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Cannibalism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#1
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792978/an-upper-palaeolithic-engraved-human-bone-associated-with-ritualistic-cannibalism
#2
Silvia M Bello, Rosalind Wallduck, Simon A Parfitt, Chris B Stringer
Cut-marked and broken human bones are a recurrent feature of Magdalenian (~17-12,000 years BP, uncalibrated dates) European sites. Human remains at Gough's Cave (UK) have been modified as part of a Magdalenian mortuary ritual that combined the intensive processing of entire corpses to extract edible tissues and the modification of skulls to produce skull-cups. A human radius from Gough's Cave shows evidence of cut marks, percussion damage and human tooth marks, indicative of cannibalism, as well as a set of unusual zig-zagging incisions on the lateral side of the diaphysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777297/oviposition-life-cycle-and-longevity-of-the-leaf-cutting-ant-acromyrmex-rugosus-rugosus
#3
Sandra S Verza, Rosilda M Mussury, Roberto S Camargo, Ana Paula P Andrade, Luiz C Forti
Studies related to the demography of individual members from ant colonies have received little attention, although they are the basis to understanding the population dynamics of colonies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the queen oviposition rate and the duration of the life cycle and longevity of Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus workers. To determine the oviposition rate, queens from three colonies were individually placed in plastic containers, and the eggs laid were quantified over a 96 h period...
August 4, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758219/plerocercoids-of-the-cestode-diphyllobothrium-ditremum-in-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-substantial-increase-in-infection-after-establishment-of-european-minnow-phoxinus-phoxinus
#4
R Borgstrøm, J Trømborg, T O Haugen, B O Rosseland
This study focuses on plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta from the subalpine lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn in south-central Norway. Salmo trutta was the only fish species in this lake until European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus was registered in 1969. The P. phoxinus population increased substantially in the following years. In contrast with the 1969-1972 period, when plerocercoids of D. ditremum were practically absent in S. trutta, there was a high prevalence and intensity of infection in the 2013 S...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757542/isogroup-selection-to-optimize-biocontrol-increases-cannibalism-in-omnivorous-zoophytophagous-bugs
#5
François Dumont, Denis Réale, Eric Lucas
Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual's tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of alternative food resources. We compared two isogroup lines of the zoophytophagous mullein bug, either specialized on animal or on plant diets, that were generated to improve biocontrol. We predicted that: (1) bugs from the prey-specialized line would show higher levels of cannibalism than bugs from the pollen-specialized line, and (2) both lines would decrease cannibalism levels in the presence of their preferred resource...
July 25, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725393/water-mold-infection-but-not-paternity-induces-selective-filial-cannibalism-in-a-goby
#6
Martin Vallon, Nils Anthes, Katja U Heubel
Many animals heavily invest in parental care but still reject at least some of their offspring. Although seemingly paradoxical, selection can favor parents to neglect offspring of particularly low reproductive value, for example, because of small survival chances. We here assess whether filial cannibalism (FC), where parents routinely eat some of their own young, is selective in response to individual offspring reproductive value. We performed two independent laboratory experiments in the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) to test whether caring fathers preferentially cannibalize eggs of a given infection history and paternity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709398/cannibalism-and-activity-rate-in-larval-damselflies-increase-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-as-a-consequence-of-time-constraints
#7
Szymon Sniegula, Maria J Golab, Frank Johansson
BACKGROUND: Predation is ubiquitous in nature. One form of predation is cannibalism, which is affected by many factors such as size structure and resource density. However, cannibalism may also be influenced by abiotic factors such as seasonal time constraints. Since time constraints are greater at high latitudes, cannibalism could be stronger at such latitudes, but we know next to nothing about latitudinal variation in cannibalism. In this study, we examined cannibalism and activity in larvae of the damselfly Lestes sponsa along a latitudinal gradient across Europe...
