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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074430/the-monomeric-gtpase-raba2-is-required-for-progression-and-maintenance-of-membrane-integrity-of-infection-threads-during-root-nodule-symbiosis
#1
Virginia Dalla Via, Soledad Traubenik, Claudio Rivero, O Mario Aguilar, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Antonio Blanco
Progression of the infection canal that conducts rhizobia to the nodule primordium requires a functional Rab GTPase located in Golgi/trans-Golgi that also participate in root hair polar growth. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) symbiotically associates with its partner Rhizobium etli, resulting in the formation of root nitrogen-fixing nodules. Compatible bacteria can reach cortical cells in a tightly regulated infection process, in which the specific recognition of signal molecules is a key step to select the symbiotic partner...
January 10, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073951/nod-factors-potentiate-auxin-signaling-for-transcriptional-regulation-and-lateral-root-formation-in-medicago-truncatula
#2
Violaine Herrbach, Ximena Chirinos, David Rengel, Kokoévi Agbevenou, Rémy Vincent, Stéphanie Pateyron, Stéphanie Huguet, Sandrine Balzergue, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Clare Gough, Sandra Bensmihen
Nodulation (Nod) factors (NFs) are symbiotic molecules produced by rhizobia that are essential for establishment of the rhizobium-legume endosymbiosis. Purified NFs can stimulate lateral root formation (LRF) in Medicago truncatula, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Using a combination of reporter constructs, pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that NFs act on early steps of LRF in M. truncatula, independently of the ethylene signaling pathway and of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1, but in interaction with auxin...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071798/impact-of-rhizobial-inoculation-and-reduced-n-supply-on-biomass-production-and-biological-n2-fixation-in-common-bean-grown-hydroponically
#3
Charis-Konstantina Kontopoulou, Epifanios Liasis, Pietro P M Iannetta, Anastasia Tampakaki, Dimitrios Savvas
BACKGROUND: Testing rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N2 -fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic-N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total-nitrogen 11.2 mM) or 1/3 of full-N, or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod filling stage using the (15) N natural abundance method...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069822/transcriptional-activation-of-virulence-genes-of-rhizobium-etli
#4
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
Recently, Rhizobium etli has emerged, in addition to Agrobacterium spp., as a prokaryotic species that encodes a functional machinery for DNA transfer to plant cells. To understand this R. etli-mediated genetic transformation, it would be useful to define how its vir genes respond to the host plants. Here, we explored the transcriptional activation of the vir genes contained on the R. etli p42a plasmid. Using a reporter construct harboring lacZ under the control of the R. etli virE promoter, we showed that the signal phenolic molecule acetosyringone (AS) induced R...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067580/cis-regulatory-plethora-promoter-elements-directing-root-and-nodule-expression-are-conserved-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-medicago-truncatula
#5
Henk J Franssen, Olga Kulikova, Viola Willemsen, Renze Heidstra
Nodules are unique organs formed on roots of legumes by soil-borne bacteria, collectively known as rhizobium. Recently, we have shown that orthologs of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) AP2 transcription factors PLETHORA (PLT) 1 to 4, that redundantly regulate Arabidopsis thaliana root development are involved in root and nodule growth in Medicago truncatula. Hence, it is conceivable that rhizobium has co-opted these genes for nodule development. Whether this co-option requires the presence of specific cis-elements in the promoters and/or specialisation of PLT protein function is not clear...
January 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054497/the-lipopolysaccharide-lipid-a-long-chain-fatty-acid-is-important-for-rhizobium-leguminosarum-growth-and-stress-adaptation-in-free-living-and-nodule-environments
#6
Dianna V Bourassa, Elmar Kannenberg, Janine Sherrier, Richard Jeffrey Buhr, Russell Carlson
Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Rhizobial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipid A containing a very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA). VLCFA function for rhizobial growth in soil and plant environments is not well understood. Two genes, acpXL and lpxXL, encoding acyl carrier protein and acyltransferase, are among the six genes required for biosynthesis and transfer of VLCFA to lipid A...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053873/draft-genome-of-the-strain-rcam1026-rhizobium-leguminosarum-bv-%C3%A2-viciae
#7
Alexey Afonin, Anton Sulima, Aleksandr Zhernakov, Vladimir Zhukov
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae RCAM1026 is a strain first isolated in 1964 from nodules of "Ramensky 77" cultivar of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) now routinely used as a model strain in inoculation experiments on pea. Assembly with SPAdes yielded 133 contigs longer then 200 bp (N50 = 202,321, GC% = 60.84). Resulting annotated genome is 7,248,686 bp encoding 6792 genes.
