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Obesity epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911462/the-double-burden-of-chronic-malnutrition-and-overweight-and-obesity-in-ecuadorian-mothers-and-children-1986-2012
#1
Wilma B Freire, William F Waters, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Philippe Belmont
BACKGROUND: The simultaneous presence of undernutrition and over-nutrition represents a paradox in global public health and is of increasing concern in Ecuador, where chronic malnutrition and overweight and obesity occur in the context of demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Two overlapping trends are present in Ecuador; while levels of stunting have decreased slowly in the past three decades, increasing proportions of children <5 years and women of reproductive age suffer from overweight and obesity...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908771/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-improves-weight-loss-and-quality-of-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Laura G Cooney, Lauren W Milman, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara Kornfield, Mary D Sammel, Kelly C Allison, C Neill Epperson, Anuja Dokras
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and lifestyle modification (LS) versus LS alone on weight, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and stress response in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), overweight/obesity, and depressive symptoms. DESIGN: A 16-week pilot randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary-care PCOS center. PATIENT(S): Overweight/obese women with PCOS and depressive symptoms...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907861/higher-plasma-leptin-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-left-ventricular-mass-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-stiffness-in-black-women-insights-from-the-genetic-epidemiology-network-of-arteriopathy-genoa-study
#3
Daisuke Kamimura, Takeki Suzuki, Wanmei Wang, Matthew deShazo, John E Hall, Michael D Winniford, Iftikhar J Kullo, Thomas H Mosley, Kenneth R Butler, Michael E Hall
Our previous experimental animal data suggest a beneficial effect of leptin on LV structure and function. We hypothesized that leptin levels are associated with lower LV mass and myocardial stiffness which are important risk factors for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated 1172 blacks, in which the prevalence of HFpEF is quite high, with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study (mean age 62...
June 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907091/end-stage-renal-disease-treated-in-provence-alpes-c%C3%A3-te-d-azur-12-years-follow-up-and-forecast-to-the-year-2030
#4
Anne-Claire Durand, Elisabeth Jouve, Jean-Christophe Delarozière, Mohamed Boucekine, Ghizlane Izaaryene, Adeline Crémades, Franck Mazoué, Bénédicte Devictor, Asmatullah Kakar, Roland Sambuc, Philippe Brunet, Stéphanie Gentile
BACKGROUND: This study describes the time trend of renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the Provence-Alpes Côte d'Azur region (PACA) between 2004 and 2015, and forecasts up to 2030. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on all ESRD patients treated in PACA and recorded in the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) during this period. Time trends and forecasts to 2030 were analyzed using Poisson regression models...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903689/interplay-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#5
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901549/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-clinical-and-translational-research-in-pediatric-gastroenterology-from-1970-to-2017
#6
Melanie H Schwimmer, Mary Catherine Sawh, Karen M Heskett, Nidhi P Goyal, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric gastroenterology is a clinical and research discipline principally developed over the past 50 years. Bibliometric methods provide quantitative analysis and identify research trends. Study aims were to characterize the growth and trends in pediatric gastroenterology clinical and translational research using citation analysis. METHODS: Using citations analysis software, a search strategy specific for pediatric gastroenterology was implemented for the years 1970-2017...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894289/occult-hepatitis-b-and-other-unexplored-risk-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-latin-america
#7
Sonia Roman
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver and/or serum (&lt; 200 IU/mL) in HBsAgnegative patients with or without serologic markers of previous viral exposure. The clinical significance of OBI is of concern in posttransfusional hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B reactivation, chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The diagnosis of OBI relays on the use of highly sensitive and specific laboratory techniques. Herein, comments derived from a study analyzing the frequency and characteristics of OBI in HCC Japanese patients are stated...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888148/prevalence-of-non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus-among-patients-with-cholelithiasis-a-single-centered-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sidra Ali, Shaik Tanveer Ahamad, Abdul Subhan Talpur, Shreeya Parajuli, Jawad Farooq
Introduction Gallstone disease (GD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the west and most of the countries worldwide. Cholelithiasis and diseases of the biliary tract are becoming more prevalent with the socioeconomic burden in developing countries like Pakistan. GD is a chronic, recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis of which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder...
April 7, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885111/the-evidence-for-an-obesity-paradox-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Seung Jin Han, Edward J Boyko
Although overweight/obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is increasing evidence that overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience lower mortality compared with patients of normal weight. This paradoxical finding, known as the "obesity paradox," occurs in other chronic diseases, and in type 2 diabetes mellitus is particularly perplexing given that lifestyle intervention with one goal being weight reduction is an important feature of the management of this condition...
May 31, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884693/epidemiology-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-early-childhood-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#10
Mahmoud A Nahhas, Felix Asamoah, Stephen Mullen, Bright I Nwaru, Ulugbek Nurmatov
INTRODUCTION: There has been a notable increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children in many industrialised regions. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% in 1990 to 6.7% in 2010. Although many studies have been published, the epidemiological burden of overweight and obesity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) is unclear. There is a need to bring together and appraise relevant studies in order to estimate the epidemiological burden (including incidence, prevalence, risk factors, trend over time) of overweight and obesity in this region and thus help to inform national and regional policies...
June 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882524/-how-many-kids-are-there-with-excess-weight-what-information-should-be-published
#11
Mónica Pérez-Ríos, María I Santiago-Pérez, Alberto Malvar Pintos, Jorge Suanzes Hernández, Xurxo Hervada Vidal
OBJECTIVE: In epidemiological studies, there is no consensus on which references should be used to characterize the weight status of schoolchildren after estimating their body mass index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence that different criteria have on the characterization of the weight status of Galician schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old and to identify the criterion that best characterizes central obesity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on a sample of 7...
