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Cannibalism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923131/mates-with-benefits-when-and-how-sexual-cannibalism-is-adaptive
#1
Marlene Zuk
Sexual cannibalism occurs in several arthropod taxa, but its evolutionary significance has long been debated. A new study shows how females that eat their mates benefit in ways that go well beyond caloric nutrition.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907051/battle-in-the-new-world-helicoverpa-armigera-versus-helicoverpa-zea-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#2
José P F Bentivenha, Silvana V Paula-Moraes, Edson L L Baldin, Alexandre Specht, Ivana F da Silva, Thomas E Hunt
The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897161/remodelling-germ-cells-by-intercellular-cannibalism
#3
Jennifer K Heppert, Bob Goldstein
Work from the early 1980s reported strange lobes protruding from Caenorhabditis elegans germ cell precursors. However, the fate and potential significance of these lobes remained unexplored for decades. Now, neighbouring endodermal cells are shown to sever and digest these lobes, in an unexpected process of 'intercellular cannibalism', which could play an important part in regulating primordial germ cells.
November 29, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878876/estimation-of-total-genetic-effects-for-survival-time-in-crossbred-laying-hens-showing-cannibalism-using-pedigree-or-genomic-information
#4
T Brinker, B Raymond, P Bijma, A Vereijken, E D Ellen
Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and IGE cannot be estimated using pedigree information, but the combined effect of DGE and IGE is estimated in the total breeding value (TBV). Genomic information provides information on actual genetic relationships between individuals and might be a tool to improve TBV accuracy...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877085/the-evolving-functions-of-autophagy-in-ocular-health-a-double-edged-sword
#5
REVIEW
Peiwei Chai, Hongyan Ni, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Autophagy plays an adaptive role in cell survival, development, differentiation and intracellular homeostasis. Autophagy is recognized as a 'self-cannibalizing' process that is active during stresses such as starvation, chemotherapy, infection, ageing, and oxygen shortage to protect organisms from various irritants and to regenerate materials and energy. However, autophagy can also lead to a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. Components of the autophagic pathway are constitutively expressed at a high level in the eye, including in the cornea, lens, retina, and orbit...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870667/the-role-of-dedicated-musculoskeletal-urgent-care-centers-in-reducing-cost-and-improving-access-to-orthopaedic-care
#6
Travis J Anderson, Peter L Althausen
OBJECTIVES: Over the past few years, the United States has seen the rapid growth of dedicated musculoskeletal urgent care centers owned and operated by individual orthopaedic practices. In June of 2014, our practice opened the first dedicated orthopaedic urgent care in the region staffed by physician assistants and supervised by orthopaedic surgeons. Our hypothesis is that such centers can safely improve orthopaedic care for ambulatory orthopaedic injuries, decrease volume for overburdened emergency departments (EDs), reduce wait times and significantly decrease the cost of care while improving access to orthopaedic specialists...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859212/the-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-parasite-transmission-through-cannibalism
#7
Asaf Sadeh, Tobin D Northfield, Jay A Rosenheim
Cannibalism is a widespread behavior, and evidence is abundant for transmission from infected victims to susceptible cannibals in many parasite-host systems. Current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal. Thus, cannibalism merely transfers pathogens from one individual to another without spreading infections to additional hosts. This assumes that cannibalism is the only mode of transmission and that the host population is homogenous...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859197/cannibalism-amplifies-the-spread-of-vertically-transmitted-pathogens
#8
Asaf Sadeh, Jay A Rosenheim
Cannibalism is a widespread behavior. Abundant empirical evidence demonstrates that cannibals incur a risk of contracting pathogenic infections when they consume infected conspecifics. However, current theory suggests that cannibalism generally impedes disease spread, because each victim is usually consumed by a single cannibal, such that cannibalism does not function as a spreading process. Consequently, cannibalism cannot be the only mode of transmission of most parasites. We develop simple, but general epidemiological models to analyze the interaction of cannibalism and vertical transmission...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853611/hypoxia-increases-the-risk-of-egg-predation-in-a-nest-guarding-fish
#9
Karin H Olsson, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Maria Norevik Andrén, Therése Larsson
For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of dissolved oxygen. In the high oxygen treatment, males retained their nest opening size in the presence of crabs, while males in low oxygen built large nest openings both in the absence and presence of crabs, despite the fact that crabs were more likely to successfully intrude into nests with large entrances...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844496/effect-of-housing-environment-on-laying-hen-meat-quality-assessing-pectoralis-major-ph-colour-and-tenderness-in-three-strains-of-80-81-week-old-layers-housed-in-conventional-and-furnished-cages
#10
K M Frizzell, E Lynch, B M Rathgeber, W T Dixon, C T Putman, M J Jendral
1. Meat quality is affected by factors such as stress, genetic strain and activity and is determined in part by measures of pH, colour and tenderness. In conventional laying hen cages (CC), lack of physical space and inability to perform highly motivated behaviours leads to stress and inactivity. Furnished cages (FC) permit expression of highly motivated behaviours, but typically house larger group sizes than CC, thereby contributing to social stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of CC and FC laying hen housing environments and strain differences on meat quality of 80 to 81 week old birds...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829358/the-evolution-of-genital-complexity-and-mating-rates-in-sexually-size-dimorphic-spiders
#11
Matjaž Kuntner, Ren-Chung Cheng, Simona Kralj-Fišer, Chen-Pan Liao, Jutta M Schneider, Mark A Elgar
BACKGROUND: Genital diversity may arise through sexual conflict over polyandry, where male genital features function to manipulate female mating frequency against her interest. Correlated genital evolution across animal groups is consistent with this view, but a link between genital complexity and mating rates remains to be established. In sexually size dimorphic spiders, golden orbweaving spiders (Nephilidae) males mutilate their genitals to form genital plugs, but these plugs do not always prevent female polyandry...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806728/intra-instar-larval-cannibalism-in-anopheles-gambiae-s-s-and-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae
#12
Daniele Porretta, Valentina Mastrantonio, Graziano Crasta, Romeo Bellini, Francesco Comandatore, Paolo Rossi, Guido Favia, Claudio Bandi, Sandra Urbanelli
BACKGROUND: Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s...
