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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342210/effects-of-theory-of-mind-performance-training-on-reducing-bullying-involvement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Meng-Jung Liu, Le-Yin Ma, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Min Chen, Tai-Ling Liu, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339513/projecting-one-s-own-spatial-bias-onto-others-during-a-theory-of-mind-task
#2
Branden J Bio, Taylor W Webb, Michael S A Graziano
Many people show a left-right bias in visual processing. We measured spatial bias in neurotypical participants using a variant of the line bisection task. In the same participants, we measured performance in a social cognition task. This theory-of-mind task measured whether each participant had a processing-speed bias toward the right of, or left of, a cartoon agent about which the participant was thinking. Crucially, the cartoon was rotated such that what was left and right with respect to the cartoon was up and down with respect to the participant...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336032/my-mind-your-mind-and-god-s-mind-how-children-and-adults-conceive-of-different-agents-moral-beliefs
#3
Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D Lane, Adam Waytz, Liane L Young
Extending prior research on belief attributions, we investigated the extent to which 5- to 8-year-olds and adults distinguish their beliefs and other humans' beliefs from God's beliefs. In Study 1, children reported that all agents held the same beliefs, whereas adults drew greater distinctions among agents. For example, adults reported that God was less likely than humans to view behaviors as morally acceptable. Study 2 additionally investigated attributions of beliefs about controversial behaviours (e.g., telling prosocial lies) and belief stability...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332047/sally-anne-test-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#4
Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331664/children-exhibit-different-performance-patterns-in-explicit-and-implicit-theory-of-mind-tasks
#5
Nese Oktay-Gür, Alexandra Schulz, Hannes Rakoczy
Three studies tested scope and limits of children's implicit and explicit theory of mind. In Studies 1 and 2, three- to six-year-olds (N = 84) were presented with closely matched explicit false belief tasks that differed in whether or not they required an understanding of aspectuality. Results revealed that children performed equally well in the different tasks, and performance was strongly correlated. Study 3 tested two-year-olds (N = 81) in implicit interactive versions of these tasks and found evidence for dis-unity: children performed competently only in those tasks that did not require an understanding of aspectuality...
January 11, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329423/development-and-early-validation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-to-assess-sleep-amongst-people-experiencing-problems-with-alcohol-or-other-drugs
#6
Joanne Neale, Silia Vitoratou, Paul Lennon, Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Daria Panebianco, John Strang, John Marsden
Study Objectives: To develop a patient reported outcome measure to assess sleep amongst people experiencing problems with alcohol or other drugs. Methods: Item development included secondary analyses of qualitative interviews with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, a review of validated sleep measures, focus groups with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, and feedback from drug/alcohol users recruited from community and residential settings. An initial version of the measure was completed by 549 current and former drug/alcohol users (442 in person [IP] and 107 online [OL])...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324244/how-social-status-influences-our-understanding-of-others-mental-states
#7
Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen
The current study investigated whether children's relative social status within a context influences their ability to identify others' mental states. Across two experiments, 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 103) were randomly assigned to hold either an advantaged or disadvantaged social status and were assessed on their ability to accurately identify others' mental states (via false-belief and belief-emotion "theory of mind" assessments). When participants' status was manipulated by a structural factor (gender; Experiment 1), participants with disadvantaged status were more likely than participants with advantaged status to pass the false-belief and belief-emotion assessments...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309954/impaired-theory-of-mind-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-with-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-association-with-behavioral-manifestations-of-executive-dysfunction
#8
Ting Zhang, Lingyan Chen, Yu Wang, Mengmeng Zhang, Lanlan Wang, Xiangjun Xu, Gairong Xiao, Jing Chen, Yeru Shen, Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a core feature of cognitive impairments. Previous studies showed that patients with focal epilepsy have deficits in both theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). However, there are few studies of ToM in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), especially in populations with pediatric epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of ToM and EF, including some of their subcomponents, and explore the relationship between them in Chinese children with IGE...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306056/subclinical-maternal-depressive-symptoms-modulate-right-inferior-frontal-response-to-inferring-affective-mental-states-of-adults-but-not-of-infants
#9
Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283891/lee-geropalliative-caring-model-a-situation-specific-theory-for-older-adults
#10
Susan M Lee
This article describes the Lee Geropalliative Caring Model (GCM), a situation-specific theory that guides geropalliative care, defined as the care of older adults in the last 2 years of life. Underpinned by the theory of human caring, the GCM offers a framework for achieving the person/family outcome of well-being by suggesting caring interventions within 4 priority domains: aligning care, keeping safe, comforting body/mind/spirit, and facilitating transitions to persons with late-stage illness, including frailty and dementia...
