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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225838/-mental-simulation-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
Daniel G Politis, Wanda Y Rubinstein, María E Tabernero
: There is a common network for perception and execution of actions necessary for the acquisition of Theory of Mind, and the mirror neuron system could be the neural substrate. OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of apraxia and their relationship to Theory of Mind in patients with behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: 24 patients were assessed, and the cognitive praxis assessment battery and theory of mind were administered...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221090/no-support-for-the-claim-that-literary-fiction-uniquely-and-immediately-improves-theory-of-mind-a-reply-to-kidd-and-castano-s-commentary-on-panero-et-al-2016
#2
Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R Goldstein, Jennifer L Barnes, Hiram Brownell, Ellen Winner
Kidd and Castano (in press) critique our failure to replicate Kidd and Castano (2013) on 3 grounds: failure to exclude people who did not read the texts, failure of random assignment, and failure to exclude people who did not take the Author Recognition Test (ART). This response addresses each of these critiques. Most importantly, we note that even when Kidd and Castano reanalyzed our data in the way that they argue is most appropriate, they still failed to replicate the pattern of results reported in their original study...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221089/panero-et-al-2016-failure-to-replicate-methods-caused-the-failure-to-replicate-results
#3
David Comer Kidd, Emanuele Castano
Contrary to Kidd and Castano (2013), Panero et al. (2016) fail to find that reading literary fiction improves performance on an advanced test of theory of mind (ToM), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. However, this commentary shows that the findings presented in Panero et al. (2016) are not reliable due to two striking threats to the internal validity of their studies that were not clearly disclosed or discussed in the manuscript or supplementary materials. First, no effective strategy was implemented to ensure that participants read their assigned texts, and examination of the data revealed many participants whose reading times indicate that they were not exposed to the manipulation...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221086/cassandra-s-regret-the-psychology-of-not-wanting-to-know
#4
Gerd Gigerenzer, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
Ignorance is generally pictured as an unwanted state of mind, and the act of willful ignorance may raise eyebrows. Yet people do not always want to know, demonstrating a lack of curiosity at odds with theories postulating a general need for certainty, ambiguity aversion, or the Bayesian principle of total evidence. We propose a regret theory of deliberate ignorance that covers both negative feelings that may arise from foreknowledge of negative events, such as death and divorce, and positive feelings of surprise and suspense that may arise from foreknowledge of positive events, such as knowing the sex of an unborn child...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220359/mothers-and-children-s-story-telling-a-study-of-dyads-with-typically-developing-children-and-children-with-asd
#5
Tiffany L Hutchins, Chelsea Deraway, Patricia Prelock, Ana O'Neill
The production of specific mental state terms types and functions by caregivers and their TD children and caregivers and their children with ASD were assessed in two contexts: a parent's story-telling task and a child's story-telling task. Caregivers of children with ASD produced less causal talk and proportionally less desire and cognitive talk than did caregivers of TD children. When focusing only on variation in our ASD sample, caregivers' and children's production of different mental state references varied with context and were predicted by different child characteristics (i...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220288/social-cognition-according-to-cognitive-impairment-in-different-clinical-phenotypes-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Cecile Dulau, Mathilde Deloire, Helene Diaz, Aurore Saubusse, Julie Charre-Morin, Antoinette Prouteau, Bruno Brochet
The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between social cognition (SC) and cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). A prospective study was conducted in 60 PwMS, 30 with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and 15 with primary progressive MS (PPMS), and in healthy subjects (HS). All subjects were assessed by the Bordeaux Social Cognition Evaluation Protocol (PECS-B) (facial emotion recognition, theory of mind, emotional awareness and cognitive and affective alexithymia), by a large neuropsychological battery and by questionnaires (depression and anxiety)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220087/mental-state-understanding-in-children-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#7
Beatrix Lábadi, Anna M Beke
Impaired social functioning is a well-known outcome of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Social deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, social reasoning, and recognition of facial expression have all been documented in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In the present study, we examined the emotional and mentalizing deficits that contributing to the social-cognitive development in children with isolated corpus callosum agenesia, including emotion recognition, theory of mind, executive function, working memory, and behavioral impairments as assessed by the parents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#8
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#9
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#10
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215391/childhood-trauma-related-alterations-in-brain-function-during-a-theory-of-mind-task-in-schizophrenia
#11
Yann Quidé, Xin H Ong, Sebastian Mohnke, Knut Schnell, Henrik Walter, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
