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Yi Li, Xueqian Lei, Yanting Xu, Hong Zhu, Meiying Xu, Lijun Fu, Wei Zheng, Jinli Zhang, Tianling Zheng
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21(T), was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21(T) and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R...
October 22, 2016: Current Microbiology
Jolanta Cieśla, Magdalena Kopycińska, Małgorzata Łukowska, Andrzej Bieganowski, Monika Janczarek
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a soil bacterium able to establish symbiosis with agriculturally important legumes, i.e., clover plants (Trifolium spp.). Cell surface properties of rhizobia play an essential role in their interaction with both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Physicochemical properties of bacterial cells are underpinned by the chemical composition of their envelope surrounding the cells, and depend on various environmental conditions. In this study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of cell surface properties of a wild-type R...
2016: PloS One
Michael A Grillo, Stephane De Mita, Patricia V Burke, Kathryn L S Solórzano-Lowell, Katy D Heath
Bottom-up evolutionary approaches, including geographically-explicit population genomic analyses, have the power to reveal the mechanistic basis of adaptation. Here we conduct a population genomic analysis in the model legume, Medicago truncatula, in order to characterize population genetic structure and identify symbiosis-related genes showing evidence of spatially-variable selection. Using RAD-seq, we generated over 26,000 SNPs from 191 accessions from within three regions of the native range in Europe. Results from STRUCTURE analysis identify 5 distinct genetic clusters with divisions that separate east and west regions in the Mediterranean basin...
October 19, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sharon R Long
The nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium-legume partnership is presently the best understood of all host-microbe symbioses. Bacterial and plant partners signal across developmental time and space.
October 6, 2016: Cell
Shubhajit Mitra, Arijit Mukherjee, Audrey Wiley-Kalil, Seema Das, Heather Owen, Pallavolu M Reddy, Jean-Michel Ané, Euan K James, Prasad Gyaneshwar
Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 develops a classical nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina (Retz.). It also promotes the growth of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known about the rhizobial determinants important for these interactions. In this study, we analyzed the colonization of S. cannabina and rice using a strain of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 dually marked with β-glucuronidase and the green fluorescent protein. This bacterium colonized S. cannabina by crack entry and through root hair infection under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kalpana Nanjareddy, Lourdes Blanco, Manoj Kumar Arthikala, Xochitl Alvarado-Affantranger, Carmen Quinto, Federico Sanchez, Miguel Lara
The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase regulates metabolism, growth and life span in yeast, animals and plants in coordination with nutrient status and environmental conditions. The nutrient-dependent nature of TOR functionality makes this kinase a putative regulator of symbiotic associations involving nutrient acquisition. However, TOR's role in these processes remains to be understood. Here, we uncovered the role of TOR during the Phaseolus vulgaris-Rhizobium symbiotic interaction. TOR was expressed in all tested Phaseolus tissues, with higher expression levels in the root meristems and senesced nodules...
October 3, 2016: Plant Physiology
Cheng-Tai Huang, Chi-Te Liu, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Wen-Yuan Kao
Crotalaria zanzibarica is an exotic and widely distributed leguminous plant in Taiwan. The relationship between C. zanzibarica and its rhizobial symbionts has been suggested to contribute to its successful invasion. A rhizobial strain (designed as CzR2) isolated from the root nodules of C. zanzibarica and cultivated in standard YEM medium displayed pleomorphism, with cells ranging between 2 and 10 μm in length and some branching. In the present study, we identified this rhizobial strain, investigated the causes of pleomorphism, and examined the nodules formed...