June 11, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879116/genetic-ancestry-and-population-differences-in-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-women-role-for-evolutionary-selection-and-environmental-factors
#12
Song Yao, Chi-Chen Hong, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Sharon S Evans, Qianqian Zhu, Beverly A Schaefer, Li Yan, Marie V Coignet, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Kelvin Lee, Elisa V Bandera, Melissa A Troester, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer, Andrew F Olshan, Christine B Ambrosone
Selection pressure due to exposure to infectious pathogens endemic to Africa may explain distinct genetic variations in immune response genes. However, the impact of those genetic variations on human immunity remains understudied, especially within the context of modern lifestyles and living environments, which are drastically different from early humans in sub Saharan Africa. There are few data on population differences in constitutional immune environment, where genetic ancestry and environment are likely two primary sources of variation...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877150/overview-of-trends-in-cardiovascular-and-diabetes-risk-factors-in-fiji
#13
R Taylor, S Lin, C Linhart, S Morrell
CONTEXT: Fiji has undergone an epidemiological transition, characterised by declining infectious disease and childhood mortality, that has been offset by rising cardiovascular disease mortality. Other Pacific Island states are in a comparable situation. OBJECTIVE: With a focus on Fiji, this study reviews and contextualises research performed by the authors and others that examines cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and their risk factors in Pacific Island states...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875867/epidemiology-of-cesarean-delivery-in-qassim-saudi-arabia
#14
Muneera Abdulaziz AlSheeha
BACKGROUND: There is a global increase in the rate of cesarean deliveries, with the higher morbidity and mortality. Few published data on cesarean delivery exist in Qassim, Kingdom Saudi Arabia (KSA). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, type, indications, maternal and perinatal outcomes of cesarean delivery. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted during three months (August-October 2016) at Maternity and Children's Hospital (MCH), Buraidah, Qassim, KSA...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866720/risk-factors-and-determinants-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Adina Mihaela Epure, Magali Leyvraz, Yvan Mivelaz, Stefano Di Bernardo, Bruno R da Costa, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis that is measured in adults and children to better understand the natural history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In adults, CIMT is predictive of myocardial infarction and stroke. In children and adolescents, CIMT is used to assess vascular changes in the presence of CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, smoking, etc) or clinical conditions associated with a high risk for premature CVD. However, there is no comprehensive overview, in a life-course epidemiology perspective, of the risk factors and determinants of CIMT in children...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865233/current-knowledge-on-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-edcs-from-animal-biology-to-humans-from-pregnancy-to-adulthood-highlights-from-a-national-italian-meeting
#16
REVIEW
Maria Elisabeth Street, Sabrina Angelini, Sergio Bernasconi, Ernesto Burgio, Alessandra Cassio, Cecilia Catellani, Francesca Cirillo, Annalisa Deodati, Enrica Fabbrizi, Vassilios Fanos, Giancarlo Gargano, Enzo Grossi, Lorenzo Iughetti, Pietro Lazzeroni, Alberto Mantovani, Lucia Migliore, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Anna Maria Papini, Stefano Parmigiani, Barbara Predieri, Chiara Sartori, Gabriele Tridenti, Sergio Amarri
Wildlife has often presented and suggested the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Animal studies have given us an important opportunity to understand the mechanisms of action of many chemicals on the endocrine system and on neurodevelopment and behaviour, and to evaluate the effects of doses, time and duration of exposure. Although results are sometimes conflicting because of confounding factors, epidemiological studies in humans suggest effects of EDCs on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility, and on carcinogenesis mainly through epigenetic mechanisms...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861638/prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-nigeria-systematic-review-of-population-based-studies
#17
REVIEW
Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye, Okechukwu Samuel Ogah, Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu, Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu, Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko, Uwa Onwuchekwa, Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye, Emmanuel Chukwuebuka Obi, Efosa Oviasu
Background: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss published population-based studies carried out in Nigeria that have information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have also used the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) practice guidelines in defining CKD, with emphasis on the performance of three estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) - Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Cock-croft-Gault, and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860978/characterization-of-the-degree-of-food-processing-in-relation-with-its-health-potential-and-effects
#18
Anthony Fardet
Up today technological processes are intended to produce safe and palatable food products. Yet, it is also expected that processing produces healthy and sustainable foods. However, due to the dramatic increase of chronic diseases prevalence worldwide, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers, ultraprocessing has been pointed out as producing unhealthy foods, rich in energy and poor in protective micronutrients and fiber, i.e., "empty" calories. Indeed the 1980s saw massive arrivals of ultraprocessed foods in supermarkets, i...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860428/an-integrative-approach-for-deciphering-the-causal-associations-of-physical-activity-and-cancer-risk-the-role-of-adiposity
#19
Edward Giovannucci
Higher physical activity levels have been associated with about 10% to 25% reductions in up to 13 cancers. In isolation, these results are suggestive but not compelling enough to conclude causal associations, except for colon and breast cancer. However, knowledge on the relationships between obesity and cancer, between physical activity and overall and visceral adiposity, and between physical activity and obesity-related mediators of cancer risk can inform the epidemiology of physical activity and cancer. Excluding primarily smoking-related malignancies, for which residual confounding by smoking may occur, all 13 cancers associated with lower physical activity are also obesity-related...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859712/low-population-prevalence-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-rural-uganda-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#20
Rahul G Muthalaly, Bruce A Koplan, Alfred Albano, Crystal North, Jeffrey I Campbell, Bernard Kakuhikire, Dagmar Vořechovská, John D Kraemer, Alexander C Tsai, Mark J Siedner
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for stroke, which is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited population-based epidemiological data on AF in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of AF in rural Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using community health fairs in 2015 targeting eight villages in rural Uganda. Study participants completed a medical history, a clinical exam, blood collection, and 12‑lead electrocardiographic (ECG) screening...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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