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Jun Li, Haihong Hao, Guyue Cheng, Chunbei Liu, Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad A B Shabbir, Hafiz I Hussain, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Liu Yang, Yuqian Liu, Xiuyun Cao, Zijun Zhou, Siyang Wang, Jian Xiao, Chunlei Song, Yiyong Zhou
The abundance, phosphorus solubilizing ability and community composition of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) attached on two bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Microcystis and Anabeana, were investigated in Guanqiao ponds in 2014 and Lake Chaohu in 2015 and 2016. Thirty organic phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (OPB) and eighteen inorganic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (IPB) isolated from Guanqiao ponds and Lake Chaohu were identified. The community compositions of PSB attached on Microcystis and Anabeana were found to be entirely different...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Purnima Singh, Shiv M Singh, Ram N Singh, Simantini Naik, Utpal Roy, Alok Srivastava, Manfred Bölter
Permafrost soils are unique habitats in polar environment and are of great ecological relevance. The present study focuses on the characterization of bacterial communities from permafrost profiles of Svalbard, Arctic. Counts of culturable bacteria range from 1.50 × 10(3) to 2.22 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) , total bacterial numbers range from 1.14 × 10(5) to 5.52 × 10(5) cells g(-1) soil. Bacterial isolates are identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas are the most dominant genera, and A...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Chao Yang, Rosalind Bueckert, Jeff Schoenau, Axel Diederichsen, Hossein Zakeri, Thomas Warkentin
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can be improved by optimizing the interaction between the rhizobial inoculant and pea (Pisum sativum L.), leading to increased productivity and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Eight Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains were used to inoculate super-nodulating pea mutant Rondo-nod3(fix+), hyper-nodulating pea mutant Frisson P88 Sym29, CDC Meadow commercial control, and a non-nodulating mutant Frisson P56 (nod-) to evaluate BNF in a greenhouse assay. Significant differences in strain×cultivar interactions were detected for shoot and root dry weight which ranged from 1...
September 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Elizabeth León-García, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez, Oscar A Del Ángel-Coronel, Cristobal Torres-Palacios, Javier De La Cruz-Medina, Miguel A Gómez-Lim, Hugo Sergio García
A healthy lifestyle includes fruits and vegetables consumption. Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables, although it is susceptible to physical damage through postharvest handling, thus leading to important losses. Softening is an important variable during tomato ripening; excessive softening is undesirable and leads to postharvest losses. TomloxB plays an important role in ripening, mainly in the loss of cellular integrity caused by fatty acids released from the lipid matrix of membranes that initiate oxidative deterioration, which is in turn carried into senescence...
September 16, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Yiluo Hu, Hwanhee Kim, Vijay Vilas Shinde, Daham Jeong, Youngjin Choi, Eunae Cho, Seunho Jung
In the present study, cyclosophoraoses (CyS) (β-1,2 linked cyclic glucans, with glucopyranose units ranging from 17 to 23) isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae VF-39 were modified with carboxymethyl (CM) groups, and the pH-sensitive complexation of CM CyS with pindolol was investigated. The solubility of pindolol increased 32-fold by its complexation with 5mM CM CyS at pH 10, whereas it shows no significant change at pH 3. Pindolol, a β-adrenergic blocking agent, has a hydrophobic nature at non-ionized state, and CM CyS could solubilize efficiently pindolol in a high alkaline solution...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Michael J Mitsch, George C diCenzo, Alison Cowie, Turlough M Finan
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is an energetically expensive process performed by bacteria during endosymbiotic relationships with plants. The bacteria require the plant to provide a carbon source for generation of reductant to power SNF. While C4-dicarboxylates (succinate, fumarate, malate) appear to be the primary, if not sole, carbon source provided to the bacteria, the contribution of each C4-dicarboxylate is not known. We address this issue using a genetic and systems-level analyses. Expression of a malate specific transporter (MaeP) in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 dct mutants unable to transport C4-dicarboxylates resulted in malate import rates up to 30% that of wild type...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rodica C Efrose, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Andrei Stefan, Culita Sirbu, Lucian D Gorgan, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis
The symbiotic nitrogen fixing legumes play an essential role in sustainable agriculture. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most valuable perennial legumes in pastures and meadows of temperate regions. Despite its great agriculture and economic importance, there is no detailed available information on phylogenetic assignation and characterization of rhizobia associated with native white clover plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the present work, the diversity of indigenous white clover rhizobia originating in 11 different natural ecosystems in North-Eastern Romania were assessed by a polyphasic approach...
