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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237004/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-cardiology
#1
REVIEW
Ornella Milanesi, Giovanni Stellin, Pietro Zucchetta
Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236084/increased-mortality-after-prosthetic-joint-infection-in-primary-tha
#2
Per Hviid Gundtoft, Alma Becic Pedersen, Claus Varnum, Søren Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients' health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased mortality compared with patients who do not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA? (2) Do patients who undergo a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have an increased mortality risk compared with patients who undergo an aseptic revision? (3) Are there particular bacteria among patients with PJI that are associated with an increased risk of death? METHODS: This population-based cohort study was based on the longitudinally maintained Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register on primary THA performed in Denmark from 2005 to 2014...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236080/what-are-the-frequency-associated-factors-and-mortality-of-amputation-and-arthrodesis-after-a-failed-infected-tka
#3
Min-Sun Son, Edmund Lau, Javad Parvizi, Michael A Mont, Kevin J Bozic, Steven Kurtz
BACKGROUND: For patients with failed surgical treatment of an infected TKA, salvage operations such as arthrodesis or above-knee amputation (AKA) may be considered. Clinical and institutional factors associated with AKA and arthrodesis after a failed TKA have not been investigated in a large-scale population, and the utilization rate and trend of these measures are not well known. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How has the frequency of arthrodesis and AKA after infected TKA changed over the last 10 years? (2) What clinical or institutional factors are associated with patients undergoing arthrodesis or AKA? (3) What is the risk of mortality after arthrodesis or AKA? METHODS: The Medicare 100% National Inpatient Claims Database was used to identify 44,466 patients 65 years of age or older who were diagnosed with an infected TKA and who underwent revision between 2005 and 2014 based on International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision, Clinical Modification codes...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235982/-transcutaneous-osseointegration-after-limb-amputation-a-review-over-27-years
#4
Horst-Heinrich Aschoff
Intramedullary, bone-anchored (osseointegrated), transcutaneous docking of artificial limbs has been in clinical use for more than 25 years. This system of prosthetic limb attachment is a valuable treatment option in the rehabilitation of patients after limb amputation. Only a few centers are systematically investigating this topic worldwide so that current knowledge on this special treatment option is still limited; however, mainstream medical opinion still regards percutaneous skeletal prosthetic docking with some skepticism...
February 24, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#5
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219563/repeated-prosthetic-mitral-valve-thrombosis-in-fluke%C3%A2-infection-induced-hypereosinophilic-syndrome
#7
Yiran Zhang, Liang Ma
A 43-year-old female patient with mitral valve stenosis and hypereosinophilia on admission received mechanical mitral valve replacement. During the 2 years after the first surgery, the patient underwent two mitral valve revision operations for repeated prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis. During the 2-year period, the patient's absolute eosinophil count was found elevated repeatedly. Finally, fluke antibody detection revealed fluke infection and, after praziquantel treatment, a normal level of absolute eosinophil count has been maintained and recurrent thrombosis has not occurred for 18 months...
March 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218379/the-corail-stem-as-a-reverse-hybrid-survivorship-and-x-ray-analysis-at-10-years
#8
Helge Wangen, Lars Nordsletten, Jens G Boldt, Anne M Fenstad, David E Beverland
BACKGROUND: The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA have been sparsely described.We report our experience of reverse hybrid THA, using the Elite plus polyethylene cemented cup together with the Corail fully hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented stem and a 28-mm alumina ceramic head. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 132 consecutive reverse hybrid hip arthroplasties were performed from January 2000 to December 2003 in 126 patients with a mean age of 54...
