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Substance use addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#1
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904166/iris-an-internet-based-intervention-as-a-suitable-path-to-addictive-substance-use-prevention-and-counselling-in-pregnancy-beneficiary-profiles-and-user-satisfaction
#2
A Stiegler, H Abele, A Batra
Alcohol or tobacco consumption in pregnancy can harm the unborn child. Counselling on this subject is therefore of major importance. The aim of the presented study was not only to develop an internet based, professionally e-mail accompanied platform for alcohol or tobacco consuming pregnant women ("IRIS Platform") but also to analyse the beneficiary profiles and investigate the practicability and acceptance of the platform among women and referring gynaecologists. The offer comprised three 12-week counselling programmes (alcohol, tobacco, combined consumption)...
November 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#3
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899120/violence-narratives-of-mexican-women-treated-in-mutual-aid-residential-centers-for-addiction-treatment
#4
Ignacio Lozano-Verduzco, Martha Romero-Mendoza, Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is a social and public health issue in Mexico. The aim of this article is to explore violence among an understudied group of women, who attended Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment and experienced stigma both as women and addicts. These centers are particular kind of addiction treatment services that stem from 12-step philosophy, but that have been found to manipulate said philosophy and exercise extreme forms of psychological and physical violence...
November 30, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898683/mortality-in-hiv-infected-alcohol-and-drug-users-in-st-petersburg-russia
#5
Nadia S Fairbairn, Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily Quinn, Carly Bridden, Christine Chaisson, Elena Blokhina, Dmitry Lioznov, Evgeny Krupitsky, Anita Raj, Jeffrey H Samet
In Russia, up to half of premature deaths are attributed to hazardous drinking. The respective roles of alcohol and drug use in premature death among people with HIV in Russia have not been described. Criminalization and stigmatization of substance use in Russia may also contribute to mortality. We explored whether alcohol, drug use and risk environment factors are associated with short-term mortality in HIV-infected Russians who use substances. Secondary analyses were conducted using prospective data collected at baseline, 6 and 12-months from HIV-infected people who use substances recruited between 2007-2010 from addiction and HIV care settings in a single urban setting of St...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898497/medications-for-addiction-treatment-changing-language-to-improve-care
#6
Sarah E Wakeman
The term medication-assisted treatment has been widely adopted in reference to the use of opioid agonist therapy. Although it is arguably better than the older terms of replacement or substitution therapy, medication-assisted treatment implies that medications are a corollary to whatever the main part of treatment is. No other medication for other health conditions is referred to this way. It has finally been recognized that to improve care and reduce stigma, we must use medically accurate and person-first language, describing those with the disease of addiction as people with substance use disorder...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893214/public-perceptions-of-behavioral-and-substance-addictions
#7
Brent Lang, Harold Rosenberg
Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#8
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888955/emotion-dysregulation-mediates-between-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-motives-for-substance-use
#10
Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin
The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886981/a-computer-adaptive-measure-of-delay-discounting
#11
Vaishali Mahalingam, Michael Palkovics, Michal Kosinski, Iva Cek, David Stillwell
Delay discounting has been linked to important behavioral, health, and social outcomes, including academic achievement, social functioning and substance use, but thoroughly measuring delay discounting is tedious and time consuming. We develop and consistently validate an efficient and psychometrically sound computer adaptive measure of discounting. First, we develop a binary search-type algorithm to measure discounting using a large international data set of 4,190 participants. Using six independent samples (N = 1,550), we then present evidence of concurrent validity with two standard measures of discounting and a measure of discounting real rewards, convergent validity with addictive behavior, impulsivity, personality, survival probability; and divergent validity with time perspective, life satisfaction, age and gender...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886657/receipt-of-addiction-treatment-as-a-consequence-of-a-brief-intervention-for-drug-use-in-primary-care-a-randomized-trial
#12
Theresa W Kim, Judith Bernstein, Debbie M Cheng, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Jeffrey H Samet, Tibor P Palfai, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Screening, brief intervention and 'referral to treatment' programs have been widely promoted as US federal policy. Little is known about the efficacy of the RT component (referral to treatment) of brief intervention for motivating patients with unhealthy drug use identified by screening to use addiction treatment. This study aimed to compare receipt of addiction treatment following two types of brief intervention for drug use vs a no-intervention control group among primary care patients screening positive for drug use...
