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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672509/robustness-encoded-across-essential-and-accessory-replicons-of-the-ecologically-versatile-bacterium-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#1
George C diCenzo, Alex B Benedict, Marco Fondi, Graham C Walker, Turlough M Finan, Alessio Mengoni, Joel S Griffitts
Bacterial genome evolution is characterized by gains, losses, and rearrangements of functional genetic segments. The extent to which large-scale genomic alterations influence genotype-phenotype relationships has not been investigated in a high-throughput manner. In the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the genome is composed of a chromosome and two large extrachromosomal replicons (pSymA and pSymB, which together constitute 45% of the genome). Massively parallel transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) was employed to evaluate the contributions of chromosomal genes to growth fitness in both the presence and absence of these extrachromosomal replicons...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671722/the-complete-replicons-of-16-ensifer-meliloti-strains-offer-insights-into-intra-and-inter-replicon-gene-transfer-transposon-associated-loci-and-repeat-elements
#2
Matthew Nelson, Joseph Guhlin, Brendan Epstein, Peter Tiffin, Michael J Sadowsky
Ensifer meliloti (formerly Rhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium meliloti) is a model bacterium for understanding legume-rhizobial symbioses. The tripartite genome of E. meliloti consists of a chromosome, pSymA and pSymB, and in some instances strain-specific accessory plasmids. The majority of previous sequencing studies have relied on the use of assemblies generated from short read sequencing, which leads to gaps and assembly errors. Here we used PacBio-based, long-read assemblies and were able to assemble, de novo, complete circular replicons...
April 19, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670598/contribution-of-mobile-group-ii-introns-to-sinorhizobium-meliloti-genome-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Nicolás Toro, Francisco Martínez-Abarca, María D Molina-Sánchez, Fernando M García-Rodríguez, Rafael Nisa-Martínez
Mobile group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements that probably originate from bacteria. Sinorhizobium meliloti , the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of legumes of genus Medicago , harbors a large number of these retroelements. One of these elements, RmInt1, has been particularly successful at colonizing this multipartite genome. Many studies have improved our understanding of RmInt1 and phylogenetically related group II introns, their mobility mechanisms, spread and dynamics within S. meliloti and closely related species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663866/evidence-for-phosphate-starvation-of-rhizobia-without-terminal-differentiation-in-legume-nodules
#4
Yue Hu, Jian Jiao, Li Xue Liu, Yan Wei Sun, Wenfeng Chen, Xinhua Sui, Wenxin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Phosphate homeostasis is tightly modulated in all organisms including bacteria, which harbor both high- and low-affinity transporters acting under conditions of fluctuating phosphate levels. It was thought that nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, named as bacteroids, inhabiting root nodules of legumes are not phosphate limited. Here we show that the high-affinity phosphate transporter PstSCAB other than the low-affinity phosphate transporter Pit is essential for effective nitrogen fixation of Sinorhizobium fredii in soybean nodules...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619919/polyamines-are-required-for-normal-growth-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#5
Victor A Becerra-Rivera, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, Michael F Dunn
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous polycations derived from basic l-amino acids whose physiological roles are still being defined. Their biosynthesis and functions in nitrogen-fixing rhizobia such as Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been extensively investigated. Thin layer chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed that S. meliloti Rm8530 produces the PAs, putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and homospermidine (HSpd), in their free forms and norspermidine (NSpd) in a form bound to macromolecules. The S...
April 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582151/bacterial-exopolysaccharides-as-a-modern-biotechnological-tool-for-modification-of-fungal-laccase-properties-and-metal-ion-binding
#6
Monika Osińska-Jaroszuk, Magdalena Jaszek, Magdalena Starosielec, Justyna Sulej, Anna Matuszewska, Monika Janczarek, Renata Bancerz, Jerzy Wydrych, Adrian Wiater, Anna Jarosz-Wilkołazka
Four bacterial EPSs extracted from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Rt24.2, Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, and Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA76 were determined towards their metal ion adsorption properties and possible modification of Cerrena unicolor laccase properties. The highest magnesium and iron ion-sorption capacity (~ 42 and ~ 14.5%, respectively) was observed for EPS isolated from B. japonicum USDA110. An evident influence of EPSs on the stability of laccase compared to the control values (without EPSs) was shown after 30-day incubation at 25 °C...
March 26, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563186/inter-replicon-gene-flow-contributes-to-transcriptional-integration-in-the-sinorhizobium-meliloti-multipartite-genome
#7
George C diCenzo, Deelaka Wellappili, G Brian Golding, Turlough M Finan
Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid...
