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Obesity epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#1
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720363/burden-of-urolithiasis-trends-in-prevalence-treatments-and-costs
#2
REVIEW
Omer A Raheem, Yash S Khandwala, Roger L Sur, Khurshid R Ghani, John D Denstedt
CONTEXT: The recent evolution of management options for urolithiasis has presented a unique dilemma for the modern urologist. A comprehensive understanding of epidemiological trends along with current provider preferences in treating urinary stones would be beneficial. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in the prevalence, treatments, and costs of urolithiasis worldwide. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database, the Cochrane Library Central search facility, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between 1986 and 2016...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720145/slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-a-population-based-study
#3
Bengt Herngren, Margaretha Stenmarker, Ludek Vavruch, Gunnar Hagglund
BACKGROUND: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common hip disorder in children 9-15 years old. This is a population-based study in Sweden presenting the epidemiology for SCFE. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we analysed pre- and postoperative radiographs, medical records for all children treated for SCFE in Sweden 2007-2013, demographic data, severity of slip and surgical procedures performed. RESULTS: We identified 379 Swedish children with primary SCFE 2007-2013; 162 girls, median age 11...
July 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#4
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714900/a-nutrigenomic-approach-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Paola Dongiovanni, Luca Valenti
Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704195/association-between-type-2-diabetes-obesity-and-key-immunological-components-of-ige-mediated-inflammation
#6
Raditsa N Sokolova, Rumyana K Yankova, Tsvetana I Abadjieva, Tatyana A Popova, Maria V Ivanovska, Mariana A Murdjeva, Maria M Orbetzova, Svetlan M Dermendzhiev, Maria V Pavlova
BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle and obesity in recent decades have brought about a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and allergic diseases. Clinical and epidemiological studies associate obesity with epidemics of allergic diseases. The link between obesity and DM2 with immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation is not yet conclusively established. AIM: To examine the key immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation in patients with DM2 and their relationship with glycemic control and anthropometric indicators...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702810/epidemiology-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-according-to-iadpsg-who-2013-criteria-among-obese-pregnant-women-in-europe
#7
Aoife M Egan, Akke Vellinga, Jürgen Harreiter, David Simmons, Gernot Desoye, Rosa Corcoy, Juan M Adelantado, Roland Devlieger, Andre Van Assche, Sander Galjaard, Peter Damm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Dorte M Jensen, Liselotte Andersen, Annuziata Lapolla, Maria G Dalfrà, Alessandra Bertolotto, Urszula Mantaj, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Agnieszka Zawiejska, David Hill, Judith G M Jelsma, Frank J Snoek, Christof Worda, Dagmar Bancher-Todesca, Mireille N M van Poppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Fidelma P Dunne
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accurate prevalence estimates for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women in Europe are lacking owing to the use of a multitude of diagnostic criteria and screening strategies in both high-risk women and the general pregnant population. Our aims were to report important risk factors for GDM development and calculate the prevalence of GDM in a cohort of women with BMI ≥29 kg/m(2) across 11 centres in Europe using the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/WHO 2013 diagnostic criteria...
July 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702682/abdominal-obesity-and-risk-of-hip-fracture-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#8
X Li, X Gong, W Jiang
We conducted a meta-analysis to qualitatively summarize the evidence of the association between abdominal obesity and hip fracture risk. The results indicated that abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference and waist-hip ratio might be associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological investigations evaluating the association of abdominal obesity with hip fracture risk have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to qualitatively summarize the evidence of the associations between waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and hip circumference and the risk of hip fracture, respectively...
July 12, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693458/a-population-based-national-estimate-of-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-hypertension-in-rwanda-implications-for-prevention-and-control
#9
Marie-Rosette Nahimana, Alypio Nyandwi, Marie Aimee Muhimpundu, Olushayo Olu, Jeanine Umutesi Condo, Andre Rusanganwa, Jean Baptiste Koama, Candide Tran Ngoc, Jean Bosco Gasherebuka, Martin O Ota, Joseph C Okeibunor
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and a growing public health problem in many developed and developing countries. However, population-based data to inform policy development are scarce in Rwanda. This nationally representative study aimed to determine population-based estimates of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda. METHODS: We conducted secondary epidemiological analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional population-based study to assess the risk factors for NCDs using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS)...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690864/surgical-site-infections-after-cesarean-delivery-epidemiology-prevention-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kawakita, Helain J Landy
Cesarean delivery (CD) is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States, accounting for 32% of all deliveries. Postpartum surgical site infection (SSI), wound infection and endometritis is a major cause of prolonged hospital stay and poses a burden to the health care system. SSIs complicate a significant number of patients who undergo CD - 2-7% will experience sound infections and 2-16% will develop endometritis. Many risk factors for SSI have been described. These include maternal factors (such as tobacco use; limited prenatal care; obesity; corticosteroid use; nulliparity; twin gestations; and previous CD), intrapartum and operative factors (such as chorioamnionitis; premature rupture of membranes; prolonged rupture of membranes; prolonged labor, particularly prolonged second stage; large incision length; subcutaneous tissue thickness > 3 cm; subcutaneous hematoma; lack of antibiotic prophylaxis; emergency delivery; and excessive blood loss), and obstetrical care on the teaching service of an academic institution...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688111/vasopressin-and-metabolic-disorders-translation-from-experimental-models-to-clinical-use
#11
Kazuaki Nakamura, Gilberto Velho, Nadine Bouby
Vasopressin has many physiological actions in addition to its well-defined role in the control of fluid homeostasis and urine concentration. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the vasopressin-hydration axis plays a role in glucose homeostasis. This review summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the last decades about the influence of vasopressin in the short-term regulation of glycemia. It describes the possible role of this hormone through activation of V1a and V1b receptors on liver and pancreas functions and on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687707/validity-of-cardiovascular-data-from-electronic-sources-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-and-healthlnk
#12
Faraz S Ahmad, Cheeling Chan, Marc B Rosenman, Wendy S Post, Daniel G Fort, Philip Greenland, Kiang J Liu, Abel Kho, Norrina B Allen
Background -Understanding the validity of data from electronic data research networks is critical to national research initiatives and learning healthcare systems for cardiovascular care. Our goal was to evaluate the degree of agreement of electronic data research networks compared with data collected by standardized research approaches in a cohort study. Methods -We linked individual-level data from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a community-based cohort, with HealthLNK, a 2006-2012 database of electronic health records (EHRs) from six, Chicago health systems...