November 25, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884504/a-critical-examination-of-the-definition-of-psychoactive-effect-in-australian-drug-legislation
#13
Monica J Barratt, Kate Seear, Kari Lancaster
As the number of new 'psychoactive substances' detected globally has risen exponentially, the policy response of assessing and prohibiting each new substance individually has become increasingly unworkable. In an attempt to disrupt the availability of new as-yet-unscheduled substances, Ireland (2010), Poland (2011), Romania (2012), New Zealand (2013), Australia (2015) and the United Kingdom (2016) have enacted generic or blanket ban legislation that prohibits all 'psychoactive substances' that are not already regulated or belong to exempt categories...
November 21, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882998/dopamine-and-opioid-neurotransmission-in-behavioral-addictions-a-comparative-pet-study-in-pathological-gambling-and-binge-eating
#14
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Kati Alakurtti, Riitta Parkkola, Tuuli Lahti, Hannu Alho, Jussi Hirvonen, Eveliina Arponen, Sarita Forsback, Valtteri Kaasinen
Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878808/interventions-for-tobacco-use-cessation-in-people-in-treatment-for-or-recovery-from-substance-use-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Dorie Apollonio, Rose Philipps, Lisa Bero
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates in people with alcohol and other drug dependencies are two to four times those of the general population. Concurrent treatment of tobacco dependence has been limited due to concern that these interventions are not successful in this population or that recovery from other addictions could be compromised if tobacco cessation was combined with other drug dependency treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether interventions for tobacco cessation are associated with tobacco abstinence for people in concurrent treatment for or in recovery from alcohol and other drug dependence...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878413/does-the-general-strain-theory-explain-gambling-and-substance-use
#16
Romy Greco, Antonietta Curci
General Strain Theory (GST: Agnew Criminology 30:47-87, 1992) posits that deviant behaviour results from adaptation to strain and the consequent negative emotions. Empirical research on GST has mainly focused on aggressive behaviours, while only few research studies have considered alternative manifestations of deviance, like substance use and gambling. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of GST to explain gambling behaviours and substance use. Also, the role of family in promoting the adoption of gambling and substance use as coping strategies was verified...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873121/challenges-to-treatment-of-chronic-pain-and-addiction-during-the-opioid-crisis
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Krashin, Natalia Murinova, Mark Sullivan
Health care in the USA faces a double challenge, the crisis of chronic pain and the crisis of opioid misuse and overdose. Patients have been prescribed opioids at high doses with unclear indications for long periods of time, putting them at high risk for morbidity and mortality. A significant proportion of these patients have comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders complicating their pain conditions. The challenges to treating these patients adequately are discussed, along with potential solutions to these issues at the level of the individual provider, healthcare systems, and society...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866153/exploring-personality-and-readiness-to-change-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-with-and-without-adhd
#18
L Flores-García, E Ytterstad, M B Lensing, M Eisemann
OBJECTIVE: To explore personality and readiness to change among substance use disorders (SUD) patients with and without ADHD. METHOD: SUD + ADHD versus SUD - ADHD patients consecutively entering treatment between 2010 and 2012 were compared concerning personality (Temperament and Character Inventory) and readiness to change (Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale). RESULTS: Among 103 SUD patients (76 men, age M = 43.3, SD = 11...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855664/challenges-in-detecting-and-diagnosing-substance-use-in-women-in-the-acute-psychiatric-department-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#19
Torill Vassli Sallaup, Arne Einar Vaaler, Valentina Cabral Iversen, Ismail Cuneyt Guzey
BACKGROUND: This study examines sex differences in substance use and substance use disorder in the acute psychiatric department, and possible interactions between sex and clinical and social factors associated with this phenomenon. METHODS: Data concerning substance use were collected in a naturalistic cohort study (n = 384, 51.6% male, 48.4% female) in an acute psychiatric department. Recent intake of substances at admission, diagnosis of substance use disorder and demographic and socioeconomic information were recorded...
November 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853328/domestic-violence-in-methamphetamine-psychotic-users-psychiatric-inpatients-and-healthy-people-a-comparative-study
#20
Seyed Mohammad Rasoul Khalkhali, Kiomars Najafi, Reza Ahmadi, Azadeh Yousefnezhad, Azam Hamidi, Masoumeh Ellahi, Ali Amiri, Afsar Montakhabi, Maryam Zavarmousavi
BACKGROUND: Domestic violence is a serious threat to the physical and mental health of women. The aim of the present study was to find and compare the frequency of domestic violence between methamphetamine users, patients with psychiatric disorders, and healthy people. METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, methamphetamine users (n=30) and patients with psychiatric disorders (n=30) were women whose husbands were hospitalized during 2014 in Shafa Psychiatric Hospital in Guilan...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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