September 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Urmi Halder, Aparna Banerjee, Rajib Bandopadhyay
The exopolysaccharide succinoglycan is produced mainly by a large number of soil microbes of Agrobacterium, Rhizobium or Pseudomonas genera etc. Structural properties of succinoglycan are unique in terms of its thermal stability and superior viscosifying property. Unlike the other highly commercialized bacterial exopolysaccharides like dextran or xanthan, mass scale application of succinoglycan has not been that much broadly explored yet. Bacterial succinoglycan is found suitable as a viscosifying and emulsifying agent in food industry, in gravel packing or fluid-loss control agent etc...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Andrey Barbosa Cordeiro, Renan Augusto Ribeiro, Luisa Caroline Ferraz Helene, Mariangela Hungria
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume consumed worldwide; its genetic origins lie in the Mesoamerican (main centre) and Andean regions. It is promiscuous in establishing root-nodule symbioses; however, in the centres of origin/domestication, the predominant association is with Rhizobium etli. We have previously identified a new lineage (PEL-3) comprising three strains (CNPSo 661, CNPSo 666 and CNPSo 668T) isolated from root nodules of common bean in Mexico, and that have now been analysed in more detail...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Haiyan Ren, Jian Hu, Yifei Hu, Gaowen Yang, Yingjun Zhang
AIM: Application of organic materials into agricultural systems enhances plant growth and yields, and improves soil fertility and structure. This study aimed to examine the effects of "compost extract (CE)", a soil conditioner, and bio-organic manure (BOM) on the growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa), and compare the efficiency between BOM (including numbers of microorganisms) and CE (including no added microorganisms). METHOD: A greenhouse experiment was conducted with four soil amendment treatments (control, BOM, CE and CEBOM), and was arranged in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates for each treatment...
2017: PeerJ
Konstantia Gkarmiri, Shahid Mahmood, Alf Ekblad, Sadhna Alström, Nils Högberg, Roger Finlay
RNA stable isotope probing and high throughput sequencing were used to characterize the active microbiomes of bacteria and fungi colonizing roots and rhizosphere soil of oilseed rape, to identify taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following (13)CO2 labeling. Root- and rhizosphere soil-associated communities of both bacteria and fungi differed from each other and there were highly significant differences between their DNA- and RNA-based community profiles. Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most active bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soil...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Carolina Díaz-Cárdenas, Luisa Fernanda Bernal, Alejandro Caro-Quintero, Gina López, J David Alzate, Laura N Gonzalez, Silvia Restrepo, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides, Sandra Baena
A free-living, nitrogen-fixing, mesophilic and facultative aerobe, designated strain USBA 369T, was isolated from a terrestrial saline spring of the Colombian Andes. The non-sporulating rods (1.5×0.8 µm) with rounded ends stained Gram-negative and were motile by means of lophotrichous flagella. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 6.9-7.5 and with 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids detected were C18 : 1ω7c and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, and the respiratory lipoquinone ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was present...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Aliyu Adamu, Roswanira Abdul Wahab, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Firdausi Aliyu, Fahrul Huyop
The l-2-haloacid dehalogenases (EC specifically cleave carbon-halogen bonds in the L-isomers of halogenated organic acids. These enzymes have potential applications for the bioremediation and synthesis of various industrial products. One such enzyme is DehL, the l-2-haloacid dehalogenase from Rhizobium sp. RC1, which converts the L-isomers of 2-halocarboxylic acids into the corresponding D-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, its catalytic mechanism has not been delineated, and to enhance its efficiency and utility for environmental and industrial applications, knowledge of its catalytic mechanism, which includes identification of its catalytic residues, is required...
August 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Paulo Cardoso, Magda Santos, Rosa Freitas, Sílvia M Rocha, Etelvina Figueira
The volatile metabolome of Rhizobium sp. strain E20-8 exposed to three concentrations of cadmium (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 μM) was screened using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS), combined with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Cd exposure induced a global increase in the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both intra and extracellularly. Peak areas of several linear alkanes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, terpenic and volatile sulfur compounds, and one ester (ethyl acetate), were especially increased when compared with the control condition (no Cd)...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Martina Lardi, Samanta Bolzan de Campos, Gabriela Purtschert, Leo Eberl, Gabriella Pessi
Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria) have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum) to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica) under our closely defined growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luisa Caroline Ferraz Helene, Renan Augusto Ribeiro, Mariangela Hungria
Rhizobium esperanzae CNPSo 668(T) is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris isolated from Mexican soils. Its genome is estimated at 6,294,057 bp, with 6,219 coding sequences (CDSs) showing higher similarity (92.9%) with Rhizobium etli Three copies of the regulatory nodD, in addition to other nodulation genes, should define its host specificity.
August 31, 2017: Genome Announcements
Kenta Watanabe, Anna Kobayashi, Masaki Endo, Kimiyo Sage-Ono, Seiichi Toki, Michiyuki Ono
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a versatile tool for targeted mutagenesis in many organisms, including plants. However, this technique has not been applied to the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea [Pharbitis] nil), a traditional garden plant chosen for the National BioResource Project in Japan. We selected dihydroflavonol-4-reductase-B (DFR-B) of I. nil, encoding an anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme, as the target gene, and changes in the stem colour were observed during the early stages of plant tissue culture by Rhizobium [Agrobacterium]-mediated transformation...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Quentin Barrière, Ibtissem Guefrachi, Djamel Gully, Florian Lamouche, Olivier Pierre, Joël Fardoux, Clémence Chaintreuil, Benoît Alunni, Tatiana Timchenko, Eric Giraud, Peter Mergaert
Legumes harbor in their symbiotic nodule organs nitrogen fixing rhizobium bacteria called bacteroids. Some legumes produce Nodule-specific Cysteine-Rich (NCR) peptides in the nodule cells to control the intracellular bacterial population. NCR peptides have antimicrobial activity and drive bacteroids toward terminal differentiation. Other legumes do not produce NCR peptides and their bacteroids are not differentiated. Bradyrhizobia, infecting NCR-producing Aeschynomene plants, require the peptide uptake transporter BclA to cope with the NCR peptides as well as a specific peptidoglycan-modifying DD-carboxypeptidase, DD-CPase1...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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