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Obesity epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910063/epidemiology-of-endometrial-carcinoma-etiologic-importance-of-hormonal-and-metabolic-influences
#1
Ashley S Felix, Hannah P Yang, Daphne W Bell, Mark E Sherman
Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed nations, and the annual incidence is projected to increase, secondary to the high prevalence of obesity, a strong endometrial carcinoma risk factor. Although endometrial carcinomas are etiologically, biologically, and clinically diverse, hormonal and metabolic mechanisms are particularly strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrioid carcinoma, the numerically predominant subtype. The centrality of hormonal and metabolic disturbances in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, combined with its slow development from well-characterized precursors in most cases, offers a substantial opportunity to reduce endometrial carcinoma mortality through early detection, lifestyle modification, and chemoprevention...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909910/biological-mechanisms-for-the-effect-of-obesity-on-cancer-risk-experimental-evidence
#2
Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Stephan Herzig, Tobias Schafmeier
Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrated that overweight and obesity significantly increase the risk of several types of cancer. As the prevalence of obesity is dramatically rising, it is expected that it will represent one of the major lifestyle-associated risk factors for cancer development in the near future. Numerous recent studies expanded knowledge about key players and pathways, which are deregulated in the obese state and potentially promote cancer initiation, progression and aggressiveness via remote and local effects...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#3
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909905/obesity-and-endometrial-cancer
#4
Eileen Shaw, Megan Farris, Jessica McNeil, Christine Friedenreich
Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. This chapter explores the current epidemiologic evidence on the association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk and mortality. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we found that obesity (defined as BMI > 30 and < 35 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in endometrial cancer risk, while severe obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 4...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909904/obesity-and-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Dominique S Michaud
Pancreatic cancer has few known risk factors, providing little in the way of prevention, and is the most rapidly fatal cancer with 7 % survival rate at 5 years. Obesity has surfaced as an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer as epidemiological studies with strong methodological designs have removed important biases and solidified the obesity associations. Moreover, studies indicate that obesity early in adulthood is strongly associated with future risk of pancreatic cancer and that abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909902/obesity-and-oesophageal-cancer
#6
Katharina Nimptsch, Annika Steffen, Tobias Pischon
A substantial increase in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has been observed in Western countries during the past 30 years, which may be related to the parallel rise of the obesity prevalence. On the other hand, incidence rates of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, the other major histological type of oesophageal cancer, have remained relatively stable. Epidemiological research of the past decades has identified obesity as risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies investigating general obesity as assessed by body mass index (BMI) provide evidence for a strong positive association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906989/factors-associated-with-cancer-and-non-cancer-related-deaths-among-taiwanese-patients-with-diabetes-after-17-years-of-follow-up
#8
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
OBJECTIVE: A previous 12-year follow-up of a large diabetes cohort in Taiwan suggested a survival advantage in the patients with obesity. The present study further investigated additional determinants for cancer and non-cancer death in the cohort after a follow-up of 17 years. METHODS: A cohort of 92546 diabetes patients recruited since 1995 was followed for vital status by matching the National Death Certificate Database until 2011. Cox regression estimated the hazard ratios for the following variables: age at baseline, sex, diabetes type, screen-detected diabetes (diabetes diagnosed accidentally through epidemiological screening programs or during visits to medical settings without a history of diabetes), diabetes duration, body mass index, insulin use, hypertension, smoking, and living region...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#9
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906428/the-epidemiology-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-connection-with-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-endothelial-dysfunction
#10
A Federico, M Dallio, M Masarone, M Persico, C Loguercio
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a predominant hepatopathy worldwide and a component of metabolic syndrome. It represents a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, independently of the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity. For this reason, nowadays an epidemiological analysis and a research of the causes that correlate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular pathologies, are extremely useful. There are important epidemiological variations in relation to various geographical areas, and depending on different population groups, the prevalence of this pathology changes...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905906/discordance-between-self-reported-arthritis-and-musculoskeletal-signs-and-symptoms-in-older-women
#11
Tkt Lo, Lynne Parkinson, Michelle Cunich, Julie Byles
BACKGROUND: Arthritis is a gendered disease where women have a higher prevalence and more disability than men with arthritis of the same age. Health survey data is a major source of information for monitoring of the burden of arthritis. The validity of self-reported arthritis and the determinants of its accuracy among women have not been thoroughly studied. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the agreement between self-report diagnosed arthritis and musculoskeletal signs and symptoms in community-living older women; 2) estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of self-reported arthritis; and 3) assess the factors associated with the disagreement...
