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Root nodule bacteria

Camille E Granada, Luciano K Vargas, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Tiago Falcon, Luciane M P Passaglia
Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Rachel E Pain, Ruth G Shaw, Seema N Sheth
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear. METHODS: In this greenhouse study, we varied the application of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Mengsheng Gao, Anne Benge, Julia M Mesa, Regina Javier, Feng-Xia Liu
Background: Soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti ( S. meliloti ) forms an endosymbiotic partnership with Medicago truncatula ( M. truncatula ) roots which results in root nodules. The bacteria live within root nodules where they function to fix atmospheric N2 and supply the host plant with reduced nitrogen. The bacterial RNA-binding protein Hfq (Hfq) is an important regulator for the effectiveness of the nitrogen fixation. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) method is a powerful method for detecting the association of Hfq protein with specific RNA in cultured bacteria, yet a RIP method for bacteria living in root nodules remains to be described...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
Souhir Abdelkrim, Salwa H Jebara, Omar Saadani, Manel Chiboub, Ghassen Abid, Moez Jebara
In search of efficient and resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains with multiple activities, a total of twelve bacterial belonging to R. leguminosarum, S. meliloti, Pseudomonas sp., P. fluorescens, Luteibacter sp., Variovorax sp., B. simplex, and B. megaterium were isolated from root nodules of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grown in contaminated soils. Upon screening, all test strains were able to synthesize indoleacetic acid; more than 90% were siderophore producers and 75% showed varying levels of phosphate solubilizing ability...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Marzena Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Rafał Ważny
This present paper studies the response of Anthyllis vulneraria-Rhizobium symbiosis to heavy metal stress. The symbiotic rhizobium bacteria isolated from root nodules of A. vulneraria from zinc and lead wastes were examined in this project. Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the nodule anatomy and ultrastructure and conduct a comparison with nonmetal-treated nodules. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of bacteria isolated from metal-treated nodules revealed the presence of Rhizobium metallidurans and Bradyrhizobium sp...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
April H Hastwell, Leo Corcilius, James Williams, Peter M Gresshoff, Richard J Payne, Brett J Ferguson
Legumes form root nodules to house beneficial nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. However, nodulation is resource demanding; hence, legumes evolved a systemic signalling mechanism, called Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON), to control nodule numbers. AON begins with the production of CLE peptides in the root, which are predicted to be glycosylated, transported to the shoot, and perceived. We synthesised variants of nodulation-suppressing CLE peptides to test their activity using petiole feeding to introduce CLE peptides into the shoot...
May 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Koichi Takahashi, Kosuke Homma, Jiri Dorezal, Kotaro Yamagata, Valentina P Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara
Alders (Alnus spp.) often dominate at nutrient-poor sites by symbiotic relations with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about quantitative relationships between root nodule as a nitrogen acquisition organ and leaf as a carbon acquisition organ. To examine carbon allocation, nitrogen acquisition and net production in nutrient-poor conditions, we examined allocation patterns among organs of shrub Alnus fruticosa at a young 80-year-old moraine in Kamchatka. Slopes of double-log allometric equations were significantly smaller than 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Marcin Nadzieja, Simon Kelly, Jens Stougaard, Dugald Reid
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes requires nodule organogenesis to be coordinated with infection by rhizobia. The plant hormone auxin influences symbiotic infection, but the precise timing of auxin accumulation and the genetic network governing it remain unclear. We used a Lotus japonicus optimised variant of the DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and identify a rapid accumulation of auxin in the epidermis, specifically in the root hair cells. This auxin accumulation occurs in the infected root hairs during rhizobia invasion, while Nod factor application induces this response across a broader range of root hairs...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Fathi Berrabah, Thierry Balliau, El Hosseyn Aït-Salem, Jeoffrey George, Michel Zivy, Pascal Ratet, Benjamin Gourion
Massive intracellular populations of symbiotic bacteria, referred to as rhizobia, are housed in legume root nodules. Little is known about the mechanisms preventing the development of defense in these organs although genes such as symCRK and DNF2 of the model legume Medicago truncatula are required for this control after rhizobial internalization in host nodule cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis of the symbiotic control of immunity. Proteomic analysis was performed to compare functional (wild-type) and defending nodules (symCRK)...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Yue Hu, Jian Jiao, Li Xue Liu, Yan Wei Sun, Wenfeng Chen, Xinhua Sui, Wenxin Chen, Chang Fu Tian
Phosphate homeostasis is tightly modulated in all organisms including bacteria, which harbor both high- and low-affinity transporters acting under conditions of fluctuating phosphate levels. It was thought that nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, named as bacteroids, inhabiting root nodules of legumes are not phosphate limited. Here we show that the high-affinity phosphate transporter PstSCAB other than the low-affinity phosphate transporter Pit is essential for effective nitrogen fixation of Sinorhizobium fredii in soybean nodules...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Christina Birnbaum, Andrew Bissett, Francois P Teste, Etienne Laliberté
