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Cannibalism psychology

D Kontis, Z Santa, D Petsas, K Lagiou, K Kontis
Eating members of one's own species is one of the few remaining taboos in modern human societies. In humans, aggression cannibalism has been associated with mental illness. The objective of this report is to examine the unique set of circumstances and characteristics revealing the underlying etiology leading to such an act and the type of psychological effect it has for the perpetrator. A case report of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who committed patricide and cannibalism is presented. The psychosocial implications of anthropophagy on the particular patient management are outlined...
April 2007: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Daiqin Li, Joelyn Oh, Simona Kralj-Fiser, Matjaz Kuntner
Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula...
August 23, 2012: Biology Letters
Eric Allina
This article argues that Portuguese accounts of cannibalism in sixteenth-century southeast Africa reflect important but mostly unrecognised elements of the region's political and cultural history. The article analyses descriptions of the Zimba cannibals in Ethiopia Oriental, written by the Portuguese priest Joo dos Santos. Dos Santos's evidence figures significantly in scholarship for this period, and while many historians include his colourful descriptions of cannibalism, none has taken them seriously, largely dismissing them as a product of European myth-making...
2011: Journal of Southern African Studies
Pascale Sophie Russell, Roger Giner-Sorolla
We propose that, when people judge moral situations, anger responds to the contextual cues of harm and intentionality. On the other hand, disgust responds uniquely to whether or not a bodily norm violation has occurred; its apparent response to harm and intent is entirely explained by the coactivation of anger. We manipulated intent, harm, and bodily norm violation (eating human flesh) within a vignette describing a scientific experiment. Participants then rated their anger, disgust, and moral judgment, as well as various appraisals...
April 2011: Emotion
Aina Sundt Gullhaugen, Jim Aage Nøttestad
The character Hannibal "the Cannibal" Lecter, best known from the motion picture The Silence of the Lambs from 1991, has become a cultural icon and model for later portrayals of seriously disturbed offenders. He displays key characteristics of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, such as arrogance, manipulation, callousness, and lack of remorse. From a clinical point of view, one of the most fascinating aspects with Lecter is his display of a variety of capacities alternating between cold-blooded predatory behavior, affection toward FBI special agent Starling, and mourning of the loss of his sister Mischa...
May 2011: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
David D Gilmore
Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction...
September 2008: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
Francisco Pereña Garcia
To start with the clinical description of anorexia nervosa is indicative of the difficulty involved not only with regard to its etiology (whether it is an endocrine, neurological or psychological disorder) but also with regard to its diagnosis (whether or not it is a hysterical disorder, whether or not it is a disease as such) and with regard to its treatment (the stubbornness of the symptom). The early-onset differential criterion is rejection. The subject's eating-related problem must be placed within the framework of the radical dependency the human organism has with regard to the mother's body, thus breaking the close connection between need and demand, which throws the instinctive life out of balance...
September 2007: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Richard M Gottlieb
Terror of the dismemberment, disintegration, and decay of the body after death has been represented in ritual, myth, legend, art, and religious belief throughout the ages. So too has the wished-for triumph over these inevitable processes. Commonly, bodily experience after death is represented mentally in cannibalistic ideas of eating and being eaten, which are then countered by the wishful undoing of cannibalistic destruction through its reversal: swallowing as regurgitation, dismemberment as rememberment, disintegration as reassembly...
2007: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Warren W Green, Reehan S Mirza, Greg G Pyle
Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested...
March 2008: Die Naturwissenschaften
Carmen Pérez-Laso, Santiago Segovia, José Luis R Martín, Esperanza Ortega, Francisco Gómez, M Cruz R Del Cerro
The prenatal external environment can affect fetuses, altering the maternal behavior that they express when mature. In the present study, environmental prenatal stress (EPS) was applied to pregnant rats in their final week of gestation, and when their female offspring reached maturity, the long latency effect of the stress on those offspring was ascertained on their induced maternal behavior (MB), accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) morphology and plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS reduced: the percentage of these virgins that showed induced MB, their retrieval of foster pups, the time spent crouching, and the quality of nest building; it also increased the incidence of their cannibalism of foster pups...
March 5, 2008: Behavioural Brain Research
Stéphanie L Torreilles, Sherril L Green
The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends environmental enrichment for all laboratory animals, including amphibians. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding environmental enrichment in the form of acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene (ABS) pipes as covered refuge for laboratory Xenopus laevis housed in 2 pond-style tanks (capacity, 300 l; stocking density, approximately 150 frogs/tank; dimensions, 1.3 x 1.8 x 1.3 m). Medical records from animals housed in these 2 ponds between 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2003 revealed the incidence of bite wounds to be 5...