July 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684096/epidemiology-of-atrial-fibrillation-the-australian-and-asia-pacific-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Christopher X Wong, Alex Brown, Hung-Fat Tse, Christine M Albert, Jonathan M Kalman, Thomas H Marwick, Dennis H Lau, Prashanthan Sanders
The epidemic of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly recognised as a growing health problem worldwide. Although epidemiological studies on AF in the Asia-Pacific region are scarce, given the increasing age and size of populations in this region, the burden of AF is expected to be far greater than in North America and Europe. This is not only due to the growing, ageing population but also an increased incidence of risk factors for AF, such as hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, in the Asia-Pacific region...
May 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683786/grandmothers-perspectives-on-the-changing-context-of-health-in-india
#14
Solveig A Cunningham, Susannah D Gloor, Shailaja S Patil
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and other chronic diseases is increasing in India and around the world. As globalization and social changes are believed to be at the root of these epidemiological changes, these factors must be better understood. This study engaged older adults to gain an important perspective on globalization and health. METHODS: A free-list instrument and a structured survey were developed and used to gather data on changes in diet, activity, and women's roles from ten grandmothers in rural India...
July 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683146/visceral-fat-reference-values-derived-from-healthy-european-men-and-women-aged-20-30-years-using-ge-healthcare-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#15
Tomasz Miazgowski, Robert Kucharski, Marta Sołtysiak, Aleksandra Taszarek, Bartosz Miazgowski, Krystyna Widecka
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to evaluate total and regional fat. Additionally, recently developed software allow to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE Healthcare DXA systems for VAT. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for VAT in healthy European adults aged 20-30 years using a GE Healthcare Prodigy densitometer along with the dedicated CoreScan application...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683054/invasive-cancer-incidence-2004-2013-and-deaths-2006-2015-in-nonmetropolitan-and-metropolitan-counties-united-states
#16
S Jane Henley, Robert N Anderson, Cheryll C Thomas, Greta M Massetti, Brandy Peaker, Lisa C Richardson
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Previous reports have shown that persons living in nonmetropolitan (rural or urban) areas in the United States have higher death rates from all cancers combined than persons living in metropolitan areas. Disparities might vary by cancer type and between occurrence and death from the disease. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of cancer incidence and deaths by cancer type in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties. REPORTING PERIOD: 2004-2015...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682785/artificial-light-at-night-a-novel-lifestyle-risk-factor-for-metabolic-disorder-and-cancer-morbidity
#17
REVIEW
Abed E Zubidat, Abraham Haim
Both obesity and breast cancer are already recognized worldwide as the most common syndromes in our modern society. Currently, there is accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies suggesting that these syndromes are closely associated with circadian disruption. It has been suggested that melatonin (MLT) and the circadian clock genes both play an important role in the development of these syndromes. However, we still poorly understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between circadian disruption and the modern health syndromes...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680630/burden-and-health-related-quality-of-life-of-eating-disorders-including-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-arfid-in-the-australian-population
#18
Phillipa Hay, Deborah Mitchison, Abraham Ernesto Lopez Collado, David Alejandro González-Chica, Nigel Stocks, Stephen Touyz
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. METHODS: We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 (n = 2732) and 2015 (n =3005)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676106/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-body-mass-index-in-a-large-korean-cohort
#19
Yeojun Yun, Han-Na Kim, Song E Kim, Seong Gu Heo, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvesting, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from one's diet. Our cross-sectional study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota according to body mass index (BMI) in a Korean population. 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 1463 subjects were categorized by BMI into normal, overweight, and obese groups. Fecal microbiotas were compared to determine differences in diversity and functional inference analysis related with BMI...
July 4, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673738/chronic-use-of-low-dose-aspirin-is-not-associated-with-lower-bone-mineral-density-in-the-general-population
#20
T N Bonten, R de Mutsert, F R Rosendaal, J W Jukema, J G van der Bom, R T de Jongh, M den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Low-dose aspirin is the cornerstone of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies suggested that the use of aspirin is associated with an increased fracture risk. However, there is uncertainty whether this is due to an effect of aspirin on bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: Between 2008 and 2012, information on medication use and dual X-ray absorptiometry measured vertebral and femoral BMD of 916 participants was collected in the Netherland Epidemiology of Obesity study...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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