February 7, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218057/propionibacterium-acnes-is-developing-gradual-increase-in-resistance-to-oral-tetracyclines
#9
Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuko Takenaka, Nobukazu Hayashi, Makoto Kawashima, Norihisa Noguchi
Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacterium that causes deep infection in organs and prosthetic joints, in addition to acne vulgaris. Many tetracycline-resistant P. acnes strains have been isolated because oral tetracyclines are frequently used as an acne treatment against P. acnes. In this study, we found a novel tetracycline resistance mechanism in P. acnes. Three doxycycline-resistant (MIC: 16 µg ml-1) strains were isolated from 69 strains in acne patients in Japan between 2010 and 2011. Additionally, six insusceptible strains (MIC: 1-2 µg ml-1) that had reduced susceptibility compared to susceptible strains (MIC: ≤0...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215487/executive-summary-of-management-of-prosthetic-joint-infections-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-spanish-society-of-infectious-diseases-and-clinical-microbiology-seimc
#10
Javier Ariza, Javier Cobo, Josu Baraia-Etxaburu, Natividad de Benito, Guillermo Bori, Javier Cabo, Pablo Corona, Jaime Esteban, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Oscar Murillo, Julián Palomino, Jorge Parra, Carlos Pigrau, José Luis Del Pozo, Melchor Riera, Dolores Rodríguez, Mar Sánchez-Somolinos, Alex Soriano, M Dolores Del Toro, Basilio de la Torre
The incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is expected to increase in the coming years. PJI has serious consequences for patients, and high costs for the health system. The complexity of these infections makes it necessary to organize the vast quantity of information published in the last several years. The indications for the choice of a given surgical strategy and the corresponding antimicrobial therapy are specifically reviewed. The authors selected clinically relevant questions and then reviewed the available literature in order to give recommendations according to a pre-determined level of scientific evidence...
February 16, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214485/outcome-of-peripheral-venous-reconstructions-during-tumor-resection
#11
Philip Y Sun, Mark D Fleming, Kendall Stauffer, Manju Kalra, Gustavo Oderich, Thomas Bower, Peter Gloviczki, Randall R DeMartino
OBJECTIVE: Peripheral venous reconstruction surgery may be necessary for appropriate oncologic resection; however, the operative approach and surgical outcomes are not well described. We report our experience with these complex reconstructions to identify best practice. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients who underwent peripheral vein reconstruction for tumor resection at Mayo Clinic, Rochester (2000-2015). Patients were classified into three subgroups by the location: iliac (IL), lower extremity (LE), and upper extremity (UE)...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213334/reactive-oxygen-a-novel-antimicrobial-mechanism-for-targeting-biofilm-associated-infection
#12
REVIEW
Matthew S Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami J Salib, Rebecca E Holding, Timothy Biggs, Ali A Salamat, Raymond N Allan, Rachel S Newby, Fenella Halstead, Beryl Oppenheim, Thomas Hall, Sophie C Cox, Liam M Grover, Zain Al-Hindi, Lilyann Novak-Frazer, Malcolm D Richardson
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel therapeutic strategy for topical or local application to wounds, mucosa or internal structures where there may be heavy bacterial bioburden with biofilm and chronic inflammation. Bacterial biofilms are a significant problem in clinical settings owing to their increased tolerance towards conventionally prescribed antibiotics and their propensity for selection of further antibacterial resistance. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies that can improve antibiotic efficacy towards biofilms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209176/infective-endocarditis-causing-mitral-valve-stenosis-a-rare-but-deadly-complication-a-case-report
#13
Michael A Hart, Gautam R Shroff
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis rarely causes mitral valve stenosis. When present, it has the potential to cause severe hemodynamic decompensation and death. There are only 15 reported cases in the literature of mitral prosthetic valve bacterial endocarditis causing stenosis by obstruction. This case is even more unusual due to the mechanism by which functional mitral stenosis occurred. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 23-year-old white woman with a history of intravenous drug abuse who presented with acute heart failure...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208046/mycobacterium-chimaera-and-cardiac-surgery
#14
Andrew J Stewardson, Rhonda L Stuart, Allen C Cheng, Paul Dr Johnson
There is an ongoing investigation into infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria associated with contaminated heater-cooler units used in cardiac surgery. The overall risk is low, but surgical site and disseminated infections have been reported, including one possible case in Australia, mainly with surgery involving implantation of prosthetic material. Mycobacterium chimaera infection should be considered in patients who have previously undergone surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and who present with cardiac or disseminated infection or sternal wound infection unresponsive to standard antibiotic therapy...
