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Sinorhizobium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923992/sinorhizobium-meliloti-ybey-is-an-endoribonuclease-with-unprecedented-catalytic-features-acting-as-silencing-enzyme-in-riboregulation
#1
Margarida Saramago, Alexandra Peregrina, Marta Robledo, Rute G Matos, Rolf Hilker, Javier Serrania, Anke Becker, Cecilia M Arraiano, José I Jiménez-Zurdo
Structural and biochemical features suggest that the almost ubiquitous bacterial YbeY protein may serve catalytic and/or Hfq-like protective functions central to small RNA (sRNA)-mediated regulation and RNA metabolism. We have biochemically and genetically characterized the YbeY ortholog of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmYbeY). Co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) with a FLAG-tagged SmYbeY yielded a poor enrichment in RNA species, compared to Hfq CoIP-RNA uncovered previously by a similar experimental setup...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918247/type-iv-effector-proteins-involved-in-the-sinorhizobium-medicago-symbiosis
#2
Matthew S Nelson, Chan Lan Chun, Michael Jay Sadowsky
In this study, we investigated genetic elements of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) found in Sinorhizobium and the role they play in symbiosis. Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae each contain a putative T4SS, similar to that used by Agrobacterium tumefaciens during pathogenesis. The Cre reporter assay for translocation (CRAfT) system was used to validate potential effector proteins. Both S. meliloti and S. medicae contained the effector protein TfeA, which was translocated into the host plant. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a nod box, involved in transcriptional activation of symbiosis-related genes, upstream of the transcriptional regulator (virG) in the Sinorhizobium T4SS...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917168/the-absence-of-the-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-autoinducer-synthase-genes-trai-and-ngri-increases-the-copy-number-of-the-symbiotic-plasmid-in-sinorhizobium-fredii-ngr234
#3
Jessica Grote, Dagmar Krysciak, Katrin Petersen, Simon Güllert, Christel Schmeisser, Konrad U Förstner, Hari B Krishnan, Harald Schwalbe, Nina Kubatova, Wolfgang R Streit
Plant-released flavonoids induce the transcription of symbiotic genes in rhizobia and one of the first bacterial responses is the synthesis of so called Nod factors. They are responsible for the initial root hair curling during onset of root nodule development. This signal exchange is believed to be essential for initiating the plant symbiosis with rhizobia affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we provide evidence that in the broad host range strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 the complete lack of quorum sensing molecules results in an elevated copy number of its symbiotic plasmid (pNGR234a)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#4
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902438/dna-double-strand-break-repair-is-involved-in-desiccation-resistance-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-but-is-not-essential-for-its-symbiotic-interaction-with-medicago-truncatula
#5
Pierre Dupuy, Benjamin Gourion, Laurent Sauviac, Claude Bruand
The soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of legume plants, is exposed to numerous stress conditions in nature, some of which cause the formation of harmful DNA double strand breaks (DSB). In particular, the reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species produced during symbiosis, and the desiccation occurring in dry soils, are conditions which induce DSB. Two major systems of DSB repair are known in S. meliloti: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)...
November 23, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900694/methods-for-the-isolation-of-genes-encoding-novel-pha-metabolism-enzymes-from-complex-microbial-communities
#6
Jiujun Cheng, Ricardo Nordeste, Maria A Trainer, Trevor C Charles
Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827003/sinorhizobium-fredii-hh103-invades-lotus-burttii-by-crack-entry-in-a-nod-factor-and-surface-polysaccharides-dependent-manner
#7
Sebastian Acosta-Jurado, Dulce N Rodríguez-Navarro, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Juan Fernández-Perea, Antonio Gil-Serrano, Haojie Jin, Qi An, Miguel A Rodriguez-Carvajal, Stig U Andersen, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard, Jose M Vinardell, Jose Enrique Ruiz-Sainz
Sinorhizobium fredii HH103-Rifr, a broad host-range rhizobial strain, induces nitrogen-fixing nodules in Lotus burttii but ineffective nodules in L. japonicus. Confocal microscopy studies showed that Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and S. fredii HH103-Rifr invade L. burttii roots through infection threads or epidermal cracks, respectively. Infection threads in root hairs were not observed in L. burttii plants inoculated with S. fredii HH103-Rifr. A S. fredii HH103-Rifr nodA mutant failed to nodulate L. burttii, demonstrating that Nod-factors are strictly necessary for this crack-entry mode and a noeL mutant was also severely impaired in L...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818838/optical-disassembly-of-cellular-clusters-by-tunable-tug-of-war-tweezers
#8
Anna S Bezryadina, Daryl C Preece, Joseph C Chen, Zhigang Chen
Bacterial biofilms underlie many persistent infections, posing major hurdles in antibiotic treatment. Here we design and demonstrate 'tug-of-war' optical tweezers that can facilitate the assessment of cell-cell adhesion-a key contributing factor to biofilm development, thanks to the combined actions of optical scattering and gradient forces. With a customized optical landscape distinct from that of conventional tweezers, not only can such 'tug-of-war' tweezers stably trap and stretch a rod-shaped bacterium in the observing plane, but, more importantly, they can also impose a tunable lateral force that pulls apart cellular clusters without any tethering or mechanical movement...
