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Tyler Christensen, William D Brown
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Hiromi Mukai, Mantaro Hironaka, Sumio Tojo, Shintaro Nomakuchi
Sibling cannibalism-the killing and consumption of conspecifics within broods-carries a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for parents and offspring. We reported previously that a unique vibrational behavior shown by the mother of the subsocial burrower bug, Adomerus rotundus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), induced synchronous hatching. Maternal regulation may be one of the most effective mechanisms for preventing or limiting sibling cannibalism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synchronous hatching induced by maternal vibration in A...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Thomas J Hossie, Shawn MacFarlane, Amy Clement, Dennis L Murray
Intraspecific aggression represents a major source of mortality for many animals and is often experienced alongside the threat of predation. The presence of predators can strongly influence ecological systems both directly by consuming prey and indirectly by altering prey behavior or habitat use. As such, the threat of attack by higher level predators may strongly influence agonistic interactions among conspecifics via nonconsumptive (e.g., behaviorally mediated) predator effects. We sought to investigate these interactions experimentally using larval salamanders ( Ambystoma maculatum ) as prey and dragonfly nymphs ( Anax junius ) as predators...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Janaína De Nardin, Vanessa Buffon, Luís Fernando Revers, Aldo Mellender de Araújo
Newly hatched caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis routinely cannibalize eggs. In a manifestation of kin recognition they cannibalize sibling eggs less frequently than unrelated eggs. Previous work has estimated the heritability of kin recognition in H. erato phyllis to lie between 14 and 48%. It has furthermore been shown that the inheritance of kin recognition is compatible with a quantitative model with a threshold. Here we present the results of a preliminary study, in which we tested for associations between behavioral kin recognition phenotypes and AFLP and SSR markers...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
G Zięba, M Dukowska, M Przybylski, M G Fox, C Smith
Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle...
March 26, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Louise Chavarie, Kimberly L Howland, Les N Harris, Michael J Hansen, William J Harford, Colin P Gallagher, Shauna M Baillie, Brendan Malley, William M Tonn, Andrew M Muir, Charles C Krueger
Depth is usually considered the main driver of Lake Trout intraspecific diversity across lakes in North America. Given that Great Bear Lake is one of the largest and deepest freshwater systems in North America, we predicted that Lake Trout intraspecific diversity to be organized along a depth axis within this system. Thus, we investigated whether a deep-water morph of Lake Trout co-existed with four shallow-water morphs previously described in Great Bear Lake. Morphology, neutral genetic variation, isotopic niches, and life-history traits of Lake Trout across depths (0-150 m) were compared among morphs...
2018: PloS One
J Durgan, O Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell engulfment and cannibalism prevalent in human cancer. Until recently, the only known trigger for entosis was loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix, as often occurs in the tumour microenvironment. However, two new studies now reveal that entosis can also occur among adherent epithelial cells, induced by mitosis or glucose starvation. Together, these findings point to the intriguing notion that certain hallmark properties of cancer cells, including anchorage independence, aberrant proliferation and metabolic stress, can converge on the induction of cell cannibalism, a phenomenon so frequently observed in tumours...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A M Revynthi, A Janssen, M Egas
Many phytoseiid species, including Phytoseiulus persimilis, are known to engage in cannibalism when food is scarce and when there is no possibility to disperse. In nature adult females of P. persimilis are known to disperse when prey is locally depleted. Males, in contrast, are expected to stay and wait for potential mates to mature. During this phase, males can obtain food by cannibalizing. Therefore, we hypothesize that male P. persimilis exhibit a higher tendency to cannibalize than females. Because rearing conditions in the laboratory usually prevent dispersal, prolonged culturing may also affect cannibalistic behavior...
