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Akira Kawaguchi, Koji Inoue, Koji Tanina, Mizuho Nita
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2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
C S Schmidt, P Lovecká, L Mrnka, A Vychodilová, M Strejček, M Fenclová, K Demnerová
Numerous studies demonstrated that endophytic microbes can promote plant growth and increase plant stress resistance. We aimed at isolating poplar endophytes able to increase their hosts' fitness both in nutrient-limited and polluted environments. To achieve this goal, endophytic bacteria and fungi were isolated from roots and leaves of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii clone Max-4) on an unpolluted and a risk element-polluted site in the Czech Republic and subsequently screened by a number of in vitro tests...
November 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Guirong Tang, Shenghui Xing, Sunjun Wang, Liangliang Yu, Xuan Li, Christian Staehelin, Menghua Yang, Li Luo
The development of legume nitrogen-fixing nodules is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by symbionts. Several regulators from Rhizobium are involved in ROS sensing. In a previous study, we found that Sinorhizobium meliloti LsrB regulates lipopolysaccharide production and is associated with H2 O2 accumulation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nodules. However, its underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that the cysteine residues in LsrB are required for adaptation to oxidative stress, gene expression, alfalfa nodulation and nitrogen fixation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Tim H Mauchline, Rifat Hayat, Ian M Clark, Penny R Hirsch
Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics provide insights into biological processes in complex substrates such as soil, but linking the presence and expression of genes with functions can be difficult. Here we obtain traditional most probable number estimates (MPN) of Rhizobium abundance in soil as a form of sample validation. Our work shows that in the Highfield experiment at Rothamsted, which has three contrasting conditions (> 50 years continual bare fallow, wheat and grassland), MPN based on host plant nodulation assays corroborate metagenomic and metatranscriptomic estimates for R...
November 8, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Sughra Hakim, Babur S Mirza, Ahmad Zaheer, Joan E Mclean, Asma Imran, Sumera Yasmin, M Sajjad Mirza
In the present study, the relative distribution of endophytic rhizobia in field-collected root nodules of the promiscuous host mung bean was investigated by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nifH genes, amplified directly from the nodule DNA. Co-dominance of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer was indicated by 32.05 and 35.84% of the total retrieved 16S rRNA sequences, respectively, and the sequences of genera Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium comprised only 0.06 and 2.06% of the recovered sequences, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rachel Roberts, Robert W Jackson, Tim H Mauchline, Penny R Hirsch, Liz J Shaw, Thomas F Döring, Hannah E Jones
Rhizobia play important roles in agriculture owing to their ability to fix nitrogen through a symbiosis with legumes. The specificity of rhizobia-legume associations means that underused legume species may depend on seed inoculation with their rhizobial partners. For black medic (Medicago lupulina) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) little is known about the natural prevalence of their rhizobial partner Ensifer meliloti in UK soils, so that the need for inoculating them is unclear. We analysed the site-dependence of rhizobial seed inoculation effects on the subsequent ability of rhizobial communities to form symbioses with four legume species (Medicago lupulina, M...
November 2017: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Futoshi Kurisu, Koki Toyota
Most bioremediation studies on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have focused on a single contaminant or its derived compounds and degraders have been identified under single contaminant conditions. Bioremediation of multiple contaminants remains a challenging issue. To identify a bacterial consortium that degrades multiple VOCs (dichloromethane (DCM), benzene, and toluene), we applied DNA-stable isotope probing. For individual tests, we combined a (13)C-labeled VOC with other two unlabeled VOCs, and prepared three unlabeled VOCs as a reference...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ifeoma N Chidebe, Sanjay K Jaiswal, Felix D Dakora
Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeo-graphic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe rhizobial distribution and their phylogenies at different agro-ecological regions of Mozambique using BOX-PCR, ITS-RFLP and sequence analysis of housekeeping genes...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lu Du, Xuantung Trinh, Qianru Chen, Chuan Wang, Huihui Wang, Xue Xia, Qiaohong Zhou, Dong Xu, Zhenbin Wu
Constructed wetland is an efficient way to lower N load from wastewater treatment plants. Here, the nitrogen removal rate and nitrogen balance, as well as the microbial community structure in IVCWs planted with different vegetation for treating reclaimed water were investigated. The results showed that IVCWs planted with vegetation generally achieved a higher TN removal rate than unplanted treatment, especially for Canna indica L. with 10.35% enhancement. Moreover, the microbial process proportion (83.87-87...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Vijay Kumar, Simranjeet Singh, Rohit Singh, Niraj Upadhyay, Joginder Singh
The present study was designed to synthesize the bioactive molecule 2,2-bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2-(phosphonatomethylamino)acetate (1), having excellent applications in the field of plant protection as a herbicide. Structure of newly synthesized molecule 1 was confirmed by using the elemental analysis, mass spectrometric, NMR, UV-visible, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. To obtain better structural insights of molecule 1, 3D molecular modeling was performed using the GAMESS programme. Microbial activities of 1 were checked against the pathogenic strains Aspergillus fumigatus (NCIM 902) and Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501)...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Biology
Tianhao Liu, Zhongshan Yang, Xiaomei Zhang, Niping Han, Jiali Yuan, Yu Cheng
This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Antonio Castellano-Hinojosa, David Correa-Galeote, Presentación Carrillo, Eulogio J Bedmar, Juan M Medina-Sánchez
Wet deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr) species is considered a main factor contributing to N inputs, of which nitrate ([Formula: see text]) is usually the major component in high-mountain lakes. The microbial group of denitrifiers are largely responsible for reduction of nitrate to molecular dinitrogen (N2) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, but the role of denitrification in removal of contaminant nitrates in high-mountain lakes is not well understood. We have used the oligotrophic, high-altitude La Caldera lake in the Sierra Nevada range (Spain) as a model to study the role of denitrification in nitrate removal...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zepeng Kang, Kailong Jiao, Jin Cheng, Ruiyun Peng, Shuqiang Jiao, Zongqian Hu
A novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon composite of PANI1600@CNTs with rhizobium-like structure is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers around and along the functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and then carbonized at 1600°C for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). The SEM and TEM images clearly show that the carbonized PANI grew seamlessly on the surface of CNTs and presented the rhizobium-like structure. The carbonized PANI acts like conductive "glue" and connects the adjacent tubes together, which can assemble the CNTs into a 3D network...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ryan Halas, Chris Jacob, Karun Badwal, Rafi Mir
Rhizobium radiobacter is an aerobic, gram negative, rod-shaped, bacterium typically found in the soil. Commonly a plant pathogen, it is also a rare human pathogen causing serious disease. Risk factors for infection include neutropenia, leukopenia, catheters, hospitalization, and low CD4+ lymphocyte count, especially in patients with malignancy or human immunodeficiency virus. There is currently limited literature to establish a definitive guideline for antimicrobial therapy and obtaining susceptibilities from a specialized laboratory is appropriate...
