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Roger W Byard, Hamish Maxwell-Stewart
Alexander Pearce was an Irish convict incarcerated on Sarah Island on the west coast of Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania, Australia) in 1822, following his transportation to the colony from the United Kingdom for seven years in 1819. On two occasions he escaped from the island, in September 1822 and again in November 1823, and was only able to survive the harsh conditions by killing and consuming his fellow escapees. Given that Pearce utilized the only sustenance that was at hand (i.e. his five companions), and that there was a temporal separation between the two episodes, this may represent a separate category of anthropophagy, that of serial opportunistic cannibalism...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
James Cole
Episodes of Palaeolithic cannibalism have frequently been defined as 'nutritional' in nature, but with little empirical evidence to assess their dietary significance. This paper presents a nutritional template that offers a proxy calorie value for the human body. When applied to the Palaeolithic record, the template provides a framework for assessing the dietary value of prehistoric cannibalistic episodes compared to the faunal record. Results show that humans have a comparable nutritional value to those faunal species that match our typical body weight, but significantly lower than a range of fauna often found in association with anthropogenically modified hominin remains...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Poppy H L Lamberton, Robert A Cheke, Martin Walker, Peter Winskill, J Lee Crainey, Daniel A Boakye, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Iñaki Tirados, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Tetteh-Kumah, Sampson Otoo, Rory J Post, María-Gloria Basañez
BACKGROUND: Vector-biting behaviour is important for vector-borne disease (VBD) epidemiology. The proportion of blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, HBI), is a component of the biting rate per vector on humans in VBD transmission models. Humans are the definitive host of Onchocerca volvulus, but the simuliid vectors feed on a range of animals and HBI is a key indicator of the potential for human onchocerciasis transmission. Ghana has a diversity of Simulium damnosum complex members, which are likely to vary in their HBIs, an important consideration for parameterization of onchocerciasis control and elimination models...
August 5, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Arthur Arruda Leal Ferreira
The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity...
November 2015: History of Psychology
D Kontis, Z Santa, D Petsas, K Lagiou, K Kontis
Eating members of one's own species is one of the few remaining taboos in modern human societies. In humans, aggression cannibalism has been associated with mental illness. The objective of this report is to examine the unique set of circumstances and characteristics revealing the underlying etiology leading to such an act and the type of psychological effect it has for the perpetrator. A case report of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who committed patricide and cannibalism is presented. The psychosocial implications of anthropophagy on the particular patient management are outlined...
April 2007: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Juan Pablo Espinoza G, Ricardo Espinoza G
The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food...
November 2010: Revista Médica de Chile
Vanessa Pineda, Edilma Montalvo, Dayra Alvarez, Ana María Santamaría, Jose Eduardo Calzada, Azael Saldaña
The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama...
March 2008: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
R A Levy, V Pordeus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2006: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1963: Psychoanalytic Review
T Dekker, W Takken, M A Braks
In field studies, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto obtains most blood meals from humans, whereas Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald bites predominantly bovids. We investigated whether host odors modulate the host preference of these mosquito species. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes were given a choice between clean air and putative host-specific odor blends. An. gambiae chose 'human odor' over clean air and clean air over cow odor.' Although Anopheles quadriannulatus did not choose cow odor over clean air, it chose clean air over human odor...
November 2001: Journal of Medical Entomology
N Nanda, R S Yadav, S K Subbarao, H Joshi, V P Sharma
In a malaria-endemic region in northwestern Orissa, India, a longitudinal study was undertaken to delineate information on the sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies and their bionomics and role in malaria transmission in forested and deforested ecosystems. In forested villages, An. fluviatilis sibling species S (97.97%) and T (2.02%) were present. The former was highly anthropophagic (human blood index 0.88). Among the sibling species of An. culicifacies, species B (27.96%), C (71...
September 2000: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
J I Shililu, W A Maier, H M Seitz, A S Orago
An entomological study was conducted on vectors of malaria and their relative contribution to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Mumias, a high-altitude site and large-scale sugarcane growing zone in Kakamega district, western Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.l., the predominant vector species, represented 84% (n=2667) of the total Anopheles mosquitoes collected with An. funestus comprising only 16%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified all 600 specimens of the An. gambiae complex tested as An. gambiae sensu stricto, an indication that it is the only sibling species represented in the high-altitude sites in western Kenya...