2016: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797963/molecular-characterization-of-the-psinb-plasmid-of-the-arsenite-oxidizing-metallotolerant-sinorhizobium-sp-m14-insight-into-the-heavy-metal-resistome-of-sinorhizobial-extrachromosomal-replicons
#9
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Lukasz Dziewit, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Sebastian Mielnicki, Monika Radlinska, Lukasz Drewniak
Sinorhizobium sp. M14 is an As(III)-oxidizing, psychrotolerant strain, capable of growth in the presence of extremely high concentrations of arsenic and many other heavy metals. Metallotolerant abilities of the M14 strain depend upon the presence of two extrachromosomal replicons, pSinA (∼ 109 kb) and pSinB (∼ 300 kb). The latter was subjected to complex analysis. The performed analysis demonstrated that the plasmid pSinB is a narrow-host-range repABC-type replicon, which is fully stabilized by the phd-vapC-like toxin-antitoxin stabilizing system...
October 18, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795315/negative-regulation-of-ectoine-uptake-and-catabolism-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-characterization-of-the-ehur-gene
#10
Qinli Yu, Hanlin Cai, Yanfeng Zhang, Yongzhi He, Lincai Chen, Justin Merritt, Shan Zhang, Zhiyang Dong
: Ectoine has osmoprotective effects on Sinorhizobium meliloti that differ from its effects in other bacteria. Ectoine does not accumulate in S. meliloti cells; instead, it is degraded. The products of the ehuABCD-eutABCDE operon were previously discovered to be responsible for the uptake and catabolism of ectoine in S. meliloti However, the mechanism by which ectoine is involved in the regulation of the ehuABCD-eutABCDE operon remains unclear. ehuR, which is upstream of and oriented in the same direction as the ehuABCD-eutABCDE operon, encodes a member of the MocR/GntR family of transcriptional regulators...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748981/sinorhizobium-meliloti-chemotaxis-to-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-is-mediated-by-the-chemoreceptor-mcpx
#11
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Rafael Castañeda Saldaña, Timofey Arapov, W Keith Ray, Richard F Helm, Birgit E Scharf
The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is attracted to seed exudates of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Since quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are exuded by germinating seeds, we assayed chemotaxis of S. meliloti towards betonicine, choline, glycine betaine, stachydrine, and trigonelline. The wild type displayed a positive response to all QACs. Using LC-MS, we determined that each germinating alfalfa seed exuded QACs in the nanogram range. Compared to the closely related non-host species, spotted medic (Medicago arabica), unique profiles were released...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748755/a-proteomic-atlas-of-the-legume-medicago-truncatula-and-its-nitrogen-fixing-endosymbiont-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#12
Harald Marx, Catherine E Minogue, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Alicia L Richards, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Alireza F Sihapirani, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Junko Maeda, Kevin Garcia, Angel R Del Valle-Echevarria, Jeremy D Volkening, Michael S Westphall, Sushmita Roy, Michael R Sussman, Jean-Michel Ané, Joshua J Coon
Legumes are essential components of agricultural systems because they enrich the soil in nitrogen and require little environmentally deleterious fertilizers. A complex symbiotic association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia culminates in the development of root nodules, where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to their plant host. Here we describe a quantitative proteomic atlas of the model legume Medicago truncatula and its rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, which includes more than 23,000 proteins, 20,000 phosphorylation sites, and 700 lysine acetylation sites...
October 17, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739645/interkingdom-responses-to-bacterial-quorum-sensing-signals-regulate-frequency-and-rate-of-nodulation-in-legume-rhizobia-symbiosis
#13
Andrew G Palmer, Arijit Mukherjee, Danielle M Stacy, Stephen Lazar, Jean-Michel Ané, Helen E Blackwell
Density-dependent phenotypic switching in bacteria, the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), is instrumental in many pathogenic and mutualistic behaviors. In many Gram-negative bacteria, QS is regulated by N-acylated-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs). Synthetic analogues of these AHLs hold significant promise for regulating QS at the host-symbiont interface. Regulation depends on refined temporal and spatial models of quorums under native conditions. Critical to this is an understanding of how the presence of these signals may affect a prospective host...
