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Cannibalism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470781/gender-specific-differences-in-cannibalism-between-a-laboratory-strain-and-a-field-strain-of-a-predatory-mite
#1
A M Revynthi, A Janssen, M Egas
Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior...
February 22, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468045/an-interaction-driven-cannibalistic-reaction-norm
#2
Kinya Nishimura
Cannibalism is induced in larval-stage populations of the Hokkaido salamander, Hynobius retardatus , under the control of a cannibalism reaction norm. Here, I examined phenotypic expression under the cannibalism reaction norm, and how the induction of a cannibalistic morph under the norm leads to populational morphological diversification. I conducted a set of experiments in which density was manipulated to be either low or high. In the high-density treatment, the populations become dimorphic with some individuals developing into the cannibal morph type...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466375/effects-of-resource-dependent-cannibalism-on-population-size-distribution-and-individual-life-history-in-a-case-bearing-caddisfly
#3
Jun-Ichi Okano, Noboru Okuda
Resource availability often determines the intensity of cannibalism, which has a considerable effect on population size distribution and individual life history. Larvae of the caddisfly Psilotreta kisoensis build portable cases from sedimentary sands and often display cannibalism. For this species, the availability of preferable case material is a critical factor that affects larval fitness, and material is locally variable depending on the underlying geology. In this study, we investigated how sand quality as a case material determines cannibalism frequency among larvae and, in turn, how the differential cannibalism frequency affects the body-size distribution and voltinism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463319/performance-of-arma-chinensis-reared-on-an-artificial-diet-formulated-using-transcriptomic-methods
#4
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462494/why-did-severe-feather-pecking-and-cannibalism-outbreaks-occur-an-unintended-case-study-while-investigating-the-effects-of-forage-and-stress-on-pullets-during-rearing
#5
G M Cronin, R L Hopcroft, P J Groves, E J S Hall, D N Phalen, P H Hemsworth
This 2 × 2 factorial experiment aimed to investigate the effects of stimulating foraging behavior from wk 6 and imposed stress at wk 16 on the development of severe feather pecking (SFP) in chickens reared for free-range egg production. Non-beak-trimmed ISA Brown chicks were purchased at one day old and floor-reared on wood shavings. From wk 6, straw was provided daily in dispensers (Forage vs. No forage) to stimulate foraging. At wk 15, there were 16 pens of 50 pullets. "Stressors" were applied to half the pens in wk 16 via combined transport, relocation, and mixing (TRM) of pullets, simulating activities around transfer from the rearing to egg-laying farm (TRM vs...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447846/keeping-cool-kissing-bugs-avoid-cannibalism-by-thermoregulating
#6
Claudio R Lazzari, Aurélie Fauquet, Chloé Lahondère
Kissing bugs possess a highly developed thermal sense and when starved, they attempt to bite any object which temperature is close to that of a warm-blooded host. At each feeding event, these insects take massive meals in just a few minutes. One could then expect fed-bugs being heated-up by the ingested warm blood and so becoming attractive to starved conspecifics. This is not however the case, arising the question about why cannibalism is very rare among these insects. Recently, the ability of thermoregulating during feeding has been demonstrated in Rhodnius prolixus...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410054/the-influence-of-microsporidian-pathogens-from-commercially-available-lady-beetles-on-larval-development-of-the-green-lacewing-chrysoperla-carnea-in-the-absence-of-infection
#7
A Fletcher, S Bjørnson
In North America, more than 70 species of natural enemies are available for pest control, including the aphid predators, Adalia bipunctata L. (two-spotted lady beetle) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (convergent lady beetle), and the generalist predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (green lacewing). The two lady beetle species are known to host microsporidian pathogens: Nosema adaliae was originally described from Adalia bipunctata and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from H. convergens. Microsporidia are spore-forming pathogens that typically produce chronic, debilitating disease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397422/periodic-matrix-models-for-seasonal-dynamics-of-structured-populations-with-application-to-a-seabird-population
#8
J M Cushing, Shandelle M Henson
For structured populations with an annual breeding season, life-stage interactions and behavioral tactics may occur on a faster time scale than that of population dynamics. Motivated by recent field studies of the effect of rising sea surface temperature (SST) on within-breeding-season behaviors in colonial seabirds, we formulate and analyze a general class of discrete-time matrix models designed to account for changes in behavioral tactics within the breeding season and their dynamic consequences at the population level across breeding seasons...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367622/cell-in-cell-phenomena-cannibalism-and-autophagy-is-there-a-relationship
#9
EDITORIAL
Stefano Fais, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322321/polyphagy-by-omnivory-scavenging-improves-performance-of-a-polyphagous-caterpillar-on-marginal-hosts
#10
Eric F LoPresti
Few species of insect herbivores are highly polyphagous, but those few species are disproportionately ecologically and economically important and include many of the most destructive crop pests. Common correlates of extreme polyphagy across insects include the related behaviors of cannibalism and omnivory, though any functional consequences of these behaviors on the host range are unknown. I hypothesized that omnivory may allow these insects to exploit marginal hosts successfully (an expansion of realized niche)...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297971/remarkably-efficient-production-of-a-highly-insecticidal-chrysodeixis-chalcites-nucleopolyhedrovirus-chchnpv-isolate-in-its-homologous-host
