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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651355/evaluation-of-welfare-parameters-in-laying-hens-on-the-basis-of-a-bavarian-survey
#1
H Louton, S M Bergmann, E Rauch, C Liebers, S Reese, M H Erhard, C Hoeborn, A Schwarzer
Health issues like infestation with poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and behavioral problems such as feather pecking and cannibalism are reported as current problems on laying hen farms. However, the epidemiological prevalence of these issues in Bavaria, Germany, is not known. The objective of the present survey was to determine the epidemiological prevalence of health and behavioral parameters and the management of hen farms in practice. The survey was sent to all laying hen farmers with more than 1,000 hens in Bavaria, Germany, and contained questions regarding flock management, behavior problems and health issues...
June 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614727/micronutrient-consumption-by-female-argiope-bruennichi-affects-offspring-survival
#2
Shawn M Wilder, Jutta M Schneider
Sexual cannibalism has long been hypothesized to be a foraging decision in which females consume males for the nutrients in their bodies. While few studies have documented fecundity benefits of sexual cannibalism, several recent studies have documented benefits of cannibalism to egg hatching success or offspring survival. We tested if small supplements of dietary essential nutrients fed to female spiders, Argiope bruennichi, would result in increases in offspring survival similar to those seen following sexual cannibalism...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614652/taking-a-bite-out-of-amyloid-mechanistic-insights-into-%C3%AE-synuclein-degradation-by-cathepsin-l
#3
Ryan P McGlinchey, Gifty Dominah, Jennifer C Lee
A common hallmark of amyloids is their resistance to an array of proteases, highlighting the difficulty in degrading these disease-related aggregated proteinaceous materials. Here, we report on the potent activity of cathepsin L (CtsL), a lysosomal protease that proteolyzes the Parkinson's disease-related amyloid formed by α-synuclein (α-syn). Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy, an elegant mechanism is revealed on the residue and ultrastructural level, respectively...
June 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609555/carnivore-carcasses-are-avoided-by-carnivores
#4
Marcos Moleón, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Oliver C Muellerklein, Wayne M Getz, Carlos Muñoz-Lozano, José A Sánchez-Zapata
1. Ecologists have traditionally focused on herbivore carcasses as study models in scavenging research. However, some observations of scavengers avoiding feeding on carnivore carrion suggest that different types of carrion may lead to differential pressures. Untested assumptions about carrion produced at different trophic levels could therefore lead ecologists to overlook important evolutionary processes and their ecological consequences. 2. Our general goal was to investigate the use of mammalian carnivore carrion by vertebrate scavengers...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607386/maternal-and-early-life-circadian-disruption-have-long-lasting-negative-consequences-on-offspring-development-and-adult-behavior-in-mice
#5
Benjamin L Smarr, Azure D Grant, Luz Perez, Irving Zucker, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605969/control-of-hymenolepis-nana-infection-as-a-measure-to-improve-mouse-colony-welfare
#6
Alenka Dovč, Gordana Gregurić Gračner, Iztok Tomažič, Ksenija Vlahović, Marina Pavlak, Renata Lindtner Knific, Klemen Kralj, Mateja Stvarnik, Aleksandra Vergles Rataj
After cannibalism had appeared in the reproductive units of a white mouse colony, treatment against confirmed Hymenolepis nana, a tapeworm with zoonotic potential, was performed on 67 mice in the reproductive and nursery units. Faecal droppings were evaluated by flotation and sedimentation methods. The sedimentation method revealed a higher number of positive results before, during and after the treatment, but the flotation method yielded some additional positive cases. In the reproductive unit, H. nana eggs were confirmed in 50% of the tested mice by the flotation and in 70% by the sedimentation method...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580011/bacterial-pathogens-and-health-problems-of-acipenser-gueldenstaedtii-and-acipenser-baerii-sturgeons-reared-in-the-eastern-black-sea-region-of-turkey
#7
Ş Kayiş, A Er, P Kangel, I Z Kurtoğlu
Farming sturgeons is an economically important practice in a number of Asian and European countries. However, since it is not widely implementedin Turkey, fertilized eggs necessary for research and industrial activities are imported from Germany. Due to the interest of several fish farms in culturing sturgeon in Turkey and the lack of relevant data, this study investigated bacteria related health problems of two different sturgeon species, the diamond sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515331/cannibalism-by-damselflies-increases-with-rising-temperature
#8
Denon Start, Devin Kirk, Dylan Shea, Benjamin Gilbert
Trophic interactions are likely to change under climate warming. These interactions can be altered directly by changing consumption rates, or indirectly by altering growth rates and size asymmetries among individuals that in turn affect feeding. Understanding these processes is particularly important for intraspecific interactions, as direct and indirect changes may exacerbate antagonistic interactions. We examined the effect of temperature on activity rate, growth and intraspecific size asymmetries, and how these temperature dependencies affected cannibalism in Lestes congener, a damselfly with marked intraspecific variation in size...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479694/emperipolesis-entosis-and-cell-cannibalism-demystifying-the-cloud
#9
REVIEW
Nidhi Gupta, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah
There are intense published data in literature related to cell engulfment phenomena such as emperipolesis, entosis and cell cannibalism. All these are closely related phenomena with a very fine line of differences. Its correct identification has a significant diagnostic and prognostic value. After extensive literature search, a gap of knowledge was found in concept designing and clarity about understanding of aforementioned terminologies. The authors have attempted to review data of these closely knit terminologies and further organize its characteristic appearances, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic implications...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407853/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-reproductive-performance-and-quantity-and-morphology-of-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-obtained-from-rattus-norvegicus
