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Sinorhizobium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367305/role-of-the-nod-factor-hydrolase-mtnfh1-in-regulating-nod-factor-levels-during-rhizobial-infection-and-in-mature-nodules-of-medicago-truncatula
#1
Jie Cai, Lan-Yue Zhang, Wei Liu, Ye Tian, Jin-Song Xiong, Yi-Han Wang, Ru-Jie Li, Hao-Ming Li, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Thomas Boller, Zhi-Ping Xie, Christian Staehelin
Establishment of symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial Nod factors (NFs) that trigger symbiosis-related NF signaling in host plants. NFs are modified oligosaccharides of chitin with a fatty acid moiety. NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by host enzymes, such as MtNFH1 (MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA NOD FACTOR HYDROLASE 1). In contrast to related chitinases, MtNFH1 hydrolyzes neither chitin nor chitin fragments, indicating a high cleavage preference for NFs. Here, we provide evidence for a role of MtNFH1 in the symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti...
January 24, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363956/coupling-between-nitrogen-fixation-and-tetrachlorobiphenyl-dechlorination-in-a-rhizobium-legume-symbiosis
#2
Xiaomi Wang, Ying Teng, Chen Tu, Yongming Luo, Chris Greening, Ning Zhang, Shixiang Dai, Wenjie Ren, L Zhao, Zhengao Li
Legume-rhizobium symbioses have the potential to remediate soils contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds. Here, the model symbiosis between Medicago sativa and Sinorhizobium meliloti was used to explore the relationships between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and transformation of tetrachlorobiphenyl PCB 77 within this association. 45-day-old seedlings in vermiculite were pre-treated with 5 mg L-1 PCB 77 for 5 days. In PCB-supplemented nodules, addition of the nitrogenase enhancer molybdate significantly stimulated dechlorination by 7...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358497/oxyr-dependent-transcription-response-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-to-oxidative-stress
#3
Alisa P Lehman, Sharon R Long
Reactive oxygen species such as peroxides play an important role in plant development, cell wall maturation, and defense responses. During nodulation with host plant Medicago sativa, Sinorhizobium meliloti cells are exposed to H2O2 in infection threads and developing nodules (1). S. meliloti likely also experience oxidative stress, from both internal and external sources, during life in the soil. Here, we present microarray transcription data of S. meliloti wild type cells compared to a mutant deficient in the key oxidative regulatory protein OxyR, each in response to H2O2 treatment...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#4
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330694/volatile-compounds-from-beneficial-or-pathogenic-bacteria-differentially-regulate-root-exudation-transcription-of-iron-transporters-and-defense-signaling-pathways-in-sorghum-bicolor
#5
Erasto Hernández-Calderón, Maria Elizabeth Aviles-Garcia, Diana Yazmín Castulo-Rubio, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Vicente Montejano Ramírez, Gustavo Santoyo, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Our results show that Sorghum bicolor is able to recognize bacteria through its volatile compounds and differentially respond to beneficial or pathogens via eliciting nutritional or defense adaptive traits. Plants establish beneficial, harmful, or neutral relationships with bacteria. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) emit volatile compounds (VCs), which may act as molecular cues influencing plant development, nutrition, and/or defense. In this study, we compared the effects of VCs produced by bacteria with different lifestyles, including Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2, Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, the plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and the commensal rhizobacterium Bacillus sp...
January 12, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309127/structural-biochemical-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-glyoxylate-hydroxypyruvate-reductases-shows-their-division-into-two-distinct-subfamilies
#6
Jan Kutner, Ivan G Shabalin, Dorota Matelska, Katarzyna Handing, Olga Gasiorowska, Piotr Sroka, Maria W Gorna, Krzysztof Ginalski, Krzysztof Wozniak, Wladek Minor
The D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers, gene duplications, and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies...
January 8, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288462/primary-characterization-of-small-rnas-in-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-bacteria
#7
Marta Robledo, Natalia I García-Tomsig, José I Jiménez-Zurdo
High-throughput transcriptome profiling (RNAseq) has uncovered large and heterogeneous populations of small noncoding RNA species (sRNAs) with potential regulatory roles in bacteria. A large fraction of sRNAs are differentially regulated and rely on protein-assisted antisense interactions to trans-encoded target mRNAs to fine-tune posttranscriptional reprogramming of gene expression in response to external cues. However, annotation and function of sRNAs are still largely overlooked in nonmodel bacteria with complex lifestyles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214973/expression-of-the-small-regulatory-rna-gene-mmgr-is-regulated-negatively-by-ania-and-positively-by-ntrc-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-2011
#8
Germán Ceizel Borella, Antonio Lagares, Claudio Valverde
In the N2-fixing symbiont of alfalfa root nodules, Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011, the mmgR gene encodes a 77 nt small untranslated RNA (sRNA) that negatively regulates the accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) when the bacterium is grown under conditions of surplus carbon (C) in relation to nitrogen (N). We previously showed that the expression of mmgR is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level and that it depends on the cellular N status, although the regulatory mechanism and the factors involved were unknown...
