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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779823/the-role-of-thiamine-dependent-enzymes-in-obesity-and-obesity-related-chronic-disease-states-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Donogh Maguire, Dinesh Talwar, Paul G Shiels, Donald McMillan
The WHO 2016 report indicates that worldwide obesity is rising, with over 600 million people in the obese range (BMI>30). The recommended daily calorie intake for adults is 2000 kcal and 2500 kcal for women and men respectively. The average American consumes 3770 kcal/day and the average person in the UK consumes 3400 kcal/day. With such increased caloric intake, there is an increased load on metabolic pathways, in particular glucose metabolism. Such metabolism requires micronutrients as enzyme co-factors...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777229/fate-of-the-metabolically-healthy-obese-is-this-term-a-misnomer-a-study-from-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#2
Osama Moussa, Chanpreet Arhi, Paul Ziprin, Ara Darzi, Omar Khan, Sanjay Purkayastha
INTRODUCTION: The metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype may express typical characteristics on long-term follow-up. Little is known about the initiation of this phenotypes and its future stability. AIM: The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a large-scale primary care database. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of, and evaluate the factors associated with a transition into an unhealthy outcome in, a MHO population in the UK. METHODS: The CPRD was interrogated for a diagnosis of 'obesity' and cross-referenced with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m2 ; participants were further classified as MH using a clinical diagnostic code or a relative therapeutic code...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769355/role-of-obesity-in-smoking-behaviour-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-uk-biobank
#3
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan, Richard M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference influence smoking status and intensity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank, with replication of results from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: European descent participants from the UK Biobank cohort (n=372 791) and the TAG consortium (n=74 035). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of current and past smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking initiation...
May 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764436/prevalence-and-incidence-of-complications-at-diagnosis-of-t2dm-and-during-follow-up-by-bmi-and-ethnicity-a-matched-case-control-analysis
#4
Ebenezer S Owusu Adjah, Srikanth Bellary, Wasim Hanif, Kiran Patel, Kamlesh Khunti, Sanjoy K Paul
AIMS: To estimate the risk of developing long-term major cardiovascular and renal complications in relation to levels of body mass index (BMI) in a population of White European (WE), African-Caribbean (AC), and South Asian (SA) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with new diagnosis of T2DM, aged ≥ 18 years from January 2000 (n = 69,436) and their age-sex-ethnicity matched non-diabetic controls (n = 272,190) were identified from UK primary care database...
May 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759082/barriers-to-identifying-eating-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-in-the-postnatal-period-a-qualitative-approach
#5
Amanda Bye, Jill Shawe, Debra Bick, Abigail Easter, Megan Kash-Macdonald, Nadia Micali
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders (ED) are mental health disorders that typically effect women of childbearing age and are associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes. UK healthcare guidance recommends routine enquiry for current and past mental illness in antenatal and postnatal care for all women, and that pregnant women with a known ED are offered enhanced monitoring and support. Midwives and health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support women with ED as they are often the primary point of contact during the antenatal and postnatal periods...
May 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752194/sex-specific-relevance-of-diabetes-to-occlusive-vascular-and-other-mortality-a-collaborative-meta-analysis-of-individual-data-from-980-793-adults-from-68-prospective-studies
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that diabetes confers a higher relative risk of vascular mortality among women than among men, but whether this increased relative risk in women exists across age groups and within defined levels of other risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to determine whether differences in established risk factors, such as blood pressure, BMI, smoking, and cholesterol, explain the higher relative risks of vascular mortality among women than among men. METHODS: In our meta-analysis, we obtained individual participant-level data from studies included in the Prospective Studies Collaboration and the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration that had obtained baseline information on age, sex, diabetes, total cholesterol, blood pressure, tobacco use, height, and weight...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750675/maternal-pre-pregnancy-weight-status-and-adolescent-eating-disorder-behaviors-a-longitudinal-study-of-risk-pathways
#7
Nadia Micali, Rhian M Daniel, George B Ploubidis, Bianca L De Stavola
BACKGROUND: Maternal characteristics and childhood growth have been identified as risk factors for eating disorders. Most studies to date have been unable to investigate these factors prospectively while accounting for their interdependencies. We address this by investigating whether the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) with adolescent eating disorder behaviors can be explained by childhood growth and/or a concurrent environmental pathway captured by maternal eating habits...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741556/eating-at-food-outlets-and-leisure-places-and-on-the-go-is-associated-with-less-healthy-food-choices-than-eating-at-home-and-in-school-in-children-cross-sectional-data-from-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-rolling-program-2008-2014
#8
Nida Ziauddeen, Polly Page, Tarra L Penney, Sonja Nicholson, Sara F L Kirk, Eva Almiron-Roig
Background: Where children eat has been linked to variations in diet quality, including the consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense food, a recognized risk factor for obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of consumption patterns and nutritional intake by eating location in British children with the use of a nationally representative survey. Design: Cross-sectional data from 4636 children (80,075 eating occasions) aged 1...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733398/pre-pregnancy-fast-food-and-fruit-intake-is-associated-with-time-to-pregnancy
#9
Jessica A Grieger, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Lisa J Moran, Rebecca L Wilson, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Lucilla Poston, Lesley McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Jenny Myers, James J Walker, Robert J Norman, Gus A Dekker, Claire T Roberts
STUDY QUESTION: Is preconception dietary intake associated with reduced fecundity as measured by a longer time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Lower intake of fruit and higher intake of fast food in the preconception period were both associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, have consistently been associated with a longer TTP or infertility, but the role of preconception diet in women remains poorly studied...
