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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470183/the-central-effects-of-androgenic-anabolic-steroid-use
#1
Marek Mędraś, Anna Brona, Paweł Jóźków
: Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469633/outpatient-addiction-treatment-for-problematic-alcohol-use-what-makes-patients-who-dropped-out-different-from-those-who-did-not
#2
Vincent Wagner, Didier Acier, Jean-Eric Dietlin
BACKGROUND: A minority of individuals with problematic alcohol use effectively seek help. Moreover, dropouts from care are not uncommon. It remains a major concern for health professionals, as adherence to treatment is significantly associated with better physical and psychological outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this research was to assess what factors could distinguish patients with problematic alcohol use who dropped out from those who did not. METHODS: The sample included 150 patients followed-up in an outpatient treatment center in France for a problematic alcohol use...
February 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461932/clinical-outcomes-from-a-10-week-follow-up-psychoeducational-programme-for-dual-diagnosis
#3
J Chilton, D Crone, P J Tyson
BACKGROUND: Dual diagnosis covers a broad spectrum of mental health and substance misuse conditions occurring concurrently (NICE, 2016). Its manifestation is complex and as such, the disorder is recognized as influencing adherence to prescribed medication, service engagement and has a worse prognosis than substance use and mental health conditions occurring independently. AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of psycho-educational group therapy on a sample of dual diagnosis patients...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461039/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#4
David E Nichols
LSD is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 g) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental illness, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
February 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459820/high-throughput-measurement-of-locomotor-sensitization-to-volatilized-cocaine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Ana Filošević, Sabina Al-Samarai, Rozi Andretić Waldowski
Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify genes with novel functional roles in neuronal plasticity induced by repeated consumption of addictive drugs. Behavioral sensitization is a relatively simple behavioral output of plastic changes that occur in the brain after repeated exposures to drugs of abuse. The development of screening procedures for genes that control behavioral sensitization has stalled due to a lack of high-throughput behavioral tests that can be used in genetically tractable organism, such as Drosophila ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457674/a-review-of-brain-stimulation-methods-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Alexandria S Coles, Karolina Kozak, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a leading cause of disability worldwide. While several pharmacological and behavioral treatments for SUDs are available, these may not be effective for all patients. Recent studies using non-invasive neuromodulation techniques including Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) have shown promise for SUD treatment. OBJECTIVE: Multiple studies were evaluated investigating the therapeutic potential of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in treatment of SUDs...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454178/caffeine-use-disorder-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-proposed-dsm-5-criteria
#7
Csilla Ágoston, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology...
February 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453588/problem-and-pathological-gambling-in-schizophrenia-exploring-links-with-substance-use-and-impulsivity
#8
Rebecca G Fortgang, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-substance use. Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to underlie mechanisms of addiction in both contexts...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452056/promoting-addiction-medicine-teaching-through-functional-mentoring-by-co-training-generalist-chief-residents-with-faculty-mentors
#9
Daniel P Alford, Brittany L Carney, Angela H Jackson, Belle Brett, Carly Bridden, Michael Winter, Jeffrey H Samet
BACKGROUND: Generalist physicians should play a vital role in identifying and managing individuals with substance use but are inadequately trained to do so. METHODS: This 5 year (2008-2012) controlled educational study assessed whether internal medicine and family medicine chief residents' (CRs) addiction medicine teaching increased by co-training with faculty mentors at a Chief Resident Immersion Training (CRIT) program in addiction medicine. All CRIT CR attendees identified a residency program faculty mentor to support addiction medicine teaching after CRIT through functional mentoring with a focus on developing and implementing an Addiction Medicine Teaching Project ("Teaching Project")...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452044/food-addiction-is-associated-with-higher-neuroticism-lower-conscientiousness-higher-impulsivity-but-lower-extraversion-in-obese-patient-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery
#10
Paul Brunault, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Robert Courtois, Céline Bourbao-Tournois, Irène Delbachian, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
BACKGROUND: The "food addiction" phenotype identifies a subpopulation of individuals experiencing substance-dependence symptoms toward specific foods. In the current debate on whether the "food addiction" phenotype should be considered as an addictive disorder, assessment of the personality traits associated with this phenotype would provide arguments for or against the "food addiction" phenotype and its inclusion in the "substance-related and addictive disorder" category...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450253/drug-nicotine-and-alcohol-use-among-exercisers-does-substance-addiction-co-occur-with-exercise-addiction