#11
A Bernal, O Simón, T Williams, D Muñoz, P Caballero
BACKGROUND: A Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus from the Canary Islands (ChchNPV-TF1) has proved to be effective for control of this pest on banana crops. Commercialization of this virus as a bioinsecticide requires an efficient production system. RESULTS: The most suitable larval instar for virus production was the sixth instar (L6 ), which produced 1.80x1011 occlusion bodies (OBs)/larva and showed a lower prevalence of cannibalism (5.4%) than fourth (L4 ) or fifth (L5 ) instars...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244845/diet-and-stable-isotope-analyses-reveal-the-feeding-ecology-of-the-orangeback-squid-sthenoteuthis-pteropus-steenstrup-1855-mollusca-ommastrephidae-in-the-eastern-tropical-atlantic
#12
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239384/stellar-cannibalism-in-fits-and-starts
#13
Thomas Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231892/assessment-of-plumage-and-integument-condition-in-dual-purpose-breeds-and-conventional-layers
#14
Mona Franziska Giersberg, Birgit Spindler, Nicole Kemper
The assessment of plumage and integument condition in laying hens provides useful information about the occurrence of feather pecking and cannibalism. Although feather loss and skin injuries can result from mechanical abrasion or clinical diseases, they are valid animal-based indicators for behavioural disorders. This particularly applies to damage on the back and tail region of the hens. The aim was to evaluate the behaviour of dual-purpose breeds (Lohmann Dual, LD) and conventional layer hybrids (Lohmann Brown plus, LB+), and to compare a mere visual assessment (Visual Scoring, VSc), with a method involving the handling of individual animals (Hands-on Scoring, HSc)...
December 12, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225403/male-mate-choice-in-a-sexually-cannibalistic-species-male-escapes-from-hungry-females-in-the-praying-mantid-tenodera-angustipennis
#15
Mika Kadoi, Kotaro Morimoto, Yasuoki Takami
While competing males and choosy females may be common in animal mating systems, male choice can evolve under certain conditions. Sexual cannibalism is such a condition because of the high mortality risk for males. In mantids, female body condition is associated with male mate preference, with fat females preferred, due to at least two reasons: females in poor nutritional condition are likely to attack and predate males, and fat females can potentially increase the number of offspring. Thus, the risk of cannibalism and female fecundity can influence male mating behavior...
2017: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209865/short-and-fast-vs-long-and-slow-age-changes-courtship-in-male-orb-web-spiders-argiope-keyserlingi
#16
James C O'Hanlon, Anne E Wignall, Marie E Herberstein
Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or 'shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased...
December 5, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194411/incentive-policy-options-for-product-remanufacturing-subsidizing-donations-or-resales
#17
Xiaodong Zhu, Zhe Wang, Yue Wang, Bangyi Li
Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188443/cannibalism-amongst-penitentiary-escapees-from-sarah-island-in-nineteenth-century-van-diemen-s-land
#18
Roger W Byard, Hamish Maxwell-Stewart
Alexander Pearce was an Irish convict incarcerated on Sarah Island on the west coast of Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania, Australia) in 1822, following his transportation to the colony from the United Kingdom for seven years in 1819. On two occasions he escaped from the island, in September 1822 and again in November 1823, and was only able to survive the harsh conditions by killing and consuming his fellow escapees. Given that Pearce utilized the only sustenance that was at hand (i.e. his five companions), and that there was a temporal separation between the two episodes, this may represent a separate category of anthropophagy, that of serial opportunistic cannibalism...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182769/the-quality-of-nonprey-food-affects-cannibalism-intraguild-predation-and-hyperpredation-in-two-species-of-phytoseiid-mites
#19
Altea Calabuig, Apostolos Pekas, Felix L Wäckers
Generalist arthropod predators not only prey on herbivores but also may engage in competitive interactions by attacking and consuming conspecifics (cannibalism) or other predators (intraguild predation [IGP] and hyperpredation). These types of interactions are quite common among predators used in biological control. Although there is evidence that nonprey food relaxes cannibalism and IGP, there is little information regarding the impact of the quality of the nonprey food. Herein, we examined how pollen of different nutritional quality (pine, narrow-leaf cattail, or apple) impacted 1) the cannibalism by females of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on conspecific larvae, 2) the reciprocal predation between gravid females of E...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166165/the-rate-of-seasonal-changes-in-temperature-alters-acclimation-of-performance-under-climate-change
#20
Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Frank Johansson
How the ability to acclimate will impact individual performance and ecological interactions under climate change remains poorly understood. Theory predicts that the benefit an organism can gain from acclimating depends on the rate at which temperatures change relative to the time it takes to induce beneficial acclimation. Here, we present a conceptual model showing how slower seasonal changes under climate change can alter species' relative performance when they differ in acclimation rate and magnitude. To test predictions from theory, we performed a microcosm experiment where we reared a mid- and a high-latitude damselfly species alone or together under the rapid seasonality currently experienced at 62°N and the slower seasonality predicted for this latitude under climate change and measured larval growth and survival...
December 2017: American Naturalist
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