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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339890/pennsylvania-state-core-competencies-for-education-on-opioids-and-addiction
#1
Michael A Ashburn, Rachel L Levine
Objective.:  The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools. Methods.:  The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies...
March 2, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335530/risk-of-suicide-and-dysfunctional-patterns-of-personality-among-bereaved-substance-users
#2
Laura Masferrer, Beatriz Caparrós
Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334672/effects-of-4-mbc-and-triclosan-in-embryos-of-the-frog-pelophylax-perezi
#3
Diana Martins, Marta S Monteiro, Amadeu M V M Soares, Carla Quintaneiro
The widespread and increasing use of personal care products (PCPs) have led to environmental contamination by substances included in these products. These substances have been detected in aquatic compartments and shown to cause adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. In this work toxicity of the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) and of the UV-filter 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) was assessed in the embryos of Perez' frog Pelophylax perezi. Lethal and sub-lethal parameters were evaluated in embryos in Gosner stage 8-9 exposed to 0...
March 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#4
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332625/brain-anatomy-alterations-associated-with-social-networking-site-sns-addiction
#5
Qinghua He, Ofir Turel, Antoine Bechara
This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addiction is associated with a presumably more efficient impulsive brain system, manifested through reduced grey matter volumes in the amygdala bilaterally (but not with structural differences in the Nucleus Accumbens)...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328384/the-surgeon-general-s-facing-addiction-report-an-historic-document-for-healthcare
#6
Sharon Levy, J Paul Seale, Victoria A Osborne, Kevin L Kraemer, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Baxter, Deborah S Finnell, Hillary Kunins, Alexander Y Walley, David C Lewis, Doreen MacLane-Baeder, Adam J Gordon
The publication of Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health presents an historic moment not only for the field of addiction medicine, but also for the United States as a nation. The Board of Directors of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA), on behalf of our organization, would like to express our appreciation of the efforts of Dr. Vivek Murthy and the Surgeon General's Office to publish the first surgeon general's report covering substance misuse and substance use disorders...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328314/from-education-to-practice-addressing-opioid-misuse-through-healthcare-provider-training-a-special-issue-of-saj
#7
Adam J Gordon, John Daniel Harding
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328148/long-term-follow-up-study-of-community-based-patients-receiving-xr-ntx-for-opioid-use-disorders
#8
Arthur Robin Williams, Vincent Barbieri, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, Edward V Nunes, John J Mariani, Adam Bisaga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is FDA-approved to prevent relapse in patients with Opioid Use Disorder. However little is known about long-term use among community-based outpatients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and long-term follow-up survey among individuals (N = 168) who entered an outpatient XR-NTX trial between 2011 and 2015, during which participants were offered three monthly injections of XR-NTX at no cost. The survey consisted of 35 questions covering a total of four domains: (1) substance use; (2) treatment continuation; (3) barriers; and (4) attitudes...
March 22, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324807/parenting-self-efficacy-and-empowerment-among-expectant-mothers-with-substance-use-disorders
#9
Debra H Zand, Jessica L Chou, Kathy J Pierce, Lara B Pennington, Rosalie R Dickens, Jerri Michael, Donna McNamara, Taryn White
OBJECTIVE: to describe parenting self-efficacy and family empowerment among expectant mothers with substance use disorders. DESIGN: the study employed a quantitative cross-sectional design. PARTICIPANTS: participants were 71 pregnant women with substance use disorders entering a gender-specific, substance use disorder, residential treatment facility. MEASUREMENTS: measurement tools included: the demographic data form, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, the Addiction Severity Index, and the Family Empowerment Scale...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324627/hospitalized-opioid-dependent-patients-exploring-predictors-of-buprenorphine-treatment-entry-and-retention-after-discharge
#10
Christina S Lee, Jane M Liebschutz, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored predictors of entry into and retention in buprenorphine treatment following linkage from an acute medical hospitalization. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a completed clinical trial focuses on medically hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients (n = 72) who were randomized to an intervention including buprenorphine induction and dose stabilization during hospitalization followed by post-discharge transition to office-based buprenorphine treatment (OBOT)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323547/the-extent-that-health-professionals-suspect-and-address-addiction-to-medicines-in-primary-care-findings-from-a-survey-in-northwest-england
#11
Geoff Bates, Madeleine Cochrane, Adam John Mackridge
