amputation. Structured surveys and semi-guided interviews were administered after completion of in-laboratory training and a home trial of the DEKA Arm...
May 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740369/am-i-self-conscious-or-does-self-organization-entail-self-consciousness
#14
Karl Friston
Is self-consciousness necessary for consciousness? The answer is yes. So there you have it-the answer is yes. This was my response to a question I was asked to address in a recent AEON piece (https://aeon.co/essays/consciousness-is-not-a-thing-but-a-process-of-inference). What follows is based upon the notes for that essay, with a special focus on self-organization, self-evidencing and self-modeling. I will try to substantiate my (polemic) answer from the perspective of a physicist. In brief, the argument goes as follows: if we want to talk about creatures, like ourselves, then we have to identify the characteristic behaviors they must exhibit...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740360/the-importance-of-social-cognition-in-improving-functional-outcomes-in-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Afzal Javed, Asha Charles
Social cognition has become recognized as an important driver of functional outcomes and overall recovery in patients with schizophrenia, mediating the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Since antipsychotic therapy targeting remission of clinical symptoms has been shown to have a limited impact on social cognition, there has been an increasing drive to develop therapeutic strategies to specifically improve social cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to review current evidence relating to social cognition in schizophrenia and its clinical implications, including interventions designed to target the core domains of social cognition (emotion processing, theory of mind, attributional bias, and social perception) as a means of improving functional outcomes and thereby increasing the likelihood of recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739523/psychodynamic-psychiatry-the-biopsychosocial-model-and-the-difficult-patient
#16
REVIEW
Eric M Plakun
This article defines psychodynamic psychiatry as the intersection between general psychiatry and psychoanalysis as a theory of mind. Psychodynamic psychiatry is built on a biopsychosocial model for understanding and treating mental disorders. Currently, a narrower biomedical model is in ascendancy, but it has not lived up to its promise and is not supported by emerging science as robustly as is the biopsychosocial model. The "difficult patient" emerges in part from the limits of our treatment models and treatment methods...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725559/trapped-as-a-group-escape-as-a-team-applying-gamification-to-incorporate-team-building-skills-through-an-escape-room-experience
#17
Xiao Chi Zhang, Hyunjoo Lee, Carlos Rodriguez, Joshua Rudner, Teresa M Chan, Dimitrios Papanagnou
Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational 'Escape Rooms' have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively 'escape the room' in the time allotted...
March 2, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718384/neural-substrates-for-moral-judgments-of-psychological-versus-physical-harm
#18
Lily Tsoi, James A Dungan, Aleksandr Chakroff, Liane L Young
While we may think about harm as primarily being about physical injury, harm can also take the form of negative psychological impact. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the extent to which moral judgments of physical and psychological harms are processed similarly, focusing on brain regions implicated in mental state reasoning or theory of mind, a key cognitive process for moral judgment. First, univariate analyses reveal item-specific features that lead to greater recruitment of theory of mind regions for psychological harm versus physical harm...
April 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716422/using-power-as-a-negative-cue-how-conspiracy-mentality-affects-epistemic-trust-in-sources-of-historical-knowledge
#19
Roland Imhoff, Pia Lamberty, Olivier Klein
Classical theories of attitude change point to the positive effect of source expertise on perceived source credibility persuasion, but there is an ongoing societal debate on the increase in anti-elitist sentiments and conspiracy theories regarding the allegedly untrustworthy power elite. In one correlational ( N = 275) and three experimental studies ( N = 195, N = 464, N = 225), we tested the novel idea that people who endorse a conspiratorial mind-set (conspiracy mentality) indeed exhibit markedly different reactions to cues of epistemic authoritativeness than those who do not: Whereas the perceived credibility of powerful sources decreased with the recipients' conspiracy mentality, that of powerless sources increased independent of and incremental to other biases, such as the need to see the ingroup in particularly positive light...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709791/thwarted-interpersonal-needs-mediate-the-relation-between-facets-of-mindfulness-and-suicide-ideation-among-psychiatric-inpatients
#20
Jared F Roush, Sean M Mitchell, Sarah L Brown, Kelly C Cukrowicz
Previous research suggests a negative association between mindfulness and suicide ideation, yet limited research has examined the specific role of mindfulness on suicide ideation or attempted to link this construct with theory-driven risk factors for suicide among high-risk individuals. The current study examined the mediating role of thwarted interpersonal needs (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) in the relation between facets of mindfulness and suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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