December 27, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278221/people-powered-health%C3%A2-taking-front-line-ownership-to-the-next-level
#11
Leslee J Thompson, Louise Clement
Collaboration is a powerful force of social change. History has shown us time and time again that when people come together with a shared passion for making things better, high impact change can happen. Minds are opened. Voices are heard. Lives are saved. Our experience at Health Standards Organization (HSO) and Accreditation Canada shows that when people feel involved, empowered and engaged in a meaningful way to bring about improvement, then the chances that it will be sustained over time increase as well...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277240/-a-mentalization-based-perspective-on-childhood-autism-treatment
#12
M Thevenet, C Dondé, R Machabert, L Ancona, C Jost, N Georgieff
Mentalization is a process by which a subject makes sense of both his own mental representations and of those around him. Disturbances in the mentalization process are found in several psychiatric disorders, notably borderline personality disorders for which mentalization-based treatments (MBT) have been developed and evaluated. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a theory of mind impairments, which corresponds to disturbances in the mentalization process. Although no MBT protocol for patients with ASD has been described in the literature, such treatment appears promising to improve theory of mind and functional outcome of these children...
December 22, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#13
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261654/correction-reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#14
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005833.].
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249615/transcultural-pain-management-theory-practice-and-nurse-client-partnerships
#15
REVIEW
William E Rosa
Nursing is becoming increasingly aware of its impact as a global profession. Part of this evolution is the understanding that the Western evidence-based construct may not be reliably or universally applicable to transcultural settings and clients. In a global world, no 'one size fits all' and no singular approach to pain management is appropriate; there are, quite literally, infinite variations in cross-cultural dynamics. Nurses working in the field of pain management must be able to navigate their responsibilities within the global health context...
December 14, 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248167/the-intersection-of-physician-wellbeing-and-clinical-application-of-diabetes-guidelines
#16
Dean A Seehusen, Justin Deavers, Arch G Mainous, Christy J W Ledford
OBJECTIVES: Prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes are complex conditions that place significant strain on medical providers. This can have a negative impact on providers' wellbeing and could impact clinical decisions. We investigated the interplay of caring for patients with prediabetes, physician mental wellbeing, and clinical care. METHODS: Using the theory of planned behavior, we conducted a secondary analysis to evaluate physicians' self-reported provision of care to patients with preDM...
December 9, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243197/dimensional-latent-structure-of-early-disruptive-behavior-disorders-a-taxometric-analysis-in-preschoolers
#17
Sören Kliem, Nina Heinrichs, Anna Lohmann, Regina Bussing, Gudrun Schwarzer, Wolfgang Briegel
Although disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are used as a distinct categorical diagnosis in clinical practice, they have repeatedly been described as having a dimensional structure in taxometric analyses. In the current study the authors analyzed the latent status of disruptive behaviors (DB) in a large sample (N = 2,808) of German preschool children (2-6 years old, mean age 53.7 months, SD = 13.5, 48.4% girls). The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to compile indicators of the DB core dimensions (Temper Loss, Aggression, Noncompliance, and Low Concern for others)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242179/individual-differences-in-the-relationship-between-attachment-and-nomophobia-among-college-students-the-mediating-role-of-mindfulness
#18
Ibrahim Arpaci, Mustafa Baloğlu, Hatice İrem Özteke Kozan, Şahin Kesici
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in nomophobia, which is defined as the fear of being out of cellular phone contact, or "feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals when they are unable to use their mobile phones or utilize the affordances these devices provide". However, only limited research can be found in terms of its determinants at present. Contemporary literature suggests that the relationships among attachment styles, mindfulness, and nomophobia have not been investigated...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#19
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235616/-social-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-behavioral-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#20
M E Tabernero, F Musich, F C Cossini, D G Politis
AIM: To study the presence of alterations in social cognition in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to compare the levels of involvement, and to analyze their relevance as a tool to distinguish between both demential profile. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For this purpose, 34 patients diagnosed with PDD, 21 men and 13 women, with an average age of 70 years and 8 years of education, and 26 patients diagnosed with bvFTD, 9 men and 17 women, with an average age of 68 years and 6 years of education, were assessed...
December 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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