July 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693721/mitosis-can-drive-cell-cannibalism-through-entosis
#8
Joanne Durgan, Yun-Yu Tseng, Jens C Hamann, Marie-Charlotte Domart, Lucy Collinson, Alan Hall, Michael Overholtzer, Oliver Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell cannibalism that is prevalent in human cancer, typically triggered by loss of matrix adhesion. Here, we report an alternative mechanism for entosis in human epithelial cells, driven by mitosis. Mitotic entosis is regulated by Cdc42, which controls mitotic morphology. Cdc42 depletion enhances mitotic deadhesion and rounding, and these biophysical changes, which depend on RhoA activation and are phenocopied by Rap1 inhibition, permit subsequent entosis. Mitotic entosis occurs constitutively in some human cancer cell lines and mitotic index correlates with cell cannibalism in primary human breast tumours...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690827/stabilizing-mechanisms-in-a-food-web-with-an-introduced-omnivore
#9
Monica Granados, Sean Duffy, Christopher W McKindsey, Gregor F Fussmann
Intraguild predation (IGP) is an omnivorous food web configuration in which the top predator consumes both a competitor (consumer) and a second prey that it shares with the competitor. This omnivorous configuration occurs frequently in food webs, but theory suggests that it is unstable unless stabilizing mechanisms exist that can decrease the strength of the omnivore and consumer interaction. Although these mechanisms have been documented in native food webs, little is known about whether they operate in the context of an introduced species...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664934/cytologic-predictors-of-malignancy-in-bile-duct-brushings-a-multi-reviewer-analysis-of-60-cases
#10
Vaidehi Avadhani, Ezgi Hacihasanoglu, Bahar Memis, Burcin Pehlivanoglu, Krisztina Z Hanley, Uma Krishnamurti, Alyssa M Krasinskas, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Lauren M Daniels, Alexa A Freedman, Michael Goodman, Volkan Adsay, Michelle D Reid
Diagnosing malignancy in bile duct brushings is highly challenging. Seven reviewers of variable backgrounds and levels of participation in bile duct brushing sign out blindly reviewed 60 specimens (30 malignant with histologic confirmation and 30 benign (15 stented) with resection or ≥18 months of uneventful follow-up), testing the utility of 14 malignant characteristics. Eleven characteristics were statistically significantly associated with malignancy including 3-dimensional clusters (63% in malignant vs 3% in benign, odds ratio 50, P=0...
June 30, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651733/can-cannibalizing-cancer-cells-challenge-classic-cell-death-classification
#11
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we learn about a novel are still largely mysterious mechanism of cell death that is challenging classification systems of cell death pathways and could have important implications for future cancer therapy. We also learn of a promising biomarker to stratify patients into risk groups after stroke. Finally, this issue also includes two studies investigating factors that influence outcome after heart surgery.
June 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651355/evaluation-of-welfare-parameters-in-laying-hens-on-the-basis-of-a-bavarian-survey
#12
H Louton, S M Bergmann, E Rauch, C Liebers, S Reese, M H Erhard, C Hoeborn, A Schwarzer
Health issues like infestation with poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and behavioral problems such as feather pecking and cannibalism are reported as current problems on laying hen farms. However, the epidemiological prevalence of these issues in Bavaria, Germany, is not known. The objective of the present survey was to determine the epidemiological prevalence of health and behavioral parameters and the management of hen farms in practice. The survey was sent to all laying hen farmers with more than 1,000 hens in Bavaria, Germany, and contained questions regarding flock management, behavior problems and health issues...