Long-term soil age gradients are useful model systems to study how changes in nutrient limitation shape communities of plant root mutualists because they represent strong natural gradients of nutrient availability, particularly of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Here, we investigated changes in the dinitrogen (N2 )-fixing bacterial community composition and diversity in nodules of a single host legume (Acacia rostellifera) across the Jurien Bay chronosequence, a retrogressive 2 million-year-old sequence of coastal dunes representing an exceptionally strong natural soil fertility gradient...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Yue Jin, Zixuan Chen, Jun Yang, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Jirong Huang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Legume plants form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which are regulated by a set of common symbiotic signaling pathway genes. Central to the signaling pathway is the activation of the DMI3/IPD3 protein complex by Ca2+ oscillations, and the initiation of nodule organogenesis and mycorrhizal symbiosis. DMI3 is essential for rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis; however, ipd3 mutants have been shown to be impaired only in infection thread formation but not in root nodule organogenesis in Medicago truncatula ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martina Lardi, Yilei Liu, Gaetano Giudice, Christian H Ahrens, Nicola Zamboni, Gabriella Pessi
RpoN (or σ54 ) is the key sigma factor for the regulation of transcription of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria, which include α- and β-rhizobia. Our previous studies showed that an rpoN mutant of the β-rhizobial strain Paraburkholderia phymatum STM815T formed root nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro jamapa, which were unable to reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. In an effort to further characterize the RpoN regulon of P. phymatum , transcriptomics was combined with a powerful metabolomics approach...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qi Wang, Jinge Liu, Hongyan Zhu
Legumes are able to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or forms nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen Ting Peng, Lu Dan Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Chen Fu, Zhi Chang Chen, Hong Liao
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential element for the growth of both plants and bacteria. Low availability of Mg in agriculture can limit crop productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on plant growth, limited Mg supply may also impact biological dinitrogen (N2 ) fixation in nodules formed from symbiotic interactions between legumes and rhizobial bacteria. To date, the physiological mechanisms involved in Mg-dependent nodulation remains largely unknown. The objectives of this work were to assess how Mg supply affects nodule growth and development in symbiotic systems, and to test if any observed changes in nodule and soybean are correlated with Mg supply...
March 23, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Anne-Marie Garnerone, Fernando Sorroche, Lan Zou, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Chang Fu Tian, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut
An ongoing signal exchange fine-tunes the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes, ensuring the establishment and maintenance of mutualism. In a recently identified regulatory loop, endosymbiotic S. meliloti exert a negative feedback on root infection in response to unknown plant cues. Upon signal perception, three bacterial Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) of the inner membrane, CyaD1, CyaD2 and CyaK, synthesize the second messenger cAMP that, together with the cAMP-dependent Clr transcriptional activator, activates the expression of genes involved in root infection control...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Xiaodong Liu, Yantao Luo, Zhefei Li, Gehong Wei
Mesorhizobium alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T , isolated from root nodules of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia , contains two type III secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SSs are specialized machinery with wide distribution in bacteria that inject effector proteins into target cells. Our previous study showed that the expression of M. alhagi T3SS1 is upregulated in high-salt conditions. Here, phylogenetic analysis of T3SS1 using the core protein RhcU suggested that T3SS1 belongs to the α-Rhc II subgroup of the Rhc T3SS family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jacklyn Thomas, Megan J Bowman, Andres Vega, Ha Ram Kim, Arijit Mukherjee
Auxins can induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLS) in plant roots even in the absence of rhizobia and nitrogen-fixing bacteria can colonize these structures. Interestingly, NLS can be induced in roots of both legumes and non-legumes. However, our understanding of NLS formation in non-legumes at a molecular level is limited. This study aims to investigate NLS formation at a developmental and molecular level in Brachypodium distachyon. We treated Brachypodium roots with the synthetic auxin, 2,4-D, to induce NLS at a high frequency (> 80%) under controlled conditions...
May 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Joaquín Clúa, Carla Roda, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio A Blanco
The root nodule symbiosis established between legumes and rhizobia is an exquisite biological interaction responsible for fixing a significant amount of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. The success of this interaction depends on the recognition of the right partner by the plant within the richest microbial ecosystems on Earth, the soil. Recent metagenomic studies of the soil biome have revealed its complexity, which includes microorganisms that affect plant fitness and growth in a beneficial, harmful, or neutral manner...
February 27, 2018: Genes
Isabel M López-Lara, Joaquina Nogales, Ángel Pech-Canul, Nieves Calatrava-Morales, Lydia M Bernabéu-Roda, Paloma Durán, Virginia Cuéllar, José Olivares, Laura Alvarez, Diana Palenzuela-Bretones, Manuel Romero, Stephan Heeb, Miguel Cámara, Otto Geiger, María J Soto
Surface motility and biofilm formation are behaviours which enable bacteria to infect their hosts and are controlled by different chemical signals. In the plant symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the lack of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity (FadD) leads to increased surface motility, defects in biofilm development and impaired root colonization. In this study, analyses of lipid extracts and volatiles revealed that a fadD mutant accumulates 2-tridecanone (2-TDC), a methylketone (MK) known as a natural insecticide...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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