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051350/can-plant-microbiome-studies-lead-to-effective-biocontrol-of-plant-diseases
#8
Jeffrey Ellis
In this commentary I question the wisdom and efficacy of studies seeking disease attenuating microbes and microbiomes only in healthy plant communities and posit the alternative view that success in biocontrol of crop diseases may come also come from studies of microbiota, or at least individual species isolates, associated with diseased plants. In support of this view I summarise the current extensive knowledge of the biology behind what is probably the most successful biocontrol of a plant disease, namely the biocontrol of crown gall of stone fruit using non-pathogenic Rhizobium rhizogenes strain K84 (New and Kerr, 1972; Kerr, 2016) where the biocontrol agent itself came from a diseased plant...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043118/direct-raman-spectroscopic-measurements-of-biological-nitrogen-fixation-under-natural-conditions-an-analytical-approach-for-studying-nitrogenase-activity
#9
Tobias Jochum, Agnes Fastnacht, Susan E Trumbore, Jürgen Popp, Torsten Frosch
Biological N2 fixation is a major input of bioavailable nitrogen, which represents the most frequent factor limiting the agricultural production throughout the world. Especially, the symbiotic association between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) and reduce the need for industrial fertilizers. Despite its importance in the global N cycle, rates of biological nitrogen fixation have proven difficult to quantify. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a simple analytical approach to measure biological N2 fixation rates directly without a proxy or isotopic labeling...
December 22, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028038/function-and-evolution-of-a-lotus-japonicus-ap2-erf-family-transcription-factor-that-is-required-for-development-of-infection-threads
#10
Koji Yano, Seishiro Aoki, Meng Liu, Yosuke Umehara, Norio Suganuma, Wataru Iwasaki, Shusei Sato, Takashi Soyano, Hiroshi Kouchi, Masayoshi Kawaguchi
Legume-rhizobium symbiosis is achieved by two major events evolutionarily acquired: root hair infection and organogenesis. Infection thread (IT) development is a distinct element for rhizobial infection. Through ITs, rhizobia are efficiently transported from infection foci on root hairs to dividing meristematic cortical cells. To unveil this process, we performed genetic screening using Lotus japonicus MG-20 and isolated symbiotic mutant lines affecting nodulation, root hair morphology, and IT development. Map-based cloning identified an AP2/ERF transcription factor gene orthologous to Medicago truncatula ERN1 LjERN1 was activated in response to rhizobial infection and depended on CYCLOPS and NSP2...
December 27, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011103/characterization-of-new-exopolysaccharide-production-by-rhizobium-tropici-during-growth-on-hydrocarbon-substrate
#11
Tereza Cristina Luque Castellane, João Carlos Campanharo, Luiz Alberto Colnago, Isabel Duarte Coutinho, Érica Mendes Lopes, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) are produced by a diverse of rhizobia species and has been demonstrated to be a bioemulsifier with potential applications in the degradation of hydrocarbons. In the present study, attempts were made to obtain the new exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium tropici (SEMIA 4080 and MUTZC3) strains during growth on hydrocarbon substrate. Under the different cultivation conditions, the high molecular weight exopolysaccharides from Rhizobium tropici strains cultivated for 96h mainly consisted of carbohydrates (79-85%) and a low percentage of protein...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986730/the-sinorhizobium-ensifer-fredii-hh103-nodulation-outer-protein-nopi-is-a-determinant-for-efficient-nodulation-of-soybean-and-cowpea
#12
Irene Jiménez-Guerrero, Francisco Pérez-Montaño, Carlos Medina, Francisco Javier Ollero, Francisco Javier López-Baena
: The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is a specialized secretion apparatus commonly used by many plant and animal pathogenic bacteria to deliver proteins, termed effectors, to the interior of the host cells. These effectors suppress host defenses and interfere with signal transduction pathways to promote infection. Some rhizobial strains possess a functional T3SS, which is involved in the suppression of host defense responses, host-range determination and symbiotic efficiency. The analysis of the genome of the broad host-range rhizobial strain Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 identified eight genes that code for putative T3SS effectors...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965683/bradyrhizobium-inoculants-enhance-grain-yields-of-soybean-and-cowpea-in-northern-ghana
#13
Jacob Ulzen, Robert C Abaidoo, Nana E Mensah, Cargele Masso, AbdelAziz H AbdelGadir
This study evaluated the symbiotic effectiveness and economic evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants with the objective of recommending the most effective inoculant strain for soybean and cowpea production in Northern Ghana. Field experiments were established in three locations using randomized complete block design with five blocks. A total of four treatments (Legumefix, Biofix, 100 kg N ha(-1) and uninoculated control for soybean and BR 3267, BR 3262, 100 kg N ha(-1) and uninoculated control for cowpea) were applied...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959784/rhizobium-oryziradicis-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-root-of-rice