2017: IDCases
Thomas de Bang, Peter Knut Lundquist, Xinbin Dai, Clarissa Boschiero, Zhaohong Zhuang, Pooja Pant, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Sonali Roy, Joaquina Nogales, Vijaykumar Veerappan, Rebecca Dickstein, Michael K Udvardi, Patrick Xuechun Zhao, Wolf Scheible
Growing evidence indicates that small, secreted peptides (SSPs) play critical roles in legume growth and development, yet annotation of SSP-coding genes is far from complete. Systematic re-annotation of the Medicago truncatula genome identified 1,970 homologs of established SSP gene families and an additional 2,455 potential SSP genes. Expression patterns of known and putative SSP genes based on 144 RNA-seq datasets covering various stages of macronutrient deficiencies and symbiotic interactions with rhizobium and mycorrhiza were investigated...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Akira Kawaguchi, Koji Inoue, Koji Tanina, Mizuho Nita
Crown gall of grapevine, which is caused by tumorigenic Rhizobium vitis, is the most important bacterial disease of grapevine throughout the world. Screening tests of biological control agents resulted in the discovery of a nonpathogenic R. vitis strain ARK-1. By soaking grapevine roots with a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 prior to planting in the field, ARK-1 treatment significantly reduced the number of plants with crown gall symptoms. Several field trials result indicated that ARK-1 was very useful in the field, not only for grapevine but also for various other plant species...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Makoto Urai, Tomoko Aizawa, Katsutoshi Imamura, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
We screened innate immunostimulant-producing bacteria using a silkworm muscle contraction assay, and isolated Rhizobium sp. strain M2 from soil. We purified the innate immunostimulant from strain M2, and characterized the chemical structure by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical analyses. The innate immunostimulant (M2 EPS) comprised glucose, galactose, pyruvic acid, and succinic acid with a molar ratio of 6.8:1.0:0.9:0.4, and had a succinoglycan-like high molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide structure...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Nicolas Busset, Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Luisa Sturiale, Frederic Gressent, Joël Fardoux, Djamel Gully, Clémence Chaintreuil, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo, Eric Giraud
In rhizobium strains, the lipid A is modified by the addition of a very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) shown to play an important role in rigidification of the outer membrane, thereby facilitating their dual life cycle, outside and inside the plant. In Bradyrhizobium strains, the lipid A is more complex with the presence of at least two VLCFAs, one covalently linked to a hopanoid molecule, but the importance of these modifications is not well-understood. In this study, we identified a cluster of VLCFA genes in the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strain ORS278, which nodulates Aeschynomene plants in a Nod factor-independent process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pascal Bartling, Henner Brinkmann, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Markus Göker, Jörn Petersen
A multipartite genome organization with a chromosome and many extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) is characteristic for Alphaproteobacteria. The best investigated ECRs of terrestrial rhizobia are the symbiotic plasmids for legume root nodulation and the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. RepABC plasmids represent the most abundant alphaproteobacterial replicon type. The currently known homologous replication modules of rhizobia and Rhodobacteraceae are phylogenetically distinct. In this study, we surveyed type-strain genomes from the One Thousand Microbial Genomes (KMG-I) project and identified a roseobacter-specific RepABC-type operon in the draft genome of the marine rhizobium Martelella mediterranea DSM 17316(T)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chen Tu, Luyao Ma, Pengpeng Guo, Fang Song, Ying Teng, Haibo Zhang, Yongming Luo
This study investigates the temporal and spacial dissipation dynamics of a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 77) in the rhizosphere of alfalfa. A three-chamber rhizobox was designed to compare the PCB 77 dissipation efficiency in the rhizosphere, near-rhizosphere, and far-rhizosphere zones. Culture-independent techniques, including quantitative PCR (qPCR), Biolog-ECO plate, and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were employed to investigate the variation of bacterial quantity, metabolic diversity and community structure in the alfalfa-rhizobium symbiosis rhizosphere at different rhizoremediation stages...
September 19, 2017: Chemosphere
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