December 1, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903059/identifying-counties-vulnerable-to-diabetes-from-obesity-prevalence-in-the-united-states-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#12
Xiao Li, Amanda Staudt, Lung-Chang Chien
Clinical and epidemiological research has reported a strong association between diabetes and obesity. However, whether increased diabetes prevalence is more likely to appear in areas with increased obesity prevalence has not been thoroughly investigated in the United States (US). The Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to identify whether counties with higher obesity prevalence are more likely clustered in specific regions in 48 contiguous US states. Prevalence data adopted the small area estimate from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902760/socio-economic-inequality-of-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-in-bangladesh
#13
Tuhin Biswas, Md Saimul Islam, Natalie Linton, Lal B Rawal
INTRODUCTION: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900946/childhood-psoriasis
#14
Emmanuel Mahé
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899815/obesity-in-ibd-epidemiology-pathogenesis-disease-course-and-treatment-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Siddharth Singh, Parambir S Dulai, Amir Zarrinpar, Sonia Ramamoorthy, William J Sandborn
Incidence of IBD is rising in parallel with overweight and obesity. Contrary to conventional belief, about 15-40% of patients with IBD are obese, which might contribute to the development of IBD. Findings from cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies are conflicting on the effect of obesity on natural history and course of IBD. Most studies are limited by small sample size, low event rates, non-validated assessment of disease activity and lack robust longitudinal follow-up and have incomplete adjustment for confounding factors...
November 30, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#16
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894952/comparison-of-creatinine-and-cystatin-c-based-egfr-in-the-estimation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-indigenous-australians-the-egfr-study
#17
Elizabeth Lm Barr, Louise J Maple-Brown, Federica Barzi, Jaquelyne T Hughes, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci, Andrew G Ellis, Graham Rd Jones, Paul D Lawton, Cherian Sajiv, Sandawana W Majoni, Alex Dh Brown, Wendy E Hoy, Kerin O'Dea, Alan Cass, Richard J MacIsaac
BACKGROUND: The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation that combines creatinine and cystatin C is superior to equations that include either measure alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, whether cystatin C can provide any additional benefits in estimating GFR for Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is unknown. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional analysis from the eGFR Study of 654 Indigenous Australians at high risk of ESKD, eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI equations for serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcysC+cr)...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894565/validating-a-summary-measure-of-weight-history-for-modeling-the-health-consequences-of-obesity
#18
Andrew Stokes, Yu Ni
PURPOSE: Data on weight history may enhance the predictive validity of epidemiologic models of the health risks of obesity, but collecting such data is often not feasible. In this study, we investigate the validity of a summary measure of weight history. METHODS: We evaluated the quality of reporting of maximum weight in a sample of adults aged 50-84 years using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Recalled max body mass index (BMI, measured in kilogram per square meter) based on recalled weight in 2004 was compared with calculated max BMI based on self-reported weight collected biennially between 1992 and 2004...
December 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892538/helicobacter-pylori-is-associated-with-dyslipidemia-but-not-with-other-risk-factors-of-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Tae Jun Kim, Hyuk Lee, Mira Kang, Jee Eun Kim, Yoon-Ho Choi, Yang Won Min, Byung-Hoon Min, Jun Haeng Lee, Hee Jung Son, Poong-Lyul Rhee, Sun-Young Baek, Soo Hyun Ahn, Jae J Kim
Epidemiologic and clinical data suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the specific cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with H. pylori remain unclear. We performed a cross-sectional study of 37,263 consecutive healthy subjects who underwent a routine health check-up. In multivariable log Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders, the associations of H. pylori seropositivity with higher LDL-C (relative risk [RR], 1...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891577/statin-use-and-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-a-nationwide-registry-based-case-control-study
#20
Cecilie Dyg Sperling, Freija Verdoodt, Søren Friis, Christian Dehlendorff, Susanne K Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (± 1 month) using risk-set sampling...
November 27, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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