March 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547354/the-lsrb-protein-is-required-for-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-interaction-with-host-plants
#8
Guirong Tang, Qiong Li, Shenghui Xing, Ningning Li, Zheng Tang, Liangliang Yu, Junhui Yan, Xuan Li, Li Luo
Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects and causes crown galls in dicot plants by transferring T-DNA from the Ti plasmid to the host plant via a type IV secretion system (T4SS). This process requires appropriate environmental conditions, certain plant secretions and bacterial regulators. In our previous work, a member of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators (LsrB) in Sinorhizobium meliloti was found to modulate its symbiotic interactions with the host plant alfalfa. However, the function of its homologue in A...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531182/nsra-a-predicted-%C3%AE-barrel-outer-membrane-protein-involved-in-plant-signal-perception-and-the-control-of-secondary-infection-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#9
Anne-Marie Garnerone, Fernando Sorroche, Lan Zou, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Chang Fu Tian, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut
An ongoing signal exchange fine-tunes the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes, ensuring the establishment and maintenance of mutualism. In a recently identified regulatory loop, endosymbiotic S. meliloti exert a negative feedback on root infection in response to unknown plant cues. Upon signal perception, three bacterial Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) of the inner membrane, CyaD1, CyaD2 and CyaK, synthesize the second messenger cAMP that, together with the cAMP-dependent Clr transcriptional activator, activates the expression of genes involved in root infection control...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488306/2-tridecanone-impacts-surface-associated-bacterial-behaviours-and-hinders-plant-bacteria-interactions
#10
Isabel M López-Lara, Joaquina Nogales, Ángel Pech-Canul, Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Lydia M Bernabéu-Roda, Paloma Durán, Virginia Cuéllar, José Olivares, Laura Alvarez, Diana Palenzuela-Bretones, Manuel Romero, Stephan Heeb, Miguel Cámara, Otto Geiger, María J Soto
Surface motility and biofilm formation are behaviours which enable bacteria to infect their hosts and are controlled by different chemical signals. In the plant symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the lack of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity (FadD) leads to increased surface motility, defects in biofilm development, and impaired root colonization. In this study, analyses of lipid extracts and volatiles revealed that a fadD mutant accumulates 2-tridecanone (2-TDC), a methylketone known as a natural insecticide...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484603/identification-of-small-rna-protein-partners-in-plant-symbiotic-bacteria
#11
Marta Robledo, Ana M Matia-González, Natalia I García-Tomsig, José I Jiménez-Zurdo
The identification of the protein partners of bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) is essential to understand the mechanistic principles and functions of riboregulation in prokaryotic cells. Here, we describe an optimized affinity chromatography protocol that enables purification of in vivo formed sRNA-protein complexes in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a genetically tractable nitrogen-fixing plant symbiotic bacterium. The procedure requires the tagging of the desired sRNA with the MS2 aptamer, which is affinity-captured by the MS2-MBP protein conjugated to an amylose resin...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467773/characterization-of-novel-plant-symbiosis-mutants-using-a-new-multiple-gene-expression-reporter-sinorhizobium-meliloti-strain
#12
Claus Lang, Lucinda S Smith, Sharon R Long
The formation of nitrogen fixing root nodules by Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti requires communication between both organisms and coordinated differentiation of plant and bacterial cells. After an initial signal exchange, the bacteria invade the tissue of the growing nodule via plant-derived tubular structures, called infection threads. The bacteria are released from the infection threads into invasion-competent plant cells, where they differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Both organisms undergo dramatic transcriptional, metabolic and morphological changes during nodule development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458126/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-the-choline-sulfatase-from-sinorhizobium-melliloti-a-class-i-sulfatase-specific-for-an-alkyl-sulfate-ester
#13
Bert van Loo, Markus Schober, Eugene Valkov, Magdalena Heberlein, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Kurt Faber, Marko Hyvönen, Florian Hollfelder
Hydrolysis of organic sulfate esters proceeds by two distinct mechanisms, water attacking at either sulfur (S-O bond cleavage) or carbon (C-O bond cleavage). In primary and secondary alkyl sulfates attack at carbon is favored, whereas in aromatic sulfates and sulfated sugars attack at sulfur is preferred. This mechanistic distinction is mirrored in the classification of enzymes that catalyze sulfate ester hydrolysis: arylsulfatases catalyze S-O cleavage in sulfate sugars and arylsulfates and alkyl sulfatases break the C-O bond of alkyl sulfates...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457884/unique-biochemical-and-sequence-features-enable-blub-to-destroy-flavin-and-distinguish-blub-from-the-flavin-monooxygenase-superfamily