Addiction to medicines available over the counter or via prescription is of growing international concern. The authors of the current article ran an online survey of health professionals in general medical practice and community pharmacy settings in Northwest England to explore the frequency of suspecting and responding to addiction to medicines. Health professionals reported frequently identifying addiction to medicines among patients including those with long-term pain, mental health problems, sleep disorders, and other substance use disorders, but that these addictions often go unchallenged...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323538/relationships-between-a-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#12
Michaela Mergler, Martin Driessen, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Dirk Wedekind, Christel Lüdecke, Martin Ohlmeier, Claudia Chodzinski, Sybille Teunißen, Steffen Weirich, Detlef Schläfke, Walter Renner, Ingo Schäfer, Gertrud Koesters, Christian Dette, Olaf Reis, Elisabeth H Sylvester, Martin Hoppe, Markus Stuppe, Thomas Broese, Udo Schneider, Christina Pletke
The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323526/addiction-to-snake-venom
#13
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Tanay Maiti, Anand Ramasamy, Somnath Mondal, Dinesh Babu
The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322982/toward-biomarkers-of-the-addicted-human-brain-using-neuroimaging-to-predict-relapse-and-sustained-abstinence-in-substance-use-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Scott J Moeller, Martin P Paulus
The ability to predict relapse is a major goal of drug addiction research. Clinical and diagnostic measures are useful in this regard, but these measures do not fully and consistently identify who will relapse and who will remain abstinent. Neuroimaging approaches have the potential to complement these standard clinical measures to optimize relapse prediction. The goal of this review was to survey the existing drug addiction literature that either used a baseline functional or structural neuroimaging phenotype to longitudinally predict a clinical outcome, or that examined test-retest of a neuroimaging phenotype during a course of abstinence or treatment...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321455/comorbid-psychopathology-and-everyday-functioning-in-a-brief-intervention-study-to-reduce-khat-use-among-somalis-living-in-kenya-description-of-baseline-multimorbidity-its-effects-of-intervention-and-its-moderation-effects-on-substance-use
#15
Marina Widmann, Bernice Apondi, Abednego Musau, Abdulkadir Hussein Warsame, Maimuna Isse, Victoria Mutiso, Clemens Veltrup, David Ndetei, Michael Odenwald
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Migration and khat use were found to correlate with high rates of psychopathology. In this paper we aimed for assessing baseline multimorbidity and its interactions with a Brief Intervention. METHODS: In the RCT, 330 male Somali khat users were assigned to treatment conditions (khat use is a predominantly male habit). The ASSIST-linked BI for khat users was administered. Using the TLFB Calendar, the PHQ-9, a Somali short version of the PDS and parts from the CIDI, khat use and comorbidity was assessed...
March 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#16
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315549/substance-abuse-and-addiction-implications-for-pain-management-in-patients-with-cancer%C3%A2
#17
Yu-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are chronic diseases that may complicate the nursing care of patients with cancer, affecting their ability to adhere to treatment protocols, responses to cancer pain, and use of opioids for analgesia. OBJECTIVES: This article explores how the presence of an SUD may affect oncology nursing care and pain management. METHODS: The PubMed and CINAHL® databases were searched for articles from 1980-2016 using the keywords cancer, cancer pain, addiction, substance abuse, and alcoholism...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315272/sigma-receptors-and-substance-use-disorders
#18
Valentina Sabino, Callum Hicks, Pietro Cottone
Thanks to advances in neuroscience, addiction is now recognized as a chronic brain disease with genetic, developmental, and cultural components. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, are able to produce significant neuroplastic changes responsible for the profound disturbances shown by drug addicted individuals. The current lack of efficacious pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders has encouraged the search for novel and more effective pharmacotherapies. Growing evidence strongly suggests that Sigma Receptors are involved in the addictive and neurotoxic properties of abused drugs, including cocaine , methamphetamine , and alcohol...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314553/is-alexithymia-related-to-cannabis-use-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-outpatient-adolescent-cannabis-abusers
#19
Géraldine Dorard, Catherine Bungener, Olivier Phan, Yves Edel, Maurice Corcos, Sylvie Berthoz
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. METHODS: 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314070/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-heavy-cannabis-abuse
#20
Joannis N Nestoros, Elena Vakonaki, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios Alegakis, Markos D Skondras, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. METHODS: A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings...
March 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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