June 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614727/micronutrient-consumption-by-female-argiope-bruennichi-affects-offspring-survival
#13
Shawn M Wilder, Jutta M Schneider
Sexual cannibalism has long been hypothesized to be a foraging decision in which females consume males for the nutrients in their bodies. While few studies have documented fecundity benefits of sexual cannibalism, several recent studies have documented benefits of cannibalism to egg hatching success or offspring survival. We tested if small supplements of dietary essential nutrients fed to female spiders, Argiope bruennichi, would result in increases in offspring survival similar to those seen following sexual cannibalism...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614652/taking-a-bite-out-of-amyloid-mechanistic-insights-into-%C3%AE-synuclein-degradation-by-cathepsin-l
#14
Ryan P McGlinchey, Gifty A Dominah, Jennifer C Lee
A common hallmark of amyloids is their resistance to an array of proteases, highlighting the difficulty in degrading these disease-related aggregated proteinaceous materials. Here, we report on the potent activity of cathepsin L (CtsL), a lysosomal protease that proteolyzes the Parkinson's disease-related amyloid formed by α-synuclein (α-syn). Using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy, an elegant mechanism is revealed on the residue and ultrastructural level, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609555/carnivore-carcasses-are-avoided-by-carnivores
#15
Marcos Moleón, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Oliver C Muellerklein, Wayne M Getz, Carlos Muñoz-Lozano, José A Sánchez-Zapata
Ecologists have traditionally focused on herbivore carcasses as study models in scavenging research. However, some observations of scavengers avoiding feeding on carnivore carrion suggest that different types of carrion may lead to differential pressures. Untested assumptions about carrion produced at different trophic levels could therefore lead ecologists to overlook important evolutionary processes and their ecological consequences. Our general goal was to investigate the use of mammalian carnivore carrion by vertebrate scavengers...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607386/maternal-and-early-life-circadian-disruption-have-long-lasting-negative-consequences-on-offspring-development-and-adult-behavior-in-mice
#16
Benjamin L Smarr, Azure D Grant, Luz Perez, Irving Zucker, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605969/control-of-hymenolepis-nana-infection-as-a-measure-to-improve-mouse-colony-welfare
#17
Alenka Dovč, Gordana Gregurić Gračner, Iztok Tomažič, Ksenija Vlahović, Marina Pavlak, Renata Lindtner Knific, Klemen Kralj, Mateja Stvarnik, Aleksandra Vergles Rataj
After cannibalism had appeared in the reproductive units of a white mouse colony, treatment against confirmed Hymenolepis nana, a tapeworm with zoonotic potential, was performed on 67 mice in the reproductive and nursery units. Faecal droppings were evaluated by flotation and sedimentation methods. The sedimentation method revealed a higher number of positive results before, during and after the treatment, but the flotation method yielded some additional positive cases. In the reproductive unit, H. nana eggs were confirmed in 50% of the tested mice by the flotation and in 70% by the sedimentation method...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580011/bacterial-pathogens-and-health-problems-of-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-and-acipenser-baerii-sturgeons-reared-in-the-eastern-black-sea-region-of-turkey
#18
Ş Kayiş, A Er, P Kangel, I Z Kurtoğlu
Farming sturgeons is an economically important practice in a number of Asian and European countries. However, since it is not widely implementedin Turkey, fertilized eggs necessary for research and industrial activities are imported from Germany. Due to the interest of several fish farms in culturing sturgeon in Turkey and the lack of relevant data, this study investigated bacteria related health problems of two different sturgeon species, the diamond sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515331/cannibalism-by-damselflies-increases-with-rising-temperature
#19
Denon Start, Devin Kirk, Dylan Shea, Benjamin Gilbert
Trophic interactions are likely to change under climate warming. These interactions can be altered directly by changing consumption rates, or indirectly by altering growth rates and size asymmetries among individuals that in turn affect feeding. Understanding these processes is particularly important for intraspecific interactions, as direct and indirect changes may exacerbate antagonistic interactions. We examined the effect of temperature on activity rate, growth and intraspecific size asymmetries, and how these temperature dependencies affected cannibalism in Lestes congener, a damselfly with marked intraspecific variation in size...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479694/emperipolesis-entosis-and-cell-cannibalism-demystifying-the-cloud
#20
REVIEW
Nidhi Gupta, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah
There are intense published data in literature related to cell engulfment phenomena such as emperipolesis, entosis and cell cannibalism. All these are closely related phenomena with a very fine line of differences. Its correct identification has a significant diagnostic and prognostic value. After extensive literature search, a gap of knowledge was found in concept designing and clarity about understanding of aforementioned terminologies. The authors have attempted to review data of these closely knit terminologies and further organize its characteristic appearances, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic implications...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
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