September 1998: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
E W Cupp, M S Cupp
When blood-feeding, black flies introduce secretions into the feeding lesion that act in a coordinated manner on the 3 arms of the vertebrate hemostatic system (platelet aggregation, coagulation, and vasoconstriction). Apyrase activity inhibits platelet aggregation and is ubiquitous in the saliva of black flies, although activity per gland varies by species and has a positive association with anthropophagy. Anticoagulants target components in the final common pathway of the coagulation cascade, including factors V, Xa, and II (thrombin)...
March 1997: Journal of Medical Entomology
R E Gurtler, M C Cecere, D P Vazquez, R Chuit, J E Cohen
Blood meal sources of 1,964 Triatoma infestans Klug collected in bedrooms in 3 rural villages in northwest Argentina were identified by agar double-diffusion tests. Bugs were collected in September (1988, end of winter), October (1992), December (1988, spring), and March (1989, 1992, summer), and tested for human, dog, cat, chicken-duck, and goat-sheep serum antigens. From late winter to late summer, the percentage of domiciliary T. infestans that fed on humans decreased from 81 to 50-51%, whereas the percentage of bugs that fed on dogs rose from 39 to 45-57%, on chickens from 8 to 40-54%, and on cats from 7 to 12-23%...
January 1996: Journal of Medical Entomology
M Charalambous, A J Shelley, M M Herzog, A P Dias
Simulium (Trichodagmia) guianense is an important Amazonian vector of onchocerciasis. Examination of the polytene chromosome banding patterns of larvae from five sites in Brazil revealed the occurrence of four cytotypes, designated A, B, C and D. The chromosomal standard, Simulium guianense A, occurred at two localities in Goias State (on the Rio Tocantins and Rio Mucambão) where it was the only cytotype. The other three sites examined yielded one different cytotype from each: B from Rio Oyapoque in Amapa State, C from Rio Tocantins in Maranhão State, and D from Rio Xingu in Para State...
April 1996: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H A Christensen, A M de Vasquez
Rhodnius pallescens, reported to be the principal vector of Chagas' disease in central Panama, has been shown to feed on opossums, anteaters, sloths, rodents, birds and, rarely, lizards in sylvatic habitats in this country; however, the extent of its anthropophagic affinities in rural areas has never been determined. The host selections of 1,340 R. pallescens from domestic and peridomestic habitats of three Panamanian villages were determined by microcapillary precipitin tests. Slightly more than half of the triatomines collected in houses and nearby palm trees and bird nests had fed on humans...
January 1981: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
H Joshi, K Vasantha, S K Subbarao, V P Sharma
Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis was used to assay bloodmeals to determine the host specificity of Anopheles culicifacies species A and B, collected from areas in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Results indicated the predominantly zoophagic nature of species A and B with a relatively higher degree of anthropophagy for species A. Further, the human blood index was found to be related to the proportion of human and cattle population in an area. This study is significant because, of the two species only species A was incriminated as the vector of malaria in these areas...
September 1988: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
O Röhrer-Ertl, K W Frey
Human remains from Basta 1 (P PN B, 6. Mill. B.C.) and Sabra 1 (Khiamian, 7. Mill. B.C.) were prepared and studied; the results show that Basta 1 was a permanent settlement and Sabra 1 was a temporary summer camp. Both settlements are located in Arabia Petraea. Basta 1, No. 3477: The calvarium of a boy, aged 8 to 9 a, from Basta 1 was studied. The race can be determined as orientalide, according v. Eickstedt's classification. The boy was killed; as evidence by 2 blows to the skull occurring while he was alive...
1987: Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch
R P Lane, M M Pile, F P Amerasinghe
The visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale & Brunetti is widely distributed throughout the Indian sub-continent and S.E. Asia. The absence of VL in areas such as Sri Lanka has been attributed to the zoophilic nature of P.argentipes, since they were not recorded biting man. Field studies on P.argentipes were undertaken in the central highlands of Sri Lanka, near Kandy, in May 1988. Male sandflies outnumbered females on cows by 19:1, and were regularly spaced at all densities. This behaviour is considered analagous to swarming in other Nematocera...
January 1990: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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