December 7, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199214/-expression-of-two-rpoh-sigma-factors-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-upon-heat-shock
#9
Hisayuki Mitsui, Kiwamu Minamisawa
The plant symbiotic α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has two RpoH-type sigma factors, RpoH1 and RpoH2. The former induces the synthesis of heat shock proteins and optimizes interactions with the host. Using a Western blot analysis, we examined time course changes in the intracellular contents of these factors upon a temperature upshift. The RpoH1 level was relatively high and constant, suggesting that its regulatory role in the heat shock response is attained through the activation of the pre-existing RpoH1 protein...
December 2, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191113/characterization-of-cis-4-hydroxy-d-proline-dehydrogenase-from-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#10
Seiya Watanabe, Daichi Morimoto, Fumiyasu Fukumori, Yasuo Watanabe
The hypO gene from Sinorhizobium meliloti, located within the trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline metabolic gene cluster, was first successfully expressed in the host Pseudomonas putida. Purified HypO protein functioned as a FAD-containing cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline dehydrogenase with a homomeric structure. In contrast to other known enzymes, significant activity for D-proline was found, confirming a previously proposed potential involvement in D-proline metabolism.
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158240/novel-genes-and-regulators-that-influence-production-of-cell-surface-exopolysaccharides-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#11
Melanie J Barnett, Sharon R Long
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium that engages in a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis with leguminous plants. Cell surface polysaccharides are important for both adapting to stresses in the soil and development of an effective symbiotic interaction. Among the polysaccharides characterized to date, the acidic exopolysaccharides EPS-I (succinoglycan) and EPS-II (galactoglucan) are particularly important for protection from abiotic stresses, biofilm formation, root colonization, and infection of plant roots...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155157/synthesis-characterization-and-the-antifungal-activity-of-chitosan-derivatives-containing-urea-groups
#12
Jingjing Zhang, Wenqiang Tan, Zhenpeng Zhang, Yinping Song, Qing Li, Fang Dong, Zhanyong Guo
As an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, chitosan has been drawing broad attention due to its natural properties. For the further utilization of chitosan, chemical modification can be applied in improving its water solubility and the bioactivities. In this study, four chitosan derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of chloracetyl chitosan derivative with quaternary ammonium salt (CTCS) and urea groups bearing 4-amino-pyridine, including BCTCS, 2CBCTCS, 3CBCTCS, and 4CBCTCS. The structure characteristics of synthesized products were established based on FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150514/sinorhizobium-meliloti-glutathione-reductase-is-required-for-both-redox-homeostasis-and-symbiosis
#13
Guirong Tang, Ningning Li, Yumin Liu, Liangliang Yu, Junhui Yan, Li Luo
Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine; GSH), one of the key antioxidants in Sinorhizobium meliloti, is required for the development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nitrogen-fixing nodules. Glutathione exists either in a reduced form (GSH) or an oxidized form (GSSG), and its content is regulated by two pathways in S. meliloti The first pathway is the de novo synthesis of glutathione from its constituent amino acids, namely, Glu, Cys, and Gly, catalyzed by γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GshA) and glutathione synthetase (GshB)...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150498/identification-of-a-chez-like-gene-in-azorhizobium-caulinodans-a-key-gene-in-the-control-of-chemotaxis-and-colonization-of-the-host-plant
#14
Xiaolin Liu, Wei Liu, Yu Sun, Chunlei Xia, Claudine Elmerich, Zhihong Xie
Chemotaxis can provide bacteria with competitive advantages for survival in complex environments. The CheZ chemotaxis protein is a phosphatase, affecting the flagellar motor in Escherichia coli, by dephosphorylating the response regulator CheY-P protein responsible for clockwise rotation. A cheZ gene has been found in Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, in contrast to other rhizobial species studied so far. The CheZ protein in ORS571 has a conserved motif similar to that corresponding to the phosphatase active site in E...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124841/regulation-of-cysteine-residues-in-lsrb-proteins-from-sinorhizobium-meliloti-under-free-living-and-symbiotic-oxidative-stress
#15
Guirong Tang, Shenghui Xing, Sunjun Wang, Liangliang Yu, Xuan Li, Christian Staehelin, Menghua Yang, Li Luo
