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Root nodule bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278144/a-functional-general-stress-response-of-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens-is-required-for-early-stages-of-host-plant-infection
#1
Raphael Ledermann, Ilka Bartsch, Barbara Müller, Janine Wülser, Hans-Martin Fischer
Phylogenetically diverse bacteria respond to various stress conditions by mounting a general stress response (GSR) resulting in the induction of protecting or damage repair functions. In α-proteobacteria, the GSR is induced by a regulatory cascade consisting of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor σEcfG, its anti-σ factor NepR and the anti-anti-σ factor PhyR. We have reported previously that σEcfG and PhyR of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens (formerly named Bradyrhizobium japonicum), the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiont of soybean and related legumes, are required for efficient symbiosis, however, the precise role of the GSR remained undefined...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226306/symbioses-with-nitrogen-fixing-bacteria-nodulation-and-phylogenetic-data-across-legume-genera
#2
Michelle E Afkhami, D Luke Mahler, Jean H Burns, Marjorie G Weber, Martin F Wojciechowski, Janet Sprent, Sharon Y Strauss
How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially-based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen...
December 11, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218056/respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-gene-a-is-crucial-for-rhizobium-infection-and-nodule-maturation-and-function-in-common-bean
#3
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Jesús Montiel, Rosana Sánchez-López, Noreide Nava, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) regulate numerous plant cell processes, including the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Rapid and transient ROS production was reported after Phaseolus vulgaris root hairs were treated with Nod factors, indicating the presence of a ROS-associated molecular signature in the symbiosis signaling pathway. Rboh is a multigene family containing nine members (RbohA-I) in P. vulgaris. RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209289/co-existence-of-rhizobia-and-diverse-non-rhizobial-bacteria-in-the-rhizosphere-and-nodules-of-dalbergia-odorifera-seedlings-inoculated-with-bradyrhizobium-elkanii-rhizobium-multihospitium-like-and-burkholderia-pyrrocinia-like-strains
#4
Junkun Lu, Fucheng Yang, Shengkun Wang, Haibin Ma, Junfeng Liang, Yinglong Chen
Rhizobia induce root nodules and fix atmospheric N2 for most legume species in exchange for carbon. However, the diverse endophytic non-rhizobial bacteria in legume nodules that co-exist with rhizobia are often ignored because they are difficult to cultivate using routine cultivation approaches. To enhance our understanding of the incidence and diversity of legume-bacteria associations, a high-throughput sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was used to examine the bacterial community in the rhizospheres and root nodules of Dalbergia odorifera seedlings that were uninoculated or inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii H255, Rhizobium multihospitium-like HT221, or Burkholderia pyrrocinia-like H022238, in two growth media (nitrogen [N]-supplied soil or N-omitted potting mix)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198596/phenotypic-and-genetic-diversity-of-moroccan-rhizobia-isolated-from-vicia-faba-and-study-of-genes-that-are-likely-to-be-involved-in-their-osmotolerance
#5
Loubna Benidire, Majida Lahrouni, Khalid Daoui, Zain El Abidine Fatemi, Ricardo Gomez Carmona, Michael Göttfert, Khalid Oufdou
Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes. In Morocco, faba bean (Vicia faba L.), which is the main legume crop cultivated in the country, is often grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions. This study examines the phenotypic diversity of rhizobia nodulating V. faba isolated from different regions in Morocco for tolerance to some abiotic stresses. A total of 106 rhizobia strains isolated from nodules were identified at the species level by analysing 16S rDNA. Additionally, for selected strains recA, otsA, kup and nodA fragments were sequenced...