February 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204936/impact-of-acellular-dermal-matrix-adm-use-under-mastectomy-flap-necrosis-on-perioperative-outcomes-of-prosthetic-breast-reconstruction
#15
So Young Kim, Sa Ik Bang
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting data on the potential necrotic complications of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) use in breast reconstruction, and most studies focus on mastectomy flap necrosis as an outcome measure associated with ADM use. The aim of this study was to examine cases with necrotic complications with and without the use of ADM and to investigate whether ADM affected perioperative outcomes in cases with necrotic complications. METHODS: Patients who experienced mastectomy flap necrosis following mastectomy with tissue expander placement between January 2009 and March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
February 15, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196029/twelve-year-outcomes-of-an-oxinium-total-knee-replacement-compared-with-the-same-cobalt-chromium-design-an-analysis-of-17-577-prostheses-from-the-australian-orthopaedic-association-national-joint-replacement-registry
#16
Christopher J Vertullo, Peter L Lewis, Stephen Graves, Lan Kelly, Michelle Lorimer, Peter Myers
BACKGROUND: Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium) was introduced as an alternative bearing surface to cobalt-chromium (CoCr) in an attempt to reduce polyethylene wear and decrease aseptic mechanical failure of total knee replacements. While noncomparative reports have been described as promising, we were aware of no short or long-term clinical studies showing the superiority of Oxinium on polyethylene as a bearing surface. Using data from a comprehensive national joint replacement registry, we compared the long-term outcomes after cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with an Oxinium femoral component and those with the same prosthetic design but with a CoCr femoral component...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195985/prosthetic-joint-infections-in-patients-undergoing-carpal-tunnel-release
#17
Wenjing Zeng, Deborah Paul, Thomas Kemp, John Elfar
INTRODUCTION: Little information is available regarding the rate of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR) without antibiotic prophylaxis. Hand surgeons should be aware of patients' history of arthroplasty. METHODS: All patients who underwent CTR at our institution between 2012 and 2014 were identified and their charts were reviewed to identify those who had a history of total hip, knee, and/or shoulder arthroplasty...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194715/does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#18
Beata Zatorska, Marion Groger, Doris Moser, Magda Diab-Elschahawi, Luigi Segagni Lusignani, Elisabeth Presterl
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic implant infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis are major challenges for early diagnosis and treatment owing to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is actively excreted from bacterial cells in biofilms, contributing to biofilm stability, and may offer promise in the detection or treatment of such infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does DNA structure change during biofilm formation? (2) Are there time-dependent differences in eDNA production during biofilm formation? (3) Is there differential eDNA production between clinical and control Staphylococcal isolates? (4) Is eDNA production correlated to biofilm thickness? METHODS: We investigated eDNA presence during biofilm formation in 60 clinical and 30 control isolates of S aureus and S epidermidis...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194713/use-of-compressive-osseointegration-endoprostheses-for-massive-bone-loss-from-tumor-and-failed-arthroplasty-a-viable-option-in-the-upper-extremity
#19
Krista A Goulding, Adam Schwartz, Steven J Hattrup, R Lor Randall, Donald Lee, Damian M Rispoli, Daniel M Lerman, Christopher Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Endoprostheses using principles of compressive osseointegration have shown good survivorship in several studies involving the lower extremity; however, no series to our knowledge have documented the use of this technology in the management of massive bone loss in the upper limb. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What proportion of upper extremity implants using compressive osseointegration fixation principles achieved durable short-term fixation, and what were the modes of failure? (2) What surgical complications resulted from reconstruction using this technique? METHODS: A multiinstitutional retrospective review identified nine patients (five women; four men) who underwent 13 endoprosthetic replacements between 2003 and 2014 using compressive osseointegration (Compliant(®) Pre-stress Device [CPS]; Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) in the upper extremity, including two proximal humeri, two humeral diaphyses, seven distal humeri, and two proximal ulna...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185172/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-angiography-for-the-diagnosis-of-infective-endocarditis
#20
REVIEW
A Roque, M N Pizzi, H Cuéllar-Calàbria, S Aguadé-Bruix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current imaging role of (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) combined with cardiac CT angiography (CTA) in infective endocarditis and discusses the strengths and limitations of this technique. RECENT FINDINGS: The diagnosis of infective endocarditis affecting prosthetic valves and intracardiac devices is challenging because echocardiography and, therefore, the modified Duke criteria have well-recognized limitations in this clinical scenario...
February 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
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