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Xin Jiang, Xiaoli Niu, Qingjun Guo, Yanhong Dong, Jing Xu, Nan Yin, Qianqian Qi, Yanqiu Jia, Liwei Gao, Qihui He, Peiyuan Lv
Vascular dementia (VD) is a heterogeneous group of brain disorders in which cognitive impairment is attributed to cerebrovascular pathologies. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization mechanism, has been demonstrated to be involved in VD progression. Molecular hydrogen is known for its powerful anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, and it is also involved in autophagy. However, the effects of hydrogen on VD remain unclear. The current study found that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments...
June 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Qingqian Guo, Ruipeng Chen, Xiaoquan Sun, Min Jiang, Haifeng Sun, Shun Wang, Liuzheng Ma, Yatao Yang, Jiandong Hu
Corn stalk lodging is caused by different factors, including severe wind storms, stalk cannibalization, and stalk rots, and it leads to yield loss. Determining how to rapidly evaluate corn lodging resistance will assist scientists in the field of crop breeding to understand the contributing factors in managing the moisture, chemical fertilizer, and weather conditions for corn growing. This study proposes a non-destructive and direction-insensitive method, using a strain sensor and two single axis angle sensors to measure the corn stalk lodging resistance in the field...
June 6, 2018: Sensors
Vera Meyer, Sascha Jung
The emergence and spread of pathogenic fungi resistant to currently used antifungal drugs represents a serious challenge for medicine and agriculture. The use of smart antimicrobials, so-called "dirty drugs" which affect multiple cellular targets, is one strategy to prevent resistance. Of special interest is the exploitation of the AFP family of antimicrobial peptides, which include its founding member AFP from Aspergillus giganteus . This latter is a highly potent inhibitor of chitin synthesis and affects plasma membrane integrity in many human and plant pathogenic fungi...
June 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Jun-Ichi Okano, Noboru Okuda
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191925.].
2018: PloS One
Valentina Mastrantonio, Graziano Crasta, Arianna Puggioli, Romeo Bellini, Sandra Urbanelli, Daniele Porretta
Cannibalism is a commonly observed phenomenon in arthropod species having relevant consequences for population dynamics and individual fitness. It is a context-dependent behaviour and an understanding of the factors affecting cannibalism rate is crucial to highlight its ecological relevance. In mosquitoes, cannibalism between larval stages has been widely documented, and the role of density, food availability and length of contact between individuals also ascertained. However, although mosquitoes can develop in temporary water habitats with very heterogeneous topologies, the role of the site shape where cannibals and victims co-occur has been instead overlooked...
2018: PloS One
Michael P Moore, Ryan A Martin
Trade-offs between juvenile survival and the development of sexually selected traits can cause ontogenetic conflict between life stages that constrains adaptive evolution. However, the potential for ecological interactions to alter the presence or strength of these trade-offs remains largely unexplored. Antagonistic selection over the accumulation and storage of resources could be one common cause of environment-specific trade-offs between life stages: higher condition may simultaneously enhance adult ornament development and increase juvenile vulnerability to predators...
May 28, 2018: Oecologia
Erica Travaglino, Luca Malcovati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Christopher S Walker, Kara K Walker, Gabo Paulo, Anne E Pusey
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are primarily frugivorous but consume a variable amount of meat from a variety of organisms, including other chimpanzees. Cannibalism is rare, usually follows lethal aggression, and does not occur following natural deaths. While chimpanzee cannibalism has been documented at multiple sites, many instances of this behavior go unrecorded. Identification of chimpanzee remains in feces, however, can provide indirect evidence of cannibalism. Hair, in particular, typically passes through the gastrointestinal tract undamaged and is commonly used for purposes of identification in wildlife forensics...
May 22, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Nathan J Robinson, Winfried S Peters
Olivid gastropods of the genus Agaronia are dominant predators within invertebrate communities on sandy beaches throughout Pacific Central America. At Playa Grande, on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, we observed 327 natural predation events by Agaronia propatula . For each predation event, we documented prey taxa and body size of both predator and prey. The relationship between predator and prey size differed for each of the four main prey taxa: bivalves, crustaceans, heterospecific gastropods, and conspecific gastropods (representing cannibalism)...