February 22, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Kinya Nishimura
Cannibalism is induced in larval-stage populations of the Hokkaido salamander, Hynobius retardatus , under the control of a cannibalism reaction norm. Here, I examined phenotypic expression under the cannibalism reaction norm, and how the induction of a cannibalistic morph under the norm leads to populational morphological diversification. I conducted a set of experiments in which density was manipulated to be either low or high. In the high-density treatment, the populations become dimorphic with some individuals developing into the cannibal morph type...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jun-Ichi Okano, Noboru Okuda
Resource availability often determines the intensity of cannibalism, which has a considerable effect on population size distribution and individual life history. Larvae of the caddisfly Psilotreta kisoensis build portable cases from sedimentary sands and often display cannibalism. For this species, the availability of preferable case material is a critical factor that affects larval fitness, and material is locally variable depending on the underlying geology. In this study, we investigated how sand quality as a case material determines cannibalism frequency among larvae and, in turn, how the differential cannibalism frequency affects the body-size distribution and voltinism...
2018: PloS One
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
G M Cronin, R L Hopcroft, P J Groves, E J S Hall, D N Phalen, P H Hemsworth
This 2 × 2 factorial experiment aimed to investigate the effects of stimulating foraging behavior from wk 6 and imposed stress at wk 16 on the development of severe feather pecking (SFP) in chickens reared for free-range egg production. Non-beak-trimmed ISA Brown chicks were purchased at one day old and floor-reared on wood shavings. From wk 6, straw was provided daily in dispensers (Forage vs. No forage) to stimulate foraging. At wk 15, there were 16 pens of 50 pullets. "Stressors" were applied to half the pens in wk 16 via combined transport, relocation, and mixing (TRM) of pullets, simulating activities around transfer from the rearing to egg-laying farm (TRM vs...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Claudio R Lazzari, Aurélie Fauquet, Chloé Lahondère
Kissing bugs possess a highly developed thermal sense and when starved, they attempt to bite any object which temperature is close to that of a warm-blooded host. At each feeding event, these insects take massive meals in just a few minutes. One could then expect fed-bugs being heated-up by the ingested warm blood and so becoming attractive to starved conspecifics. This is not however the case, arising the question about why cannibalism is very rare among these insects. Recently, the ability of thermoregulating during feeding has been demonstrated in Rhodnius prolixus...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
A Fletcher, S Bjørnson
In North America, more than 70 species of natural enemies are available for pest control, including the aphid predators, Adalia bipunctata L. (two-spotted lady beetle) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (convergent lady beetle), and the generalist predator Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (green lacewing). The two lady beetle species are known to host microsporidian pathogens: Nosema adaliae was originally described from Adalia bipunctata and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from H. convergens. Microsporidia are spore-forming pathogens that typically produce chronic, debilitating disease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J M Cushing, Shandelle M Henson
For structured populations with an annual breeding season, life-stage interactions and behavioral tactics may occur on a faster time scale than that of population dynamics. Motivated by recent field studies of the effect of rising sea surface temperature (SST) on within-breeding-season behaviors in colonial seabirds, we formulate and analyze a general class of discrete-time matrix models designed to account for changes in behavioral tactics within the breeding season and their dynamic consequences at the population level across breeding seasons...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Stefano Fais, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Eric F LoPresti
Few species of insect herbivores are highly polyphagous, but those few species are disproportionately ecologically and economically important and include many of the most destructive crop pests. Common correlates of extreme polyphagy across insects include the related behaviors of cannibalism and omnivory, though any functional consequences of these behaviors on the host range are unknown. I hypothesized that omnivory may allow these insects to exploit marginal hosts successfully (an expansion of realized niche)...
April 2018: Oecologia
Alexandra Bernal, Oihane Simón, Trevor Williams, Delia Muñoz, Primitivo Caballero
BACKGROUND: A Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus from the Canary Islands (ChchNPV-TF1) has proved to be effective for control of Chrysodeixis chalcites on banana crops. Commercialization of this virus as a bioinsecticide requires an efficient production system. RESULTS: The sixth instar (L6 ) was the most suitable for virus production, producing 1.80 × 1011 occlusion bodies (OB)/larva and showed a lower prevalence of cannibalism (5.4%) than fourth (L4 ) or fifth (L5 ) instars...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
Thomas Marsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
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