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Obesity epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244099/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-adipogenesis
#1
Clare F Dix, Johanna L Barcley, Olivia R L Wright
Vitamin D, a secosteroid predominately obtained by endogenous production, has in recent years been linked to obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to draw conclusions from animal and human studies on the effects of vitamin D on adipogenesis to identify the molecular links between vitamin D and obesity. The information presented herein was obtained from 4 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus) using predefined search terms, as well as research literature and other reviews...
December 13, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241724/measures-of-ses-for-electronic-health-record-based-research
#2
Joan A Casey, Jonathan Pollak, M Maria Glymour, Elizabeth R Mayeda, Annemarie G Hirsch, Brian S Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: Although infrequently recorded in electronic health records (EHRs), measures of SES are essential to describe health inequalities and account for confounding in epidemiologic research. Medical Assistance (i.e., Medicaid) is often used as a surrogate for SES, but correspondence between conventional SES and Medical Assistance has been insufficiently studied. METHODS: Geisinger Clinic EHR data from 2001 to 2014 and a 2014 questionnaire were used to create six SES measures: EHR-derived Medical Assistance and proportion of time under observation on Medical Assistance; educational attainment, income, and marital status; and area-level poverty...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241474/optimising-design-and-cost-effective-implementation-of-future-pan-african-dietary-studies-a-review-of-existing-economic-integration-and-nutritional-indicators-for-scenario-based-profiling-and-clustering-of-countries
#3
Elom K Aglago, Edwige Landais, Francis Zotor, Genevieve Nicolas, Marc J Gunter, Paul Amuna, Nadia Slimani
Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others...
December 15, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238222/the-burden-of-selected-cancers-in-the-us-health-behaviors-and-health-care-resource-utilization
#4
Laura Iadeluca, Jack Mardekian, Pratibha Chander, Markay Hopps, Geoffrey T Makinson
Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973-2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238123/epidemiology-triggers-and-severity-of-childhood-asthma-in-ilesa-nigeria-implications-for-management-and-control
#5
Bankole Peter Kuti, Kehinde Oluyori Omole
Background: Knowledge about childhood asthma in a locality will assist clinicians to adequately manage the condition. This study set out to report the epidemiology, triggers of exacerbation, comorbid conditions, and severity of childhood asthma at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria and the implication of these, in management and symptoms control. Methods: Over a 15-month study period, children (aged <15 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma were consecutively recruited at the pediatric chest clinic of the hospital...
January 2017: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237499/risk-factors-for-first-hospitalization-due-to-meniscal-lesions-a-population-based-cohort-study-with-30%C3%A2-years-of-follow-up
#6
Tea Kontio, Markku Heliövaara, Harri Rissanen, Paul Knekt, Arpo Aromaa, Svetlana Solovieva
BACKGROUND: Meniscal lesions are among the most common injuries of the knee, yet limited epidemiologic data is available on their risk factors. We investigated the association of lifestyle factors and physical strenuousness of work on knee injuries with a focus on meniscal lesions. METHODS: We examined a nationally representative sample of persons aged 30 to 59 years, who participated in a comprehensive health examination (the Mini-Finland Health Survey). Subjects without any injury or osteoarthritis in the knee joint at baseline (n = 4713) were subsequently followed via the National Hospital Discharge Register up to 30 years...
December 13, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237379/male-urogen%C3%A4-tal-d%C3%A4-sorders-and-metabol%C3%A4-c-syndrome-poss%C3%A4-ble-l%C3%A4-nks-character%C3%A4-st%C3%A4-cs-and-potent%C3%A4-al-treatment-strateg%C3%A4-es
#7
Cetin Volkan Oztekin, Ecem Kaya, Didem Yilmaz-Oral, Serap Gur
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), as a cluster of metabolic derangements which is major risk factors for vascular disease, is one of the most important threats to public health. Although the epidemiological and limited amount of basic science and clinical evidence link MetS to several male urogenital disorders, a holistic approach aiming to define common mechanistic pathways and new possible therapeutic targets are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The current review has focused on providing scientific evidence on the role of MetS and its components on male urogenital disorders and the definition of new therapeutic targets...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236708/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-fish-and-epa-dha-consumption-in-17-us-and-european-cohorts
#8
Dariush Mozaffarian, Hassan S Dashti, Mary K Wojczynski, Audrey Y Chu, Jennifer A Nettleton, Satu Männistö, Kati Kristiansson, Mägi Reedik, Jari Lahti, Denise K Houston, Marilyn C Cornelis, Frank J A van Rooij, Maria Dimitriou, Stavroula Kanoni, Vera Mikkilä, Lyn M Steffen, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Lu Qi, Bruce Psaty, Luc Djousse, Jerome I Rotter, Kennet Harald, Markus Perola, Harri Rissanen, Antti Jula, Fischer Krista, Evelin Mihailov, Mary F Feitosa, Julius S Ngwa, Luting Xue, Paul F Jacques, Mia-Maria Perälä, Aarno Palotie, Yongmei Liu, Nike A Nalls, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena Hernandez, Ani Manichaikul, Michael Y Tsai, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Loukianos Rallidis, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Julie E Buring, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Rozenn Lemaitre, Veikko Salomaa, Paul Knekt, Andres Metspalu, Ingrid B Borecki, L Adrienne Cupples, Johan G Eriksson, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Stefania Bandinelli, David Siscovick, Oscar H Franco, Panos Deloukas, George Dedoussis, Daniel I Chasman, Olli Raitakari, Toshiko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236378/urinary-bisphenol-a-and-obesity-in-adults-results-from-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#9
Minh T Do, Vicky C Chang, Michelle A Mendez, Margaret de Groh
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults...