September 2007: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Rachel L Dennis, William M Muir, Heng-Wei Cheng
Genetic selection for chickens of high (HGPS) and low (LGPS) group productivity and survivability, resulted in two distinct genetic lines characterized by differences in cannibalism, flightiness, and immunocompetence. Additionally, birds exhibited differences in behaviour and social stress coping strategy. HGPS birds have a superior stress coping strategy compared with birds of LGPS or Dekalb XL (DXL), a commercial strain. Line differences in stress response and behaviour could be due to selection-induced differences in expression of the dopaminergic system...
November 25, 2006: Behavioural Brain Research
M Hussain, S J Rizvi, J A Usmani
The term dowry cannibalism is used in this article to describe a unique case where the motive for cannibalism was the non-fulfilment of a husband's dowry demands from his wife. The husband was accused by the wife of regularly using a syringe to withdraw blood from her, with the intent of causing her death, and drinking it. Intriguing as this is, it is also medicolegally important: this method of killing might leave no trace suggesting murder. It is postulated that this form of abuse may also significantly alter the psychological state of the victim and hasten death...
December 1996: Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine
H W Cheng, W M Muir
Chicken lines were divergently selected for both high (HGPS) or low (LGPS) group productivity and survivability resulting from cannibalism and flightiness in colony cages. Each line has unique characteristics in physical indexes, domestic behavior, and physiological responsiveness to stress. The differences between the selected lines could be reflected in differing regulation of the neuroendocrine system such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Change of the adrenal function is a key initial event in response to stress in animals, which differs for this trait...
August 2004: Psychoneuroendocrinology
E Schwartz, F A Rowe
Bilateral olfactory bulb ablation resulted in deficits in several components of maternal behavior in lactating, primiparous female rats. These females frequently cannibalized pups shortly after parturition. Furthermore, bilaterally bulbectomized, primiparous females spent less time nursing their pups and retrieved fewer pups than unilaterally bulbectomized or sham-operated females. In contrast to the situation in primiparous females, in multiparous females bilateral bulbectomy failed to influence any parameter of maternal behavior...
December 1976: Physiology & Behavior
Planaria which have cannibalized untrained planaria exposed to photic stimuli only, handling only, or previous conditioning, all require significantly fewer trials in a conditioning situation than naive planaria.
October 9, 1964: Science
Bryan D Neff, Paul W Sherman
Parental care can be costly to a parent in terms of both time and energy invested in the young. In species with cuckoldry or brood parasitism not all of the young under a parent's care are necessarily offspring. In such cases, distinguishing between kin and non-kin, and investing only in the former (nepotism), can be advantageous. Bluegill sunfish ( Lepomis macrochirus) are characterized by paternal care and cuckoldry, and care-providing males appear to show nepotistic behaviours. Here, we investigated nestling recognition in bluegill, determining whether parental males can differentiate between young from their own nest (familiar and related) and young from non-neighbouring nests (unfamiliar and unrelated) using (1) visual and chemical cues, and (2) chemical cues only...
June 2003: Animal Cognition
H W Cheng, P Singleton, W M Muir
White Leghorn chickens were genetically selected for high (HGPS) or low (LGPS) group productivity and survivability. The selection resulted in two genetic lines with marked opposite changes in cannibalism and flightiness when housed in multiple-colony battery cages without beak trimming. The objective of the study was to examine whether the genetic selection differentially affected the neuroendocrine system of chickens from different strains in response to social stress. Based on the previous studies, social stress was induced by randomly pairing 17-wk-old hens from three genetic lines, i...
September 2002: Poultry Science
M Benecke
As part of her current lifestyle, a 28-year-old Caucasian woman routinely injures and allows subsequent healing of her skin and other tissues. Her body modifications include a "split tongue" (a tongue split to the base), which does not interfere with speaking and eating. Other modifications include large scarification patterns produced by branding and cutting. This woman has been known to eat parts of her skin that were previously cut out of her body. She also performs "needle play" by allowing medical syringe needles to be lodged temporarily under her skin...
September 1999: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
R C Fox
The author discusses the ways in which she finds the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center protocol for procuring organs from "non-heart-beating cadaver donors" medically and morally questionable and irreverent. She also identifies some of the factors that contributed to the composition of this troubling protocol, and to its institutional approval.
June 1993: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
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