May 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723176/the-dunedin-dementia-risk-awareness-project-a-convenience-sample-of-general-practitioners
#10
Yoram Barak, Charlene Rapsey, Dana Fridman, Kate Scott
AIMS: Recent recommendations of US and UK governmental and academic agencies suggest that up to 35% of dementia cases are preventable. We aimed to appraise general practitioners' (GPs) awareness of risk and protective factors associated with dementia and their intentions to act within the context of the Health Beliefs Model. METHODS: We canvassed degree of dementia awareness, using the modified Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA) scale among a convenience sample of local GPs...
May 4, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719518/body-mass-index-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-according-to-age-sex-cognitive-intervention-and-hypertension-and-risk-of-progression-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Soo Hyun Joo, Se Hee Yun, Dong Woo Kang, Chang Tae Hahn, Hyun Kook Lim, Chang Uk Lee
Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage of dementia. The association of body mass index (BMI) and progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in MCI subjects according to age, sex, and cognitive intervention remains unknown. We investigated the relationship between BMI and the risk of progression to AD in subjects with MCI, as well as the effect of BMI on progression to AD depending on age, sex, cognitive intervention, and chronic diseases. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-eight MCI subjects were followed for 36...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718151/the-impact-of-confounding-on-the-associations-of-different-adiposity-measures-with-the-incidence-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-cohort-study-of-296-535-adults-of-white-european-descent
#12
Stamatina Iliodromiti, Carlos A Celis-Morales, Donald M Lyall, Jana Anderson, Stuart R Gray, Daniel F Mackay, Scott M Nelson, Paul Welsh, Jill P Pell, Jason M R Gill, Naveed Sattar
Aims: The data regarding the associations of body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular (CVD) risk, especially for those at the low categories of BMI, are conflicting. The aim of our study was to examine the associations of body composition (assessed by five different measures) with incident CVD outcomes in healthy individuals. Methods and results: A total of 296 535 participants (57.8% women) of white European descent without CVD at baseline from the UK biobank were included...
May 1, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716577/is-adolescent-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-associated-with-the-food-environments-surrounding-schools-and-homes-a-longitudinal-analysis
#13
Mark A Green, Duncan Radley, Nik Lomax, Michelle A Morris, Claire Griffiths
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in the role of access to unhealthy food options as a determinant of weight status. There is conflict across the literature as to the existence of such an association, partly due to the dominance of cross-sectional study designs and inconsistent definitions of the food environment. The aim of our study is to use longitudinal data to examine if features of the food environment are associated to measures of adolescent weight status. METHODS: Data were collected from secondary schools in Leeds (UK) and included measurements at school years 7 (ages 11/12), 9 (13/14), and 11 (15/16)...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708088/nutrition-and-public-health-in-medical-education-in-the-uk-reflections-and-next-steps
#14
Jonathan Broad, Megan Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Doctors play an important role in the identification of nutritional disorders and as advocates for a healthy diet, and although the key tenets of good nutrition education for medical students have been discussed, reports on implementation are sparse. The present commentary responds to a gap in UK medical students' understanding of nutrition and public health and suggests ways to improve it. DESIGN: We review literature about nutrition education in medical schools and discuss a 6-week elective in public health nutrition for medical students...