December 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233612/association-between-long-sleep-duration-and-increased-risk-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-possible-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Xiao Tan, Colin D Chapman, Jonathan Cedernaes, Christian Benedict
For the last two decades research has revealed an alarming association between short sleep duration and metabolic disorders. In tandem, the hormonal, behavioral, and genetic mechanisms underlying this relationship have been extensively investigated and reviewed. However, emerging evidence is revealing that excessive sleep duration has remarkably similar deleterious effects. Unfortunately, to date there has been little attention to what drives this connection. This narrative review therefore aims to summarize existing epidemiological findings, experimental work, and most importantly putative molecular and behavioral mechanisms connecting excessive sleep duration with both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 20, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229563/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2017-clinical
#11
REVIEW
Amanda E Nelson
This review is based on a systematic review of the literature relevant to clinical topics in osteoarthritis (OA) performed for the time period February 22, 2016 to April 1, 2017. A PubMed search using the terms "osteoarthritis" and "treatment or epidemiology" returned over 800 papers, of which 57 are reviewed here, with inclusion primarily based on relevance to clinical OA. Epidemiologic studies in this time frame focused on the incidence and prevalence of OA, comorbidities and mortality in relation to OA (particularly obesity and cardiovascular disease), and multiple joint involvement...
December 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227353/epidemiology-of-osteoarthritis-literature-update
#12
Ernest R Vina, C Kent Kwoh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, disease impact, and potential risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoarthritis is highly prevalent in the United States and around the globe. It is a leading cause of disability and can negatively impact people's physical and mental well being. Healthcare resources and costs associated with managing the disease can be substantial...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226105/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-clinical-update
#13
REVIEW
Joseph M Pappachan, Shithu Babu, Babu Krishnan, Nishal C Ravindran
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries because of the obesity epidemic. The disease increases liver-related morbidity and mortality, and often increases the risk for other comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance related to metabolic syndrome is the main pathogenic trigger that, in association with adverse genetic, humoral, hormonal and lifestyle factors, precipitates development of NAFLD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225542/the-plausibility-of-an-association-between-maternal-obesity-and-onset-of-childhood-epilepsy-a-well-rounded-robust-argument-or-a-thin-epidemiologic-association
#14
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224135/serum-ferritin-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiological-study
#15
Elin H Thorarinsdottir, Erna S Arnardottir, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Christer Janson, Isleifur Olafsson, Allan I Pack, Thorarinn Gislason, Brendan T Keenan
PURPOSE: Ferritin is an intracellular iron storage protein and a marker of inflammation. Studies have shown that subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have higher levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, but little is known about the association between ferritin and OSA. The aims of the study were to evaluate serum ferritin (S-Ferritin) levels in OSA patients compared to levels in the general population and also examine the effect of obesity level and treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) on S-Ferritin levels...
December 9, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224087/epidemiology-of-gender-differences-in-diabetes-and-obesity
#16
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Some aspects of glucose homeostasis and energy balance are regulated differently in males and females. This review discusses the most fundamental gender differences in diabetes and obesity, including the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, the prevalence and incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes, as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. These gender-specific differences in glucose homeostasis and energy balance represent a source of factors that should be studied to develop gender-based therapeutic avenues for diabetes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220367/periodontitis-is-associated-with-significant-hepatic-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
William Alazawi, Eduardo Bernabe, David Tai, Tomasz Janicki, Polychronis Kemos, Salma Samsuddin, Wing-Kin Syn, David Gillam, Wendy Turner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219130/effects-of-health-education-tool-on-select-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-adult-obese-urban-slum-women
#18
Deepika Pradeep Vora, Pallavi S Shelke
BACKGROUND: National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006) India, found that 14.8% of Ever-Married Adults (age 15-49 years) had Body Mass Index (BMI) in the ranges of overweight and obese; compared to 10.6% in the National Family Health Survey-2. These figures highlighted the fact that India already faces a dual burden of chronic malnutrition, i.e., obesity, besides undernutrition. Higher BMI, especially, increased abdominal fat is an important determinant of the development of diabetes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217518/enhancement-of-mammary-tumor-growth-by-igfbp-3-involves-impaired-t-cell-accumulation
#19
Tiffany Scully, Carolyn Scott, Sue Mei Firth, Lisa M Sedger, John E Pintar, Stephen Twigg, Robert C Baxter
Epidemiological studies show an association between obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis. We previously demonstrated that global IGFBP-3 deficiency, in IGFBP-3-null mice, resulted in a 50% reduction in mammary tumor growth over 3 weeks relative to tumors in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. This growth reduction was ameliorated by high-fat feeding-induced obesity. This study aimed to examine how IGFBP-3 promotes tumor growth by influencing the immune tumor microenvironment in healthy and obese mice. Syngeneic EO771 cells, which lack detectable IGFBP-3 expression, were grown as orthotopic tumors in wild-type and IGFBP-3-null C57BL/6 mice placed on either a control chow or high-fat diet, and examined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#20
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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