2018: PeerJ
Tabassum Zafar, Ab Qayoom Naik, Vinoy K Shrivastava
Background: Mice are widely accepted research models of great clinical significance. Maintenance of laboratory mice breed is an essential aspect for performing research activities in various fields of science. Infanticide is one of the prominent causes of litter loss during maintenance of laboratory mice stock. The present study is an effort to monitor the effect of change in ambient temperature of female mice below the normal range on cannibalism and infanticide during early postparturition phase...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Juan Huang, James R Miller, Edward D Walker
Laboratory experiments intended to test the effects of a purported ovipositional deterrent pheromone of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) led instead to the finding that egg cannibalism by fourth-instar larvae explained the 'deterrent effect' rather than chemical signals from larvae. Virtually no eggs were counted from cups containing fourth-instar larvae, after oviposition. Numbers of eggs from cups containing younger, conspecific larvae, or pupae did not differ significantly from water only control...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Maurilio López-Ortega, Trevor Williams
The influence of maternal defense against natural enemies, maternal provisioning and oviposition site selection on offspring survival before and after hatching were examined in a semelparous pentatomid bug, Ramosiana insignis. Oviposition occurs on leaves of Schoepfia schreberi, or surrounding vegetation from which nymphs migrate to feed exclusively on S. schreberi flower buds. Oviposition is asynchronous; the mother lays additional eggs immediately prior to hatching of the core brood that rapidly consume the additional eggs...
2018: PloS One
Tyler Christensen, William D Brown
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Hiromi Mukai, Mantaro Hironaka, Sumio Tojo, Shintaro Nomakuchi
Sibling cannibalism-the killing and consumption of conspecifics within broods-carries a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for parents and offspring. We reported previously that a unique vibrational behavior shown by the mother of the subsocial burrower bug, Adomerus rotundus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), induced synchronous hatching. Maternal regulation may be one of the most effective mechanisms for preventing or limiting sibling cannibalism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synchronous hatching induced by maternal vibration in A...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Thomas J Hossie, Shawn MacFarlane, Amy Clement, Dennis L Murray
Intraspecific aggression represents a major source of mortality for many animals and is often experienced alongside the threat of predation. The presence of predators can strongly influence ecological systems both directly by consuming prey and indirectly by altering prey behavior or habitat use. As such, the threat of attack by higher level predators may strongly influence agonistic interactions among conspecifics via nonconsumptive (e.g., behaviorally mediated) predator effects. We sought to investigate these interactions experimentally using larval salamanders ( Ambystoma maculatum ) as prey and dragonfly nymphs ( Anax junius ) as predators...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Janaína De Nardin, Vanessa Buffon, Luís Fernando Revers, Aldo Mellender de Araújo
Newly hatched caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis routinely cannibalize eggs. In a manifestation of kin recognition they cannibalize sibling eggs less frequently than unrelated eggs. Previous work has estimated the heritability of kin recognition in H. erato phyllis to lie between 14 and 48%. It has furthermore been shown that the inheritance of kin recognition is compatible with a quantitative model with a threshold. Here we present the results of a preliminary study, in which we tested for associations between behavioral kin recognition phenotypes and AFLP and SSR markers...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
G Zięba, M Dukowska, M Przybylski, M G Fox, C Smith
Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle...
March 26, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Louise Chavarie, Kimberly L Howland, Les N Harris, Michael J Hansen, William J Harford, Colin P Gallagher, Shauna M Baillie, Brendan Malley, William M Tonn, Andrew M Muir, Charles C Krueger
Depth is usually considered the main driver of Lake Trout intraspecific diversity across lakes in North America. Given that Great Bear Lake is one of the largest and deepest freshwater systems in North America, we predicted that Lake Trout intraspecific diversity to be organized along a depth axis within this system. Thus, we investigated whether a deep-water morph of Lake Trout co-existed with four shallow-water morphs previously described in Great Bear Lake. Morphology, neutral genetic variation, isotopic niches, and life-history traits of Lake Trout across depths (0-150 m) were compared among morphs...
2018: PloS One
J Durgan, O Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell engulfment and cannibalism prevalent in human cancer. Until recently, the only known trigger for entosis was loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix, as often occurs in the tumour microenvironment. However, two new studies now reveal that entosis can also occur among adherent epithelial cells, induced by mitosis or glucose starvation. Together, these findings point to the intriguing notion that certain hallmark properties of cancer cells, including anchorage independence, aberrant proliferation and metabolic stress, can converge on the induction of cell cannibalism, a phenomenon so frequently observed in tumours...
June 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A M Revynthi, A Janssen, M Egas
Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior...
March 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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