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Obesity epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664737/insulin-regulates-astrocyte-gliotransmission-and-modulates-behavior
#1
Weikang Cai, Chang Xue, Masaji Sakaguchi, Masahiro Konishi, Alireza Shirazian, Heather A Ferris, Mengyao Li, Ruichao Yu, Andre Kleinridders, Emmanuel N Pothos, C Ronald Kahn
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout body, including central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor in brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities, however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well-studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663374/oleic-acid-promotes-prostate-cancer-malignant-phenotype-via-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-ffa1-gpr40
#2
Antonietta Liotti, Vincenzo Cosimato, Paola Mirra, Gaetano Calì, Domenico Conza, Agnese Secondo, Gelsomina Luongo, Daniela Terracciano, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Luigi Insabato, Luca Ulianich
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that obesity promotes aggressive PCa. Recently, a family of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptors (FFARs) has been identified and reported to affect several crucial biological functions of tumor cells such as proliferation, invasiveness, and apoptosis. Here we report that oleic acid (OA), one of the most prevalent FFA in human plasma, increases proliferation of highly malignant PC3 and DU-145 PCa cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662204/feeding-circuit-development-and-early-life-influences-on-future-feeding-behaviour
#3
REVIEW
Lori M Zeltser
A wide range of maternal exposures - undernutrition, obesity, diabetes, stress and infection - are associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease in offspring. Developmental influences can cause persistent structural changes in hypothalamic circuits regulating food intake in the service of energy balance. The physiological relevance of these alterations has been called into question because maternal impacts on daily caloric intake do not persist to adulthood. Recent behavioural and epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence that the relative contribution of appetitive traits related to satiety, reward and the emotional aspects of food intake regulation changes across the lifespan...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660031/meningioma-transcription-factors-link-cell-lineage-with-systemic-metabolic-cues
#4
Ziming Du, Ryan Brewster, Parker H Merrill, Juliann Chmielecki, Josh Francis, Ayal Aizer, Malak Abedalthagafi, Lynette M Sholl, Lars Geffers, Brian Alexander, Sandro Santagata
Background: Tumor cells recapitulate cell-lineage transcriptional programs that are characteristic of normal tissues from which they arise. It is unclear why such lineage programs are fatefully maintained in tumors and if they contribute to cell proliferation and viability. Methods: Here, we used the most common brain tumor, meningioma, which is strongly associated with female gender and high body mass index (BMI), as a model system to address these questions. We screened expression profiling data to identify the transcription factor (TF) genes which are highly enriched in meningioma, and characterized the expression pattern of those TFs and downstream genes in clinical meningioma samples as well as normal brain tissues...
April 12, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659496/synthesis-of-theaflavins-and-their-functions
#5
REVIEW
Masumi Takemoto, Hiroaki Takemoto
Numerous epidemiological and interventional clinical studies have consistently reported that black tea is good for human health. The polyphenolic compound, theaflavin, and its galloyl esters (theaflavins) are the primary red pigments in black tea that possess several health benefits, including fat-reducing and glucose-lowering capabilities and lifestyle-related disease prevention related to anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-dental caries properties...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656901/different-rates-of-progression-and-mortality-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-at-outpatient-nephrology-clinics-across-europe
#6
Katharina Brück, Kitty J Jager, Carmine Zoccali, Aminu K Bello, Roberto Minutolo, Kyriakos Ioannou, Francis Verbeke, Henry Völzke, Johan Arnlöv, Daniela Leonardis, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Hermann Brenner, Ben Caplin, Philip A Kalra, Christoph Wanner, Alberto Martinez Castelao, Jose Luis Gorriz, Stein Hallan, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dino Gibertoni, Luca De Nicola, Georg Heinze, Wim Van Biesen, Vianda S Stel
The incidence of renal replacement therapy varies across countries. However, little is known about the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. Here we describe progression and mortality risk of patients with CKD but not on renal replacement therapy at outpatient nephrology clinics across Europe using individual data from nine CKD cohorts participating in the European CKD Burden Consortium. A joint model assessed the mean change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and mortality risk simultaneously, thereby accounting for mortality risk when estimating eGFR decline and vice versa, while also correcting for the measurement error in eGFR...