November 3, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182530/nodule-enriched-gretchen-hagen-3-enzymes-have-distinct-substrate-specificities-and-are-important-for-proper-soybean-nodule-development
#6
Suresh Damodaran, Corey S Westfall, Brian A Kisely, Joseph M Jez, Senthil Subramanian
Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150289/the-cause-of-multiple-sclerosis-is-autoimmune-attack-of-adenosyltransferase-thereby-limiting-adenosylcobalamin-production
#7
J L Boucher
The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The next step in MS pathogenesis is a period of subclinical AdoCbl deficiency over a period of many years resulting in production of odd-carbon-number fatty acids that are incorporated into myelin rendering it antigenic...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143730/genetic-diversity-and-symbiotic-effectiveness-of-bradyrhizobium-strains-nodulating-selected-annual-grain-legumes-growing-in-ethiopia
#8
Tulu Degefu, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel, Frank Rasche
Vigna unguiculata, Vigna radiata and Arachis hypogaea growing in Ethiopia are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the genetic identity and symbiotic effectiveness of these bacteria, a collection of 36 test strains originating from the root nodules of the three hosts was investigated using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core genes including 16S rRNA, recA, glnII, gyrB, atpD and dnaK. Sequence analysis of nodA and nifH genes along with tests for symbiotic effectiveness using δ(15)N analysis were also carried out...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117917/antagonistic-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-nodules-of-soybean-glycine-max-l-and-plant-growth-promoting-properties
#9
LongFei Zhao, YaJun Xu, XinHe Lai
A total of 276 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in 14 sites in Henan Province, China. The inhibitory activity of these bacteria against pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sojae 01 was screened in vitro. Six strains with more than 63% inhibitory activities were further characterized through optical epifluorescence microscopic observation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, potential plant growth-promoting properties analysis, and plant inoculation assay...
October 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105533/plant-immunity-and-symbiosis-signaling-mediated-by-lysm-receptors
#10
Yoshitake Desaki, Kana Miyata, Maruya Suzuki, Naoto Shibuya, Hanae Kaku
Plants possess the ability to recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and PAMPs through the PRRs, and initiate pattern-triggered immunity. MAMPs are derived from cell-envelope components, secreted materials and cytosolic proteins from bacteria, oomycetes or fungi, and some MAMPs play a similar function in the innate immunity in mammals. Chitin is a representative fungal MAMP and triggers defense signaling in a wide range of plant species. The chitin receptors CEBiP and CERK1 on the plasma membrane have LysM (lysin motif) in their ectodomains...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102065/molecular-phylogeny-of-bradyrhizobium-bacteria-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-tribe-genisteae-plants-growing-in-southeast-poland
#11
Michał Kalita, Wanda Małek
The phylogeny of 16 isolates from root nodules of Genista germanica, Genista tinctoria, Cytisus ratisbonensis, and Cytisus scoparius growing in southeast Poland was estimated by comparative sequence analysis of core (16S rDNA, atpD, glnII, recA) and symbiosis-related (nodC, nodZ, nifH) genes. All the sequences analyzed placed the studied rhizobia in the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis of individual and concatenated housekeeping genes showed that the Genisteae microsymbionts form a homogeneous group with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains...
October 16, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062319/a-biosensor-based-leaf-punch-assay-for-glutamine-correlates-to-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-measurements-in-legumes-to-permit-rapid-screening-of-rhizobia-inoculants-under-controlled-conditions
#12
Malinda S Thilakarathna, Nicholas Moroz, Manish N Raizada
Legumes are protein sources for billions of humans and livestock. These traits are enabled by symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), whereby root nodule-inhabiting rhizobia bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N) into usable N. Unfortunately, SNF rates in legume crops suffer from undiagnosed incompatible/suboptimal interactions between crop varieties and rhizobia strains. There are opportunities to test much large numbers of rhizobia strains if cost/labor-effective diagnostic tests become available which may especially benefit researchers in developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046420/della1-gibberellin-signaling-regulates-cytokinin-dependent-symbiotic-nodulation
#13
Camille Fonouni-Farde, Anna Kisiala, Mathias Brault, R J Neil Emery, Anouck Diet, Florian Frugier
In legume plants, low nitrogen soils promote symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria, leading to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Amongst critical signals regulating this developmental process are bacterial Nod Factors (NFs) and several plant hormones, including cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellins (GAs). Here we show in Medicago truncatula that GA signaling mediated by DELLA1 decreases the amount of bioactive CKs in roots and negatively impacts the CRE1 (Cytokinin Response 1)-dependent NF activation of a subset of CK-signaling genes, as well as of the CK-regulated NSP2 (Nodulation Signaling pathway 2) and ERN1 (ERF required for Nodulation) early nodulation genes...