September 29, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Michael A Grillo, John R Stinchcombe, Katy D Heath
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Resource mutualisms such as the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are context dependent and are sensitive to various aspects of the environment, including nitrogen (N) addition. Mutualist hosts such as legumes are also thought to use mechanisms such as partner choice to discriminate among potential symbionts that vary in partner quality (fitness benefits conferred to hosts) and thus impose selection on rhizobium populations. Together, context dependency and partner choice might help explain why the legume-rhizobium mutualism responds evolutionarily to N addition, since plant-mediated selection that shifts in response to N might be expected to favor different rhizobium strains in different N environments...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Lu Wang, Yong Nie, Yue-Qin Tang, Xin-Min Song, Kun Cao, Li-Zhu Sun, Zhi-Jian Wang, Xiao-Lei Wu
Taking natural coal as a "seed bank" of bacterial strains able to degrade lignin that is with molecular structure similar to coal components, we isolated 393 and 483 bacterial strains from a meager lean coal sample from Hancheng coalbed and a brown coal sample from Bayannaoer coalbed, respectively, by using different media. Statistical analysis showed that isolates were significantly more site-specific than medium-specific. Of the 876 strains belonging to 27 genera in Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, 612 were positive for lignin degradation function, including 218 strains belonging to 35 species in Hancheng and 394 strains belonging to 19 species in Zhongqi...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Balaram Mohapatra, Angana Sarkar, Swati Joshi, Atrayee Chatterjee, Sufia Khannam Kazy, Mrinal Kumar Maiti, Tulasi Satyanarayana, Pinaki Sar
A novel arsenic (As)-resistant, arsenate-respiring, alkane-metabolizing bacterium KAs 5-22(T), isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal was characterized by physiological and genomic properties. Cells of strain KAs 5-22(T) were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, and facultative anaerobic. Growth occurred at optimum of pH 6.0-7.0, temperature 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene affiliated the strain KAs 5-22(T) to the genus Rhizobium showing maximum similarity (98.4 %) with the type strain of Rhizobium naphthalenivorans TSY03b(T) followed by (98...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielińska, Katarzyna Bernat, Irena Wojnowska-Baryła
A technological system was developed for efficient nitrogen removal from real digester supernatant in a single reactor with shortened aeration to increase the economical aspects of wastewater treatment. The supernatant (600 mg TKN/L, low COD/N ratio of 2.2) was treated in batch reactors with aerobic granules (GSBRs) to test how one, two, or three non-aeration phases and acetate pulse feeding in the cycle affect the morphological and microbial properties of biomass. Introduction of one non-aeration phase in the cycle increased nitrogen removal efficiency by 11 % in comparison with constantly aerated GSBR...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alejandra Mejía-Caballero, Ramón de Anda, Georgina Hernández-Chávez, Simone Rogg, Alfredo Martinez, Francisco Bolívar, Victor M Castaño, Guillermo Gosset
BACKGROUND: Melanins comprise a chemically-diverse group of polymeric pigments whose function is related to protection against physical and chemical stress factors. These polymers have current and potential applications in the chemical, medical, electronics and materials industries. The biotechnological production of melanins offers the possibility of obtaining these pigments in pure form and relatively low cost. In this study, Escherichia coli strains were engineered to evaluate the production of melanin from supplemented catechol or from glycerol-derived catechol produced by an Escherichia coli strain generated by metabolic engineering...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Phatchariya Rungkitwatananukul, Supanee Nomai, Yuga Hirakata, Wiboonluk Pungrasmi, Chaiyaporn Puprasert, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi
A novel configured fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with granular rubber as the fluidized media was operated without internal recirculation to achieve denitrification. This FBR could operate under a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50min due to the low rubber media density and absence of recirculation. Synthetic nitrate-rich wastewater with a fixed nitrate (NO3(-)-N) concentration and varying COD concentrations was fed into the FBR. The nitrate removal profile showed a rapid nitrate reduction at the bottom of the reactor with a high performance under the low HRT...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Abdelaal Shamseldin, Matthew S Nelson, Christopher Staley, Joseph Guhlin, Michael J Sadowsky
Four Rhizobium strains were isolated from berseem clover in Egypt. The symbiotically effective, salt-tolerant, strain Rhiz950 was identified as new species, Rhizobium aegypticaum sv. trifolii (USDA 7124(T)). The other three thermal- and pH-tolerant strains were identified as Rhizobium bangladeshense sv. trifolii, the type strain is USDA 7125(T).