April 12, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653402/long-term-exposure-to-airborne-particulate-matter-and-no-2-and-prevalent-and-incident-metabolic-syndrome-results-from-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#7
Clara Matthiessen, Sarah Lucht, Frauke Hennig, Simone Ohlwein, Hermann Jakobs, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: Recently, epidemiological studies have found a link between air pollution (AP) and individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition predisposing to cardiometabolic diseases. However, very few studies have explored a possible association between air pollution and MetS. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter and NO2 on prevalence and incidence of MetS. METHODS: We used data of the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (baseline 2000-2003) to investigate the association(s) between AP exposure and MetS prevalence at baseline (n = 4457) and MetS incidence at first follow-up visit (n = 3074; average follow-up: 5...
April 10, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650018/health-conditions-and-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-adults-living-in-puerto-rico-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Josiemer Mattei, Martha Tamez, Carlos F Ríos-Bedoya, Rui S Xiao, Katherine L Tucker, José F Rodríguez-Orengo
BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico is experiencing an economic and healthcare crisis, yet there are scarce recent and comprehensive reports on the population's health profile. We aimed to describe prevalent risk factors and health conditions of adults living in Puerto Rico and assess their interrelationship. METHODS: Participants (n = 380) aged 30-75y recruited from a 2015 convenience sample in primary care clinics in the San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area answered cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, self-reported medically-diagnosed diseases, health services, and psychosocial factors...
April 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649538/identification-of-factors-to-increase-efficacy-of-telemedicine-screening-for-diabetic-retinopathy-in-endocrinology-practices-using-the-intelligent-retinal-imaging-system-iris-platform
#9
Sapna Naik, Charles C Wykoff, William C Ou, Jonathan Stevenson, Sunil Gupta, Ankoor R Shah
AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) can be evaluated using telemedicine systems, such as the Intelligent Retinal Imaging Systems (IRIS), in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). In an endocrinology-based population utilizing IRIS we determine prevalence rates of DR and DME, and identify associated epidemiologic correlations. METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective chart review using screening data from IRIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data on epidemiologic variables (by county) namely, prevalence of DM, incidence of DM, obesity, and time of physical inactivity, were compared against prevalence rates of DR found at screening...
April 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643945/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-african-american-adults
#10
Tomi Akinyemiju, Anh N Do, Amit Patki, Stella Aslibekyan, Degui Zhi, Bertha Hidalgo, Hemant K Tiwari, Devin Absher, Xin Geng, Donna K Arnett, Marguerite R Irvin
Background: The high prevalence of obesity among US adults has resulted in significant increases in associated metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Together, these disorders constitute metabolic syndrome, a clinically defined condition highly prevalent among African-Americans. Identifying epigenetic alterations associated with metabolic syndrome may provide additional information regarding etiology beyond current evidence from genome-wide association studies...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627808/descriptive-epidemiology-of-changes-in-weight-and-weight-related-behaviours-of-australian-children-aged-5-years-two-population-based-cross-sectional-studies-in-2010-and-2015
#11
Louise L Hardy, Louise A Baur, Li Ming Wen, Sarah P Garnett, Seema Mihrshahi
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 10-15 years there has been substantial investment in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to reduce child obesity through interventions in children aged 0-5 years. We report changes in weight and weight-related behaviours of 5-year-old children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2015. SETTING: NSW schools (2010 n=44; 2015 n=41) PARTICIPANTS: Australian children in kindergarten (2010 n=1141 and 2015 n=1150)...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627041/obesity-and-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Anne E Dixon, Erick Forno
Obesity is a vast public health problem and both a major risk factor and disease modifier for asthma in children and adults. Obese subjects have increased asthma risk, and obese asthmatic patients have more symptoms, more frequent and severe exacerbations, reduced response to several asthma medications, and decreased quality of life. Obese asthma is a complex syndrome, including different phenotypes of disease that are just beginning to be understood. We examine the epidemiology and characteristics of this syndrome in children and adults, as well as the changes in lung function seen in each age group...