#10
Joana Fisch, Iáskara Vieira de Oliveira, Juliana Fank, Lia Mara Gomes Paim, Marília Remuzzi Zandoná, Eliana Franco Lopes, Fernanda Bastos de Mello, Alexandre Tavares Duarte de Oliveira
Several researchers have observed that environmental enrichment (EE) can be effective in reducing stressful conditions and abnormal behavior and may provide better reproductive performance in rodents. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of Wistar rats reared in three different housing conditions. Animals were separated into breeding pairs, one pair per cage and pairs randomly assigned to three experimental groups (ten couples per group): control group were provided cages without any environmental enrichment; PVC group with PVC pipe; and cardboard roll group with a commercially available cardboard tube...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405376/a-test-of-male-infanticide-as-a-reproductive-tactic-in-a-cichlid-fish
#11
Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P H Bose, Constance M O'Connor, Sigal Balshine
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385628/application-of-stable-isotope-analysis-for-detecting-filial-cannibalism
#12
Atsushi Sogabe, Hideki Hamaoka, Atsushi Fukuta, Jun-Ya Shibata, Jun Shoji, Koji Omori
A novel type of filial cannibalism has been reported in pipefishes, in which the eggs are absorbed through the male's brood-pouch epithelium. The present study explored the applicability of stable isotope analysis for the detection of paternal brood cannibalism in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. As expected, the δ(15)N values for liver, which conveys short-term dietary information about the recent reproductive season, were higher in males than in females. In contrast, the δ(15)N values for muscle, which reflects longer-term feeding habits that span both the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons, did not significantly differ between the sexes...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383521/assessing-the-calorific-significance-of-episodes-of-human-cannibalism-in-the-palaeolithic
#13
James Cole
Episodes of Palaeolithic cannibalism have frequently been defined as 'nutritional' in nature, but with little empirical evidence to assess their dietary significance. This paper presents a nutritional template that offers a proxy calorie value for the human body. When applied to the Palaeolithic record, the template provides a framework for assessing the dietary value of prehistoric cannibalistic episodes compared to the faunal record. Results show that humans have a comparable nutritional value to those faunal species that match our typical body weight, but significantly lower than a range of fauna often found in association with anthropogenically modified hominin remains...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379558/orientation-of-navel-orangeworm-lepidoptera-pyralidae-larvae-and-adults-toward-volatiles-associated-with-almond-hull-split-and-aspergillus-flavus
#14
Daniel S Bush, Allen Lawrance, Joel P Siegel, May R Berenbaum
The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377008/of-mechanisms-for-reduced-excess-sludge-production-in-the-cannibal-process-m-a-labelle-p-l-dold-y-comeau-87-8-687-696-2015
#15
Coenraad F Pretorius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367821/-the-yin-and-the-yang-of-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#16
Carine Joffre, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Sophie Pattingre, Sylvie Giuriato
Autophagy is a self-cannibalism process essential for tissue homeostasis, which can be activated following different environmental stressful conditions. In normal cells, autophagy could act as a brake to prevent tumorigenesis, but cancer cells are able to hijack this process to their own benefit, to promote tumor growth and/or tumor resistance to anti-cancer therapies. Scientists and clinicians attempt to modulate this process to improve therapies, using autophagy inhibitors or activators, some of them being tested currently in clinical trials against several types of tumors...
March 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349917/emperipolesis-an-unreported-novel-phenomenon-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Gargi S Sarode, Sachin C Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
Emperipolesis is a phenomenon characterized by engulfment of hematopoietic cells by megakaryocytes, monocytes, fibroblasts, and malignant cells within their cytoplasm. This phenomenon has been reported in various physiological and pathological conditions including malignancies. However, emperipolesis has never been reported in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) till date. We have analyzed histopathological slides of 56 cases of OSCC to see lymphocyte engulfment by tumor cells. Five cases showing features of this phenomenon were observed...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343229/cytological-findings-of-ascitic-fluid-with-a-malignant-ovarian-steroid-cell-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Nobuaki Kosaka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Kaori Kiuchi, Shoko Ochiai, Tamiko Nagai, Hiromi Machida, Yasuo Imai, Ichio Fukasawa
BACKGROUND: Ovarian steroid cell tumors (SCTs) are rare and usually benign, although 25-43% are reportedly malignant. The cytologic findings of these rare ovarian tumors have almost never been reported. CASE: We report a rare case of a malignant ovarian SCT with peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites in a 40-year-old woman. Her tumor was classified as stage IIB (pT2bNoM0) according to the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) classification system, and she was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy following staging laparotomy...
2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338659/intercellular-cannibalism-fuels-tumor-growth
#19
Ernesto Pérez, Andreas Bergmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327257/determining-the-mechanism-for-low-sludge-yields-in-the-cannibal%C3%A2-solids-reduction-system
#20
Steven W Van Ginkel Joseph Miceli Bi-O Kim Ziming Yang Michelle Young Andrew Marcus And Bruce E Rittmann
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solids concentrations in samples from the Interchange Bioreactor (IBR) andreturn activated sludge (RAS) from Cannibal® plants having low and high sludge yields were analyzed to understand the mechanisms behind low sludge production. Low sludge yields correlated to more EPS degradation, higher concentrations of iron, and reducing conditions in the IBR. In the low-yield plants, iron was reduced when the RAS passed through the anaerobic and reducing conditions of the IBR, and this led to more EPS solubilization and degradation...
March 16, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
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