February 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215285/perspectives-on-perspective-taking-how-children-think-about-the-minds-of-others
#12
S A J Birch, V Li, T Haddock, S E Ghrear, P Brosseau-Liard, A Baimel, M Whyte
Perspective taking, or "theory of mind," involves reasoning about the mental states of others (e.g., their intentions, desires, knowledge, beliefs) and is called upon in virtually every aspect of human interaction. Our goals in writing this chapter were to provide an overview of (a) the research questions developmental psychologists ask to shed light on how children think about the inner workings of the mind, and (b) why such research is invaluable in understanding human nature and our ability to interact with, and learn from, one another...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215284/how-children-learn-to-navigate-the-symbolic-world-of-pictures-the-importance-of-the-artist-s-mind-and-differentiating-picture-modalities
#13
M L Allen, E Armitage
Pictures offer a unique and essential contribution to our lives, both in terms of aesthetic pleasure and links to symbolic thought. As such, psychologists have devoted significant time to investigating how children acquire an understanding of pictures. This chapter focuses on two particular facets of this development: the role of the artist and the importance of picture modality. First, we review work that has focused on tracking children's ability to (a) map the relationship between the mental state of the artist and their pictures, and (b) incorporate such considerations into their evaluations of pictures...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213839/the-role-of-theory-of-mind-on-social-information-processing-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-mediation-analysis
#15
Monica Mazza, Melania Mariano, Sara Peretti, Francesco Masedu, Maria Chiara Pino, Marco Valenti
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show significant impairments in social skills and theory of mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and social information processing abilities in 52 children with ASD compared to 55 typically developing (TD) children. A mediation analysis evaluated whether social information processing abilities can be mediated by ToM competences. In our results, children with autism showed a deficit in social skills and ToM components. The innovative results of our study applying mediation analysis demonstrate that ToM plays a key role in the development of social abilities, and the lack of ToM competences in children with autism impairs their competent social behavior...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211586/social-cognition-and-emotional-functioning-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#16
Matteo Aloi, Marianna Rania, Mariarita Caroleo, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-García
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the theory of mind ability in a sample of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and to explore the correlations between emotional and clinical assessments. METHODS: Overall, 20 non-BED, 16 under-threshold BED and 22 BED obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing social cognition and eating disorder psychopathology. RESULTS: Binge eating disorder, non-BED and under-threshold-BED obese patients showed similar ability to recognise others' emotions, but BED obese patients exhibited a deficit in recognising their own emotions as demonstrated by more impaired levels of alexithymia and interoceptive awareness and were more depressed...
February 17, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210999/computational-cognitive-modeling-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-fatigue-from-sleep-loss
#17
Matthew M Walsh, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hans P A Van Dongen
Computational models have become common tools in psychology. They provide quantitative instantiations of theories that seek to explain the functioning of the human mind. In this paper, we focus on identifying deep theoretical similarities between two very different models. Both models are concerned with how fatigue from sleep loss impacts cognitive processing. The first is based on the diffusion model and posits that fatigue decreases the drift rate of the diffusion process. The second is based on the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and posits that fatigue decreases the utility of candidate actions leading to microlapses in cognitive processing...
February 16, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206846/the-healer-s-art-hart-veterinary-students-connecting-with-self-peers-and-the-profession
#18
Beatrice Meyer-Parsons, Sarah Van Etten, Jane R Shaw
This case study sought to understand veterinary students' perceptions and experiences of the Healer's Art (HART) elective to support well-being and resilience. Students' "mindful attention" was assessed using the MAAS-State scale. Course evaluations and written materials for course exercises (artifacts) across the 2012-2015 cohorts of Colorado State University's HART veterinary students (n=99) were analyzed for themes using a grounded theory approach, followed by thematic comparison with analyses of HART medical student participants...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205609/association-of-fronto-temporal-function-with-cognitive-ability-in-schizophrenia
#19
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masashi Itakura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Deficits in neuropsychological performance are common in schizophrenia, but their relationship with the fronto-temporal functional abnormalities associated with this condition remains unclear. We explored the relationship between neuropsychological performance as measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire theory of mind (ToM) subscale and fronto-temporal function in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199713/neural-mechanisms-underlying-affective-theory-of-mind-in-violent-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-or-schizophrenia
#20
Boris Schiffer, Christina Pawliczek, Bernhard W Müller, Jens Wiltfang, Martin Brüne, Michael Forsting, Elke R Gizewski, Norbert Leygraf, Sheilagh Hodgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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