April 30, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699552/rationing-elective-surgery-for-smokers-and-obese-patients-responsibility-or-prognosis
#15
Virimchi Pillutla, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom (UK), a number of National Health Service (NHS) Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG) have proposed controversial measures to restrict elective surgery for patients who either smoke or are obese. Whilst the nature of these measures varies between NHS authorities, typically, patients above a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and smokers are required to lose weight and quit smoking prior to being considered eligible for elective surgery. Patients will be supported and monitored throughout this mandatory period to ensure their clinical needs are appropriately met...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691411/analysis-of-predicted-loss-of-function-variants-in-uk-biobank-identifies-variants-protective-for-disease
#16
Connor A Emdin, Amit V Khera, Mark Chaffin, Derek Klarin, Pradeep Natarajan, Krishna Aragam, Mary Haas, Alexander Bick, Seyedeh M Zekavat, Akihiro Nomura, Diego Ardissino, James G Wilson, Heribert Schunkert, Ruth McPherson, Hugh Watkins, Roberto Elosua, Matthew J Bown, Nilesh J Samani, Usman Baber, Jeanette Erdmann, Namrata Gupta, John Danesh, Daniel Chasman, Paul Ridker, Joshua Denny, Lisa Bastarache, Judith H Lichtman, Gail D'Onofrio, Jennifer Mattera, John A Spertus, Wayne H-H Sheu, Kent D Taylor, Bruce M Psaty, Stephen S Rich, Wendy Post, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Harlan Krumholz, Danish Saleheen, Stacey Gabriel, Sekar Kathiresan
Less than 3% of protein-coding genetic variants are predicted to result in loss of protein function through the introduction of a stop codon, frameshift, or the disruption of an essential splice site; however, such predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants provide insight into effector transcript and direction of biological effect. In >400,000 UK Biobank participants, we conduct association analyses of 3759 pLOF variants with six metabolic traits, six cardiometabolic diseases, and twelve additional diseases...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689647/a-mixed-method-evaluation-of-adult-tier-2-lifestyle-weight-management-service-provision-across-a-county-in-northern-england
#17
L Ells, P Watson, S Carlebach, C O'Malley, D Jones, T Machaira, V Whittaker, H Clements, P Walker, K Needham, C Summerbell, V Coulton, V Araujo-Soares
Adult obesity in the UK remains a public health priority. Current guidance recommends local areas provide multicomponent interventions to treat adults with overweight and obesity; however, there is currently a dearth of published evidence on the evaluation of these programmes. This study reports on a mixed method evaluation of seven tier 2 weight management programmes funded by a local authority in the North of England through their public health grant (a lifestyle multicomponent weight management programme for the treatment of adults with overweight and obesity, but not severe obesity, or obesity with severe co-morbidities)...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689646/beyond-lifestyle-interventions-exploring-the-potential-of-anti-obesity-medications-in-the-uk
#18
REVIEW
J P H Wilding
In the UK, over one-quarter of the adult population have obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m-2 ). This has major implications for patients' health and the National Health Service. Despite published studies showing that significant weight loss can be achieved and maintained in primary care, and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, weight management services are inconsistently implemented. This may be due primarily to workload and financial constraints. There is also a lack of belief that specialist weight management services and anti-obesity medications (AOMs) are a viable alternative to bariatric surgery for long-term maintenance of weight loss...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686879/medium-and-long-term-results-of-gastric-banding-outcomes-from-a-large-private-clinic-in-uk
#19
Leeying Giet, Julia Baker, Franco Favretti, Gianni Segato, Paul Super, Rishi Singhal, David Ashton
Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) has been an established bariatric procedure for the last three decades and was, for many years, the first-choice procedure for the treatment of chronic obesity. However, more recently, the popularity of the LAGB has been in sharp decline and has been replaced by other procedures such as the Roux-En-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. A key driver in this decline has been the high revision and early explanation rates reported in some studies...
2018: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684880/exposure-to-air-pollution-interacts-with-obesogenic-nutrition-to-induce-tissue-specific-response-patterns
#20
Michal Pardo, Yael Kuperman, Liron Levin, Assaf Rudich, Yulia Haim, James J Schauer, Alon Chen, Yinon Rudich
Obesity and exposure to particular matter (PM) have become two leading global threats to public health. However, the exact mechanisms and tissue-specificity of their health effects are largely unknown. Here we investigate whether a metabolic challenge (early nutritional obesity) synergistically interacts with an environmental challenge (PM exposure) to alter genes representing key response pathways, in a tissue-specific manner. Mice subjected to 7 weeks obesogenic nutrition were exposed every other day during the final week and a half to aqueous extracts of PM collected in the city of London (UK)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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