2016: Genome Announcements
Véréna Poinsot, Matthew B Crook, Stéphanie Erdn, Fabienne Maillet, Adeline Bascaules, Jean-Michel Ané
Soil-dwelling, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia signal their presence to legume hosts by secreting lipo-chitooligomers (LCOs) that are decorated with a variety of chemical substituents. It has long been assumed, but never empirically shown, that the LCO backbone is synthesized first by NodC, NodB, and NodA, followed by addition of one or more substituents by other Nod proteins. By analyzing a collection of in-frame deletion mutants of key nod genes in the bacterium Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 by mass spectrometry, we were able to shed light on the possible substitution order of LCO decorations, and we discovered that the prevailing view is probably erroneous...
August 3, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Nathalie Honorio-Felício, Marta S P Carepo, Tércio de F Paulo, Luiz Gonzaga de França Lopes, Eduardo H S Sousa, Izaura C N Diógenes, Paul V Bernhardt
Conformational changes associated to sensing mechanisms of heme-based protein sensors are a key molecular event that seems to modulate not only the protein activity but also the potential of the Fe(III/II) redox couple of the heme domain. In this work, midpoint potentials (Em) assigned to the Fe(III/II) redox couple of the heme domain of FixL from Rhizobium etli (ReFixL) in the unliganded and liganded states were determined by spectroelectrochemistry in the presence of inorganic mediators. In comparison to the unliganded ReFixL protein (+19mV), the binding to ligands that switch off the kinase activity induces a negative shift, i...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Xingru Huang, Jie Shi, Changzhen Cui, Huaqun Yin, Ruijie Zhang, Xiaotong Ma, Xiaoxia Zhang
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the phenanthrene degradation characteristics and possible phenanthrene degradation pathways of Rhizobium petrolearium SL-1. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV-visible and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the phenanthrene-degrading properties and metabolites of R. petrolearium SL-1 were analyzed, and then combined with genome-based analysis to elucidate the possible biodegradation pathway of phenanthrene in R...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kamila Rachwał, Aleksandra Boguszewska, Joanna Kopcińska, Magdalena Karaś, Marek Tchórzewski, Monika Janczarek
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is capable of establishing a symbiotic relationship with plants from the genus Trifolium. Previously, a regulatory protein encoded by rosR was identified and characterized in this bacterium. RosR possesses a Cys2-His2-type zinc finger motif and belongs to Ros/MucR family of rhizobial transcriptional regulators. Transcriptome profiling of the rosR mutant revealed a role of this protein in several cellular processes, including the synthesis of cell-surface components and polysaccharides, motility, and bacterial metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Humberto Peralta, Alejandro Aguilar, Rafael Díaz, Yolanda Mora, Gabriel Martínez-Batallar, Emmanuel Salazar, Carmen Vargas-Lagunas, Esperanza Martínez, Sergio Encarnación, Lourdes Girard, Jaime Mora
BACKGROUND: Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseoli, R. trifolii, R. grahamii and Sinorhizobium americanum, were able to colonize Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) seeds. To gain further insight into the traits that support this ability, we analyzed the genomic sequences and proteomes of R. phaseoli (CCGM1) and S. americanum (CCGM7) strains from seeds and compared them with those of the closely related strains CIAT652 and CFNEI73, respectively, isolated only from nodules...
2016: BMC Genomics
Georgina Estrada-Navarrete, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ramiro Lascano, Xochitl Alvarado-Affantranger, Alejandra Hernàndez, Aaron Barraza, Juan Elias Olivares, Manoj Kumar Arthikala, Luis Cardenas, Carmen Quinto, Federico Sanchez
Eukaryotes contain three types of lipid kinases that belong to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family. In plants and Saccharomyces, only PI3K class III family members have been identified. These enzymes regulate the innate immune response, intracellular trafficking, autophagy, and senescence. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated down-regulation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) PI3K severely impaired symbiosis in composite P. vulgaris plants with endosymbionts such as Rhizobium tropici and Rhizophagus irregularis...
August 30, 2016: Plant Cell
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