October 14, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730127/functionality-of-in-vitro-reconstituted-group-ii-intron-rmint1-derived-ribonucleoprotein-particles
#14
Maria D Molina-Sánchez, Fernando M García-Rodríguez, Nicolás Toro
The functional unit of mobile group II introns is a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) consisting of the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the excised intron RNA. The IEP has reverse transcriptase activity but also promotes RNA splicing, and the RNA-protein complex triggers site-specific DNA insertion by reverse splicing, in a process called retrohoming. In vitro reconstituted ribonucleoprotein complexes from the Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.LtrB, which produce a double strand break, have recently been studied as a means of developing group II intron-based gene targeting methods for higher organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727485/a-putative-3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa-hydrolase-is-required-for-efficient-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-and-sinorhizobium-fredii-ngr234
#15
Maryam Zamani, George C diCenzo, Branislava Milunovic, Turlough M Finan
We report that the smb20752 gene of the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is a novel symbiotic gene required for full N2 -fixation. Deletion of smb20752 resulted in lower nitrogenase activity and smaller nodules without impacting overall nodule morphology. Orthologs of smb20752 were present in all alpha and beta rhizobia, including the ngr_b20860 gene of Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234. A ngr_b20860 mutant formed Fix(-) determinate nodules that developed normally to a late stage of the symbiosis on the host plants Macroptillium atropurpureum and Vigna unguiculata...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712144/regulation-of-fixlj-by-hfq-controls-symbiotically-important-genes-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#16
Mengsheng Gao, Hahn Nguyen, Isai Salas González, Max Teplitski
The RNA-binding chaperone Hfq plays critical roles in the establishment and functionality of the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its legume hosts. A mutation in hfq reduces symbiotic efficiency resulting in a Fix(-) phenotype, characterized by the inability of the bacterium to fix nitrogen. At least in part, this is due to the ability of Hfq to regulate the fixLJ operon, which encodes a sensor kinase-response regulator pair that controls expression of the nitrogenase genes. The ability of Hfq to bind fixLJ in vitro and in planta was demonstrated with gel shift and coimmunoprecipitation experiments...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679491/structures-of-proline-utilization-a-puta-reveal-the-fold-and-functions-of-the-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-superfamily-domain-of-unknown-function
#17
Min Luo, Thameesha T Gamage, Benjamin W Arentson, Katherine N Schlasner, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids and are important for metabolism and detoxification. Although the ALDH superfamily fold is well established, some ALDHs contain an uncharacterized domain of unknown function (DUF) near the C terminus of the polypeptide chain. Herein, we report the first structure of a protein containing the ALDH superfamily DUF. Proline utilization A from Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmPutA) is a 1233-residue bifunctional enzyme that contains the DUF in addition to proline dehydrogenase and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalytic modules...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664091/wide-distribution-range-of-rhizobial-symbionts-associated-with-pantropical-sea-dispersed-legumes
#18
Masaru Bamba, Sayuri Nakata, Seishiro Aoki, Koji Takayama, Juan Núñez-Farfán, Motomi Ito, Masaki Miya, Tadashi Kajita
To understand the geographic distributions of rhizobia that associated with widely distributed wild legumes, 66 nodules obtained from 41 individuals including three sea-dispersed legumes (Vigna marina, Vigna luteola, and Canavalia rosea) distributed across the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world were studied. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and nodC genes extracted from the nodules showed that only Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium were associated with the pantropical legumes, and some of the symbiont strains were widely distributed over the Pacific...
September 23, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601031/genomic-studies-of-nitrogen-fixing-rhizobial-strains-from-phaseolus-vulgaris-seeds-and-nodules
#19
Humberto Peralta, Alejandro Aguilar, Rafael Díaz, Yolanda Mora, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Emmanuel Salazar, Carmen Vargas-Lagunas, Esperanza Martínez, Sergio Encarnación, Lourdes Girard, Jaime Mora
BACKGROUND: Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseoli, R. trifolii, R. grahamii and Sinorhizobium americanum, were able to colonize Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) seeds. To gain further insight into the traits that support this ability, we analyzed the genomic sequences and proteomes of R. phaseoli (CCGM1) and S. americanum (CCGM7) strains from seeds and compared them with those of the closely related strains CIAT652 and CFNEI73, respectively, isolated only from nodules...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588750/host-factors-influencing-the-retrohoming-pathway-of-group-ii-intron-rmint1-which-has-an-intron-encoded-protein-naturally-devoid-of-endonuclease-activity
#20
Rafael Nisa-Martínez, María Dolores Molina-Sánchez, Nicolás Toro
Bacterial group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that have an open reading frame encoding an intron-encoded protein (IEP) with reverse transcriptase (RT) and RNA splicing or maturase activity. Some IEPs carry a DNA endonuclease (En) domain, which is required to cleave the bottom strand downstream from the intron-insertion site for target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT) of the inserted intron RNA. Host factors complete the insertion of the intron. By contrast, the major retrohoming pathway of introns with IEPs naturally lacking endonuclease activity, like the Sinorhizobium meliloti intron RmInt1, is thought to involve insertion of the intron RNA into the template for lagging strand DNA synthesis ahead of the replication fork, with possible use of the nascent strand to prime reverse transcription of the intron RNA...
2016: PloS One
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