November 2, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783254/cases-of-maternal-cannibalism-in-wild-bonobos-pan-paniscus-from-two-different-field-sites-wamba-and-kokolopori-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#13
Nahoko Tokuyama, Deborah Lynn Moore, Kirsty Emma Graham, Albert Lokasola, Takeshi Furuichi
Maternal cannibalism, whereby a mother consumes her own offspring, occurs in various animal taxa and is commonly explained by nutritional stress or environmental pressures. It is rare in nonhuman primates and is considered an aberrant behavior only observed under high-stress conditions. It was therefore surprising when, in the first reported case of cannibalism in wild bonobos, a mother consumed part of the dead infant at LuiKotale. Here we report two more cases of maternal cannibalism by wild bonobos at two different study sites, Wamba and Kokolopori...
October 25, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772896/a-tale-of-locust-swarms-cannibals-ageing-and-human-obesity
#14
Stephen J Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733192/characterisation-of-tropomyosin-and-paramyosin-as-vaccine-candidate-molecules-for-the-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae
#15
Harry W Wright, Kathryn Bartley, John F Huntley, Alasdair J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important haematophagous ectoparasite in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide. It infests the hens during the night where it causes irritation leading to restlessness, pecking and in extreme cases anaemia and increased cannibalism. Due to an increase in the occurrence of acaricide-resistant D. gallinae populations, new control strategies are required and vaccination may offer a sustainable alternative to acaricides. In this study, recombinant forms of D...
October 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732657/determinant-factors-in-the-production-of-a-co-occluded-binary-mixture-of-helicoverpa-armigera-alphabaculovirus-hearnpv-genotypes-with-desirable-insecticidal-characteristics
#16
Maite Arrizubieta, Oihane Simón, Trevor Williams, Primitivo Caballero
A co-occluded binary mixture of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes HearSP1B and HearLB6 at a 1:1 ratio (HearSP1B+HearLB6) was selected for the development of a virus-based biological insecticide, which requires an efficient large-scale production system. In vivo production systems require optimization studies in each host-virus pathosystem. In the present study, the effects of larval instar, rearing density, timing of inoculation, inoculum concentration and temperature on the production of HearSP1B+HearLB6 in its homologous host were evaluated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720621/males-can-benefit-from-sexual-cannibalism-facilitated-by-self-sacrifice
#17
Steven K Schwartz, William E Wagner, Eileen A Hebets
In a number of species, males are cannibalized by females after mating (reviewed in [1, 2]), and some males actually appear to facilitate their own cannibalism (reviewed in [3]). Such self-sacrifice can evolve if being eaten sufficiently enhances either fertilization success (mating effort) or offspring number or fitness (paternal effort). While there is some support for the mating-effort hypothesis, few studies have found support for paternal effort. We used two experiments to test the paternal-effort hypothesis in the dark fishing spider, Dolomedes tenebrosus...
October 4, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704614/variation-in-food-availability-mediate-the-impact-of-density-on-cannibalism-growth-and-survival-in-larval-yellow-spotted-mountain-newts-neurergus-microspilotus-implications-for-captive-breeding-programs
#18
Somaye Vaissi, Mozafar Sharifi
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698134/cancer-cells-enter-dormancy-after-cannibalizing-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-mscs
#19
Thomas J Bartosh, Mujib Ullah, Suzanne Zeitouni, Joshua Beaver, Darwin J Prockop
Patients with breast cancer often develop malignant regrowth of residual drug-resistant dormant tumor cells years after primary treatment, a process defined as cancer relapse. Deciphering the causal basis of tumor dormancy therefore has obvious therapeutic significance. Because cancer cell behavior is strongly influenced by stromal cells, particularly the mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are actively recruited into tumor-associated stroma, we assessed the impact of MSCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) dormancy...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686817/extending-the-ecology-of-fear-beyond-prey-reciprocal-nonconsumptive-effects-among-competing-aphid-predators
#20
J P Michaud, Paulo R R Barbosa, Clint L Bain, Jorge B Torres
Nonconsumptive effects of predators on prey are well known, but similar effects among competing predators are not. Aphidophagous insect larvae are notorious for cannibalism and intraguild predation, as they compete for aggregated but ephemeral prey. We tested for indirect effects of competitors on the development of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), with all larvae reared on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
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