April 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622982/cardiovascular-disease-and-abo-blood-groups-in-africans-are-blood-group-a-individuals-at-higher-risk-of-ischemic-disease-a-pilot-study
#13
Djibril Marie Ba, Mamadou Saidou Sow, Aminata Diack, Khadidiatou Dia, Mouhamed Cherif Mboup, Pape Diadie Fall, Moussa Daouda Fall
Background: Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not...
December 2017: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622755/effects-of-pharmacological-reversal-of-hyperuricemia-on-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-gouty-arthritis
#14
Mariana Marin, Naim M Maalouf
Hyperuricemia has been associated in epidemiological studies with the development of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether lowering of serum uric acid (UA) alters any of the features of the metabolic syndrome. In this prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01654276), 24 patients with gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia were treated for 6 months with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat to lower serum UA to <6 mg/dL. Measurements of 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and serum and urine markers of the metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and at the end of 6 months of febuxostat...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622590/carotid-atherosclerosis-detected-by-ultrasonography-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#15
Xiaojun Wang, Wenzhen Li, Fujian Song, Longde Wang, Qian Fu, Shiyi Cao, Yong Gan, Wei Zhang, Wei Yue, Feng Yan, Wenhuan Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Hong Zhang, Hao Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Zuxun Lu
BACKGROUND: Carotid atherosclerosis (CA) is a reflector of generalized atherosclerosis that is associated with systemic vascular disease. Data are limited on the epidemiology of carotid lesions in a large, nationally representative population sample. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CA detected by carotid ultrasonography and related risk factors based on a national survey in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 095 residents aged ≥40 years from the China National Stroke Prevention Project underwent carotid ultrasound examination...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622509/impact-of-bmi-on-clinical-outcomes-of-noac-therapy-in-daily-care-results-of-the-prospective-dresden-noac-registry-nct01588119
#16
L Tittl, S Endig, S Marten, A Reitter, I Beyer-Westendorf, J Beyer-Westendorf
Direct acting non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are characterized by a fixed dosing regimen. Despite the potential for relative underdosing due to large distribution volumes, dose adjustments for patients with high body mass index (BMI) are not recommended. Since efficacy and safety data in obese patients are scarce, we evaluated the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes in daily care patients treated with NOAC for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. Using prospectively collected data from a non-interventional registry, cardiovascular (CV), major bleeding events (MB) and all-cause mortality were evaluated according to BMI classes...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#17
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614976/primary-results-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-screening-in-the-at-risk-residents-in-middle-china
#18
Kun Li, Kewei Zhang, Tianxiao Li, Shuiting Zhai
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the epidemiological data and risk factors associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in Chinese population. We reported the primary results from screening five-community population in Middle China for AAA. METHODS: From March 2014 to October 2015, an AAA screening program was performed in three urban and two rural communities. These communities were randomly selected. All at-risk residents (a total of 6925) aged 40 years or older were invited to attend an ultrasound scan for AAA...
April 3, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609444/small-for-gestational-age-and-obesity-epidemiology-and-general-risks
#19
REVIEW
Hyo-Kyoung Nam, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have several life-long consequences. Previous epidemiological studies investigated from childhood to adulthood reported that a number of chronic diseases originate in the prenatal period. With the emerging era of obesity epidemic, more concerns are related to being obese than being short-statured in SGA children. The exact mechanisms are uncertain; however, growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis disturbance by fetal programming and accelerated postnatal weight gain contributed to central adiposity in SGA children...
March 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605820/body-size-measures-and-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Joel Bigna, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Jean Jacques Noubiap
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the related mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that this might be related to physical factors including anthropometric measures. We intend to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarise the extant literature on the associations between a set of seven measures of body size and the risk of VTE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The current systematic review will include prospective cohort studies assessing the association between seven measures of body size (height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio) and the risk of VTE...
March 31, 2018: BMJ Open
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