October 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034855/bradyrhizobium-namibiense-sp-nov-a-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-bacterium-from-root-nodules-of-lablab-purpureus-hyacinth-bean-in-namibia
#14
Jann Lasse Grönemeyer, Wiebke Bünger, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek
Four strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) from Namibia were previously identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To confirm their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized by taking a polyphasic approach. The type strain possessed 16S rRNA gene sequences identical to Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri LMTR 21(T) and Bradyrhizobiumicense LMTR 13(T), the full-length sequences were identical to those retrieved from SAMN05230119 and SAMN05230120, respectively...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033922/endophytic-bacteria-improve-plant-growth-symbiotic-performance-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-and-induce-suppression-of-root-rot-caused-by-fusarium-solani-under-salt-stress
#15
Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Stephan J Wirth, Vyacheslav V Shurigin, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022875/spatio-temporal-control-of-mutualism-in-legumes-helps-spread-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#16
Benoit Daubech, Philippe Remigi, Ginaini Doin de Moura, Marta Marchetti, Cécile Pouzet, Marie-Christine Auriac, Chaitanya S Gokhale, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Delphine Capela
Mutualism is of fundamental importance in ecosystems. Which factors help to keep the relationship mutually beneficial and evolutionarily successful is a central question. We addressed this issue for one of the most significant mutualistic interactions on Earth, which associates plants of the leguminosae family and hundreds of nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacterial species. Here we analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of fixers and non-fixers along the symbiotic process in the Cupriavidus taiwanensis-Mimosa pudica system...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992078/auxin-transport-metabolism-and-signalling-during-nodule-initiation-indeterminate-and-determinate-nodules
#17
Wouter Kohlen, Jason Liang Pin Ng, Eva E Deinum, Ulrike Mathesius
Most legumes can form a unique type of lateral organ on their roots: root nodules. These structures host symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. Several different types of nodules can be found in nature, but the two best-studied types are called indeterminate and determinate nodules. These two types differ with respect to the presence or absence of a persistent nodule meristem, which consistently correlates with the cortical cell layers giving rise to the nodule primordia. Similar to other plant developmental processes, auxin signalling overlaps with the site of organ initiation and meristem activity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975015/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-ensifer-meliloti-mlalz-1-a-microsymbiont-of-medicago-laciniata-l-miller-collected-in-lanzarote-canary-islands-spain
#18
Wan Adnawani Meor Osman, Peter van Berkum, Milagros León-Barrios, Encarna Velázquez, Patrick Elia, Rui Tian, Julie Ardley, Margaret Gollagher, Rekha Seshadri, T B K Reddy, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Amrita Pati, Victor Markowitz, Mohamed N Baeshen, Naseebh Nabeeh Baeshen, Nikos Kyrpides, Wayne Reeve
10.1601/nm.1335 Mlalz-1 (INSDC = ATZD00000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing nodule of Medicago laciniata (L.) Miller from a soil sample collected near the town of Guatiza on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, Spain. This strain nodulates and forms an effective symbiosis with the highly specific host M. laciniata. This rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) sequencing project...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945515/multiple-nodulation-genes-are-up-regulated-during-establishment-of-reniform-nematode-feeding-sites-in-soybean
#19
Nathan Wayne Redding, Paula Agudelo, Christina E Wells
The semi-endoparastic reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) infects over 300 plant species. Females penetrate host roots and induce formation of complex, multinucleate feeding sites called syncytia. While anatomical changes associated with reniform nematode infection are well documented, little is known about their molecular basis. We grew soybean (Glycine max) in a split-root growth system, inoculated half of each root system with R. reniformis, and quantified gene expression in infected and control root tissue at four dates after inoculation...
September 15, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931627/the-nitrate-transporter-family-protein-ljnpf8-6-controls-the-n-fixing-nodule-activity
#20
Vladimir Totev Valkov, Alessandra Rogato, Ludovico Martins Alves, Stefano Sol, Mélanie Noguero, Sophie Léran, Benoit Lacombe, Maurizio Chiurazzi
N-fixing nodules are new organs formed on legume roots as a result of the beneficial interaction with soil bacteria, rhizobia. The nodule functioning is still a poorly characterized step of the symbiotic interaction, as only a few of the genes induced in N-fixing nodules have been functionally characterized. We present here the characterization of a member of the Lotus japonicus nitrate transporter1/peptide transporter family, LjNPF8.6 The phenotypic characterization carried out in independent L. japonicus LORE1 insertion lines indicates a positive role of LjNPF8...
November 2017: Plant Physiology
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