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Mind theory

Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
M Tyloo, T Coletta, Ph Jacquod
In network theory, a question of prime importance is how to assess network vulnerability in a fast and reliable manner. With this issue in mind, we investigate the response to external perturbations of coupled dynamical systems on complex networks. We find that for specific, nonaveraged perturbations, the response of synchronous states depends on the eigenvalues of the stability matrix of the unperturbed dynamics, as well as on its eigenmodes via their overlap with the perturbation vector. Once averaged over properly defined ensembles of perturbations, the response is given by new graph topological indices, which we introduce as generalized Kirchhoff indices...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Julian Cespedes-Guevara, Tuomas Eerola
Basic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to the expression of emotions in music and speech prosody. In this article we advocate for a shift from this focus on basic emotions to a constructionist account. This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music's ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Paulomi M Sudhir
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Suzanne L K Stewart, Astrid Schepman, Matthew Haigh, Rhian McHugh, Andrew J Stewart
The recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions (Experiment 1) as well as differently-valenced emotions (Experiment 2) conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we found evidence for a context effect on accuracy only in Experiment 1...
March 14, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Christopher A Stevens, Jeroen Daamen, Emma Gaudrain, Tom Renkema, Jakob Dirk Top, Fokie Cnossen, Niels A Taatgen
Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yolanda Maroño Souto, Miriam Vázquez Campo, Francisco Díaz Llenderrozas, Marina Rodríguez Álvarez, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García Caballero
Background: Schizophrenia patients present deficits in social cognition (SC), emotion and social perception, theory of mind (ToM), and attributional style. This study tested the efficacy, in real clinical conditions, of a online self-training program in SC, e-Motional Training® , in comparison with treatment as usual. Method: A randomized single-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 60 schizophrenia stable outpatients. All patients (control and intervention) were treated with drug therapy, case management, and individual and group psychotherapy (not focused on SC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Cary Cuncic, Glenn Regehr, Heather Frost, Joanna Bates
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between preceptor and trainee is becoming recognized as a critical component of teaching, in particular in the negotiation of feedback and in the formation of professional identity. This paper elaborates on the nature of the relationships between preceptor and student that evolve in the context of rural longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). METHODS: We drew on constructivist grounded theory for the research approach. We interviewed nine LIC family practice preceptors from three sites at one educational institution...
March 12, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Hilary Richardson, Grace Lisandrelli, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Rebecca Saxe
Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Psychopathic individuals display a chronic and flagrant disregard for the welfare of others through their callous and manipulative behavior. Historically, this behavior is thought to result from deficits in social-affective processing. However, we show that at least some psychopathic behaviors may be rooted in a cognitive deficit, specifically an inability to automatically take another person's perspective. Unlike prior studies that rely solely on controlled theory of mind (ToM) tasks, we employ a task that taps into automatic ToM processing...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dorit Kliemann, Ralph Adolphs
Our ability to understand and think about the mental states of other people is referred to as 'mentalizing' or 'theory of mind'. It features prominently in all social behavior, is essential for maintaining relationships, and shows pronounced individual differences. Here we review new approaches to study the underlying psychological mechanisms and discuss how they could best be investigated using modern tools from social neuroscience. We list key desiderata for the field, such as validity, specificity, and reproducibility, and link them to specific recommendations for the future...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Chia-Ying Chu, Utako Minai
Previous studies have shown that young children often fail to comprehend demonstratives correctly when they are uttered by a speaker whose perspective is different from children's own, and instead tend to interpret them with respect to their own perspective (e.g., Webb and Abrahamson in J Child Lang 3(3):349-367, 1976); Clark and Sengul in J Child Lang 5(3):457-475, 1978). In the current study, we examined children's comprehension of demonstratives in English (this and that) and Mandarin Chinese (zhe and na) in order to test the hypothesis that children's non-adult-like demonstrative comprehension is related to their still-developing non-linguistic cognitive abilities supporting perspective-taking, including Theory of Mind and Executive Function...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
J Peña, N Ibarretxe-Bilbao, P Sánchez, J J Uriarte, E Elizagarate, M Gutierrez, N Ojeda
Whereas the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia is widely known, studies examining mechanisms for functional improvement are still scarce. The aim of the study was to examine the mediational mechanisms through which cognitive rehabilitation improves functioning in schizophrenia. One hundred and eleven schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to either a 4-month cognitive rehabilitation group or an active control group. Patients underwent a neurocognitive battery (including processing speed, verbal memory, working memory and executive functioning) and social cognition assessment (emotion perception, theory of mind and social perception)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Inez M Greven, Paul E Downing, Richard Ramsey
Body shape cues inferences regarding personality and health, but the neural processes underpinning such inferences remain poorly understood. Across two fMRI experiments, we test the extent to which neural networks associated with body perception and theory-of-mind (ToM) support social inferences based on body shape. Participants observed obese, muscular, and slim bodies that cued distinct social inferences as pilot experiments revealed. To investigate judgment intentionality, the first fMRI experiment required participants to detect repeat presentations of bodies, whereas in fMRI Experiment 2 participants intentionally formed an impression...
March 9, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Y J Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Kevin A Pelphrey, Fred R Volkmar, Sandra B Chapman
Measuring treatment efficacy in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relies primarily on behaviors, with limited evidence as to the neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral gains. This pilot study addresses this void by investigating neural and behavioral changes in a Phase I trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD who received an evidence-based behavioral intervention, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training over 5 weeks for a total of 10 hr. The participants were tested pre- and post-training with a validated biological/social versus scrambled/nonsocial motion neuroimaging task, previously shown to activate regions within the social brain networks...
March 8, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Anna Bailey, Helen Ellis-Caird, Carla Croft
OBJECTIVE: To provide a model of resilience among women undergoing fertility treatments, who experience repeated unsuccessful conception attempts. BACKGROUND: Assisted reproductive treatment is emotionally and physically challenging. Women undergoing such treatments report experiencing high levels of anxiety and depression. There continues to be a lack of understanding of the process women go through to adapt to the challenges associated with fertility treatment, in order to continue to pursue their goal of pregnancy...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
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