#14
Juan-Juan Zhao, Jun Zhang, Lei Sun, Rui-Jie Zhang, Cai-Wen Zhang, Hua-Qun Yin, Xiao-Xia Zhang
Two Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped endophytic bacterial strains, N19T and N11-2, were isolated from fresh rice (Oryza sativa) root during investigating the rice endophytic bacterial diversity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence results indicated that the similarity between strains N19T and N11-2 was 100 %. Both of them phylogenetically belong to the genus Rhizobium, with close similarity to Rhizobium taibaishanense CCNWSX 0483T (97.7 %), followed by Rhizobium vitis NCPPB 3554T (97.5 %). The sequence similarities of housekeeping genes recA, gyrB, glnA between the novel isolates and the established species of the genus Rhizobium were less than 87 %...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943515/agricultural-soil-denitrifiers-possess-extensive-nitrite-reductase-gene-diversity
#15
Sara Coyotzi, Andrew C Doxey, Ian D Clark, David R Lapen, Philippe Van Cappellen, Josh D Neufeld
Denitrification transforms nitrogen applied as fertilizer and emits N2 O, which is a potent greenhouse gas. Very little is known about the identities of abundant and active denitrifiers in agricultural soils. We coupled DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with flow-through reactors (FTRs) to detect active agricultural soil denitrifiers. The FTRs were incubated with nitrate and (13) C6 -glucose under anoxic conditions and sampled at multiple time points. Labelled DNA from active microorganisms was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting, amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing...
December 10, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936180/genetic-diversity-and-symbiotic-efficiency-of-nodulating-rhizobia-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-faba-bean-in-one-field
#16
Lan Zou, Yuan Xue Chen, Petri Penttinen, Qin Lan, Ke Wang, Ming Liu, Dan Peng, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiang Chen, Ke Zhao, Xiangzhong Zeng, Kai Wei Xu
Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931748/lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-nodulates-with-genotypically-and-phenotypically-diverse-rhizobia-in-ethiopian-soils
#17
Wondwosen Tena, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel, Tulu Degefu, Fran Walley
Forty-eight lentil-nodulating rhizobia were isolated from soil samples collected from diverse agro-ecological locations in Ethiopia, and characterized based on 76 phenotypic traits. Furthermore, 26 representative strains were selected and characterized using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, glnII and gyrB) and symbiotic (nodA and nifH) genes. Numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics showed that the 48 test strains fell into three major distinct clusters. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA genes showed that they belong to the Rhizobium genus...
November 24, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920781/inoculation-of-schizolobium-parahyba-with-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-increases-wood-yield-under-field-conditions
#18
Martha V T Cely, Marco A Siviero, Janaina Emiliano, Flávia R Spago, Vanessa F Freitas, André R Barazetti, Erika T Goya, Gustavo de Souza Lamberti, Igor M O Dos Santos, Admilton G De Oliveira, Galdino Andrade
Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920770/the-use-of-transposon-insertion-sequencing-to-interrogate-the-core-functional-genome-of-the-legume-symbiont-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#19
Benjamin J Perry, Mir S Akter, Christopher K Yost
The free-living legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum is of significant economic value because of its ability to provide fixed nitrogen to globally important leguminous food crops, such as peas and lentils. Discovery based research into the genetics and physiology of R. leguminosarum provides the foundational knowledge necessary for understanding the bacterium's complex lifestyle, necessary for augmenting its use in an agricultural setting. Transposon insertion sequencing (INSeq) facilitates high-throughput forward genetic screening at a genomic scale to identify individual genes required for growth in a specific environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919811/biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-l-asparaginase-from-paenibacillus-barengoltzii-being-suitable-for-acrylamide-reduction-in-potato-chips-and-mooncakes
#20
Ran Shi, Yu Liu, Qing Mu, Zhengqiang Jiang, Shaoqing Yang
A novel L-asparaginase gene (PbAsnase) from Paenibaeillus barengoltzii CAU904 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The L-asparaginase gene was 1011bp encoding 336 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment of PbAsnase with other known L-asparaginases revealed that the enzyme showed high similarities with some Rhizobial-type L-asparaginases, sharing the highest identity of 32% with a characterized L-asparaginase from Rhizobium etli CFN 42, suggesting that it should be a novel L-asparaginase. The recombinant L-asparaginase (PbAsnase) was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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