#11
Attila Szabo, Mark D Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#12
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445049/prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-addiction-among-college-students-in-sousse-tunisia
#13
Menel Mellouli, Nawel Zammit, Manel Limam, Meriam Elghardallou, Ali Mtiraoui, Thouraya Ajmi, Chekib Zedini
BACKGROUND: Internet represents a revolution in the world of technology and communication all over the world including Tunisia. However, this technology has also introduced problematic use, especially among students. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students and its predictors in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The current study was conducted in the colleges of Sousse, Tunisia in 2012-2013...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439075/adult-psychosocial-outcomes-of-men-and-women-who-were-looked-after-or-adopted-as-children-prospective-observational-study
#14
Alison Teyhan, Dinithi Wijedasa, John Macleod
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether men and women who were looked-after (in public care) or adopted as children are at increased risk of adverse psychological and social outcomes in adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING: Prospective observational study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which recruited pregnant women and their male partners in and around Bristol, UK in the early 1990s. PARTICIPANTS: 8775 women and 3654 men who completed questionnaires at recruitment (mean age: women 29; men 32) and 5 years later...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436702/-staging-and-profiling-of-patients-with-dual-disorders
#15
A Neven, A van Wamel, W van den Brink
BACKGROUND: Although there is a great need for staging and profiling in psychiatry, no-one has so far devised a staging and profiling model to aid diagnosis and treatment. AIM: To devise a basic staging and profiling strategy that can be used to treat patients suffering from both substance abuse disorder and a psychiatric disorder. METHOD: On the basis of existing staging model for addiction, we explore how staging could also be useful for the treatment of comorbidity in psychiatry...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435354/evaluating-the-benefits-of-a-youth-mental-health-curriculum-for-students-in-nicaragua-a-parallel-group-controlled-pilot-investigation
#16
Arun V Ravindran, Andres Herrera, Tricia L da Silva, Joanna Henderson, Magda Esther Castrillo, Stan Kutcher
Background: High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua. Methods: High school and university students (aged 14-25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n  =  567) and control (wait-list; n  =  346) groups in a non-randomized design...
2018: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430806/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-rates-of-initiation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth-a-longitudinal-analysis
#17
Hudson Reddon, Kora DeBeck, Maria Eugenia Socias, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Michael-John Milloy
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429049/implication-of-genes-for-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-in-substance-addictions
#18
REVIEW
Jiali Chen, Yunlong Ma, Rongli Fan, Zhongli Yang, Ming D Li
Drug dependence is a chronic brain disease with harmful consequences for both individual users and society. Glutamate is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and both in vivo and in vitro experiments have implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, as an element in various types of addiction. Recent findings from genetics-based approaches such as genome-wide linkage, candidate gene association, genome-wide association (GWA), and next-generation sequencing have demonstrated the significant association of NMDA receptor subunit genes such as GluN3A, GluN2B, and GluN2A with various addiction-related phenotypes...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428364/metaplasticity-at-the-addicted-tetrapartite-synapse-a-common-denominator-of-drug-induced-adaptations-and-potential-treatment-target-for-addiction
#19
Daniela Neuhofer, Peter Kalivas
In light of the current worldwide addiction epidemic, the need for successful therapies is more urgent than ever. Although we made substantial progress in our basic understanding of addiction, reliable therapies are lacking. Since 40-60% of patients treated for substance use disorder return to active substance use within a year following treatment discharge, alleviating the vulnerability to relapse is regarded as the most promising avenue for addiction therapy. Preclinical addiction research often focuses on maladaptive synaptic plasticity within the reward pathway...
February 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428330/predictors-of-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-alcohol-tobacco-cannabis-or-opiate-addictions-commonalities-and-specificities-across-substances
#20
Fuschia Serre, Melina Fatseas, Cécile Denis, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
INTRODUCTION: Craving has been proposed as a major contributor to addiction relapse and the influence of mood on craving and substance use has been extensively documented. However, information is lacking concerning the extent to which the magnitude of these effects may vary according to different types of substances. The aim of the present study was to compare the prospective links between emotions, craving and substance use in four groups of patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or opiate addiction...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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