The development of legume nitrogen-fixing nodules is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by symbionts. Several regulators from Rhizobium are involved in ROS sensing. In a previous study, we found that Sinorhizobium meliloti LsrB regulates lipopolysaccharide production and is associated with H2 O2 accumulation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nodules. However, its underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that the cysteine residues in LsrB are required for adaptation to oxidative stress, gene expression, alfalfa nodulation and nitrogen fixation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121239/overproduction-of-s-meliloti-argc-n-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate-reductase-promotes-growth-delay-and-inefficient-nodules
#16
Carmen Vargas-Lagunas, Yolanda Mora, Rafael Díaz, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Lourdes Girard, Sergio Encarnación, Humberto Peralta, Jaime Mora
argC encodes N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the high-energy consuming third step in the arginine synthesis pathway. A comparative analysis revealed two translation start sites in argC from Sinorhizobium meliloti. To determine whether both protein versions are synthesized in the organism and their functional role, we obtained genetic constructs with one (1S) or two (2S) start sites, with promoters of low (pspeB) or high (plac) transcriptional rate. The constructs were transferred to the S...
November 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110071/retrieved-16s-rrna-and-nifh-sequences-reveal-co-dominance-of-bradyrhizobium-and-ensifer-sinorhizobium-strains-in-field-collected-root-nodules-of-the-promiscuous-host-vigna-radiata-l-r-wilczek
#17
Sughra Hakim, Babur S Mirza, Ahmad Zaheer, Joan E Mclean, Asma Imran, Sumera Yasmin, M Sajjad Mirza
In the present study, the relative distribution of endophytic rhizobia in field-collected root nodules of the promiscuous host mung bean was investigated by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nifH genes, amplified directly from the nodule DNA. Co-dominance of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer was indicated by 32.05 and 35.84% of the total retrieved 16S rRNA sequences, respectively, and the sequences of genera Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium comprised only 0.06 and 2.06% of the recovered sequences, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076560/an-account-of-evolutionary-specialization-the-abcr-small-rnas-in-the-rhizobiales
#18
REVIEW
Lauren M Sheehan, Clayton C Caswell
The AbcR small RNAs (sRNAs) are a fascinating example of two highly conserved sRNAs that differ tremendously at the functional level amongst organisms. From their transcriptional activation to their regulatory capabilities, the AbcR sRNAs exhibit varying characteristics in three well-studied bacteria belonging to the Rhizobiales order: the plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the animal pathogen Brucella abortus. This review outlines the similarities and differences of the AbcR sRNAs between each of these organisms, and discusses reasons as to why this group of sRNAs has diverged in their genetic organization and regulatory functions across species...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051066/study-of-the-cys-his-bridge-electron-transfer-pathway-in-a-copper-containing-nitrite-reductase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-spectroscopic-and-computational-methods
#19
Julio C Cristaldi, María C Gómez, Pablo J González, Felix M Ferroni, Sergio Dalosto, Alberto C Rizzi, María G Rivas, Carlos D Brondino
The Cys-His bridge as electron transfer conduit in the enzymatic catalysis of nitrite to nitric oxide by nitrite reductase from Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 (SmNir) was evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, steady state kinetic studies, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopic measurements as well as computational calculations. The kinetic, structural and spectroscopic properties of the His171Asp (H171D) and Cys172Asp (C172D) SmNir variants were compared with the wild type enzyme. Molecular properties of H171D and C172D indicate that these point mutations have not visible effects on the quaternary structure of SmNir...
October 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050878/stable-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-under-water-deficit-field-conditions-by-a-stress-tolerant-alfalfa-microsymbiont-and-its-complete-genome-sequence
#20
Cintia Jozefkowicz, Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Margarita Stritzler, Carlos Piccinetti, Mariana Puente, Carolina Andrea Berini, Pedro Reyes Pérez, Gabriela Soto, Nicolás Ayub
We here characterized the stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. B401-treated plants showed high nitrogen fixation rates under humid and semiarid environments. The production of glycine betaine in isolated bacteroids positively correlated with low precipitation levels, suggesting that this compound acts as a critical osmoprotectant under field conditions. Genome analysis revealed that strain B401 contains alternative pathways for the biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine and its precursors...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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