#14
Amrita B Hazra, David P Ballou, Michiko E Taga
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential micronutrient for humans that is synthesized only by a subset of bacteria and archaea. The aerobic biosynthesis of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower axial ligand of cobalamin is catalyzed by the "flavin destructase" enzyme BluB, which fragments reduced flavin mononucleotide following its reaction with oxygen to yield this ligand. BluB shares sequence and structural similarity with the flavin oxidoreductase superfamily, yet the flavin destruction process has remained elusive...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367305/role-of-the-nod-factor-hydrolase-mtnfh1-in-regulating-nod-factor-levels-during-rhizobial-infection-and-in-mature-nodules-of-medicago-truncatula
#15
Jie Cai, Lan-Yue Zhang, Wei Liu, Ye Tian, Jin-Song Xiong, Yi-Han Wang, Ru-Jie Li, Hao-Ming Li, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Thomas Boller, Zhi-Ping Xie, Christian Staehelin
Establishment of symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial Nod factors (NFs) that trigger symbiosis-related NF signaling in host plants. NFs are modified oligosaccharides of chitin with a fatty acid moiety. NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by host enzymes, such as MtNFH1 (MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA NOD FACTOR HYDROLASE 1). In contrast to related chitinases, MtNFH1 hydrolyzes neither chitin nor chitin fragments, indicating a high cleavage preference for NFs. Here, we provide evidence for a role of MtNFH1 in the symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti...
January 24, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363956/coupling-between-nitrogen-fixation-and-tetrachlorobiphenyl-dechlorination-in-a-rhizobium-legume-symbiosis
#16
Xiaomi Wang, Ying Teng, Chen Tu, Yongming Luo, Chris Greening, Ning Zhang, Shixiang Dai, Wenjie Ren, Ling Zhao, Zhengao Li
Legume-rhizobium symbioses have the potential to remediate soils contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds. Here, the model symbiosis between Medicago sativa and Sinorhizobium meliloti was used to explore the relationships between symbiotic nitrogen fixation and transformation of tetrachlorobiphenyl PCB 77 within this association. 45-day-old seedlings in vermiculite were pretreated with 5 mg L-1 PCB 77 for 5 days. In PCB-supplemented nodules, addition of the nitrogenase enhancer molybdate significantly stimulated dechlorination by 7...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358497/oxyr-dependent-transcription-response-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti-to-oxidative-stress
#17
Alisa P Lehman, Sharon R Long
Reactive oxygen species such as peroxides play an important role in plant development, cell wall maturation, and defense responses. During nodulation with the host plant Medicago sativa , Sinorhizobium meliloti cells are exposed to H2 O2 in infection threads and developing nodules (R. Santos, D. Hérouart, S. Sigaud, D. Touati, and A. Puppo, Mol Plant Microbe Interact 14:86-89, 2001, https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2001.14.1.86). S. meliloti cells likely also experience oxidative stress, from both internal and external sources, during life in the soil...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#18
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330694/volatile-compounds-from-beneficial-or-pathogenic-bacteria-differentially-regulate-root-exudation-transcription-of-iron-transporters-and-defense-signaling-pathways-in-sorghum-bicolor
#19
Erasto Hernández-Calderón, Maria Elizabeth Aviles-Garcia, Diana Yazmín Castulo-Rubio, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Vicente Montejano Ramírez, Gustavo Santoyo, José López-Bucio, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero
Our results show that Sorghum bicolor is able to recognize bacteria through its volatile compounds and differentially respond to beneficial or pathogens via eliciting nutritional or defense adaptive traits. Plants establish beneficial, harmful, or neutral relationships with bacteria. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) emit volatile compounds (VCs), which may act as molecular cues influencing plant development, nutrition, and/or defense. In this study, we compared the effects of VCs produced by bacteria with different lifestyles, including Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2, Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, the plant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and the commensal rhizobacterium Bacillus sp...
February 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309127/structural-biochemical-and-evolutionary-characterizations-of-glyoxylate-hydroxypyruvate-reductases-show-their-division-into-two-distinct-subfamilies
#20
Jan Kutner, Ivan G Shabalin, Dorota Matelska, Katarzyna B Handing, Olga Gasiorowska, Piotr Sroka, Maria W Gorna, Krzysztof Ginalski, Krzysztof Wozniak, Wladek Minor
The d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers and gene duplications and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies...
February 13, 2018: Biochemistry
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