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Saguinus oedipus

Julie J Neiworth, Justin M London, Michael J Flynn, Deborah D Rupert, Owen Alldritt, Caleb Hyde
The human ability to detect regularities in sound sequences is a fundamental substrate of our language faculty. However, is this an ability exclusive to human language processing, or have we usurped a more general learning mechanism for this purpose, one shared with other species? The current study is an attempt to replicate and extend Hauser, Weiss, and Marcus's (2002) retracted study (2010) of artificial grammar learning in tamarins to determine if tamarins can detect an underlying grammatical structure in a pattern of sounds...
May 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Charles T Snowdon, Thomas R Roskos
Some captive cotton-top tamarins spontaneously weave sticks in the mesh of their enclosures so that the stick is lodged between two mesh openings. Sticks are broken from natural branches placed in the enclosures and often modified by biting them in the center before weaving through the mesh. To investigate this further, we systematically surveyed all animals in our colony and found that all successful stick-weaving tamarins were descendants from only 2 of the 16 breeding groups contributing to the colony membership at the time of surveying or were the mates of these descendants, suggesting stick-weaving is a socially learned behavior...
May 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Anne Savage, Len Thomas, Katie L Feilen, Darren Kidney, Luis H Soto, Mackenzie Pearson, Felix S Medina, German Emeris, Rosamira R Guillen
Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made "lure strip transect" method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species' range...
2016: PloS One
Brenda J Bradley, Charles T Snowdon, William C McGrew, Richard R Lawler, Elaine E Guevara, Annick McIntosh, Timothy O'Connor
Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters...
December 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Martin Tobi, Peter Thomas, Daniel Ezekwudo
Much has been written about hepatic metastasis and animal models abound. In terms of the human experience, progress in treating this final common pathway, a terminal event of many human malignancies has been relatively slow. The current thinking is that primary prevention is best served by early detection of cancer and eradication of early stage cancers by screening. Some cancers spread early in their course and the role of screening may be limited. Until relatively recently there has not been a pathfinder model that makes the evasion of this unfortunate event a reality...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Samanta Michelini, Monica Modesto, Gianfranco Filippini, Caterina Spiezio, Camillo Sandri, Bruno Biavati, Annamaria Pisi, Paola Mattarelli
Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T))...
June 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Claudia Eleni, Angela Di Cesare, Paolo Cavicchio, Maria Cristina Tonnicchia, Roberta Meoli, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Barbara Paoletti, Mario Pietrobelli, Claudio De Liberato
This paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a Saguinus oedipus and a Callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (Suricata suricatta). All animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central Italy. The two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. Cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological findings. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the liver, heart and kidney of the suricates at histology...
August 2016: Parasitology International
Yang Zhang, Xueqin Peng, Yunlian Tang, Xiaoning Gan, Chengkun Wang, Lu Xie, Xiaoli Xie, Runliang Gan, Yimou Wu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Because the susceptible hosts of EB virus are limited to human and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), there have been no appropriate animal models until the lymphoma model induced by EBV in human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/SCID chimeric mice was reported. However, it is still controversial whether the EBV-associated lymphoma induced in hu-PBL/SCID mice is a monoclonal tumor. In this study, we transplanted normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from six donors infected with EBV into SCID mice to construct hu-PBL/SCID chimeric mice...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Nicole M Reeves, Benjamin M Auerbach, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal asymmetries reflect developmental stability and mechanical, functional, and physiological influences on bone growth. In humans, researchers have documented the greatest limb bone bilateral asymmetry in diaphyseal breadths, with less asymmetry in articular and maximum length dimensions. However, it remains unclear as to whether the pattern observed for humans is representative of nonhuman primates, wherein bilateral loading may minimize directional asymmetry. This study adds to the small body of asymmetry data on nonhuman primates by investigating patterns of long bone asymmetry in a skeletal sample of Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin)...
May 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jesse W Young, Gabrielle A Russo, Connie D Fellmann, Meena A Thatikunta, Brad A Chadwell
The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)...
October 2015: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Cara F Hotchkin, Susan E Parks, Daniel J Weiss
Previous research suggests that nonhuman primates have limited flexibility in the frequency content of their vocalizations, particularly when compared to human speech. Consistent with this notion, several nonhuman primate species have demonstrated noise-induced changes in call amplitude and duration, with no evidence of changes to spectral content. This experiment used broad- and narrow-band noise playbacks to investigate the vocal control of two call types produced by cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus)...
2015: PloS One
Rebecca A Boulton, Alison W Fletcher
Sex allocation theory has been a remarkably productive field in behavioral ecology with empirical evidence regularly supporting quantitative theoretical predictions. Across mammals in general and primates in particular, however, support for the various hypotheses has been more equivocal. Population-level sex ratio biases have often been interpreted as supportive, but evidence for small-scale facultative adjustment has rarely been found. The helper repayment (HR) also named the local resource enhancement (LRE) hypothesis predicts that, in cooperatively breeding species, mothers invest more in the sex which assists with rearing future offspring and that this bias will be more pronounced in mothers who require extra assistance (i...
February 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Charles Locurto, Maura Fox, Andrea Mazzella
There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information...
June 2015: Learning & Behavior
Sara Fontani, Gianfranco Tanteri, Stefano Vaglio, Giovanni Delfino, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi
In cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), scent glands have been mostly studied in females from museum collections. This work aims to extend the investigation to male specimens, introducing a novel source of skin samples. Two adult males from zoo populations, one intact and one castrated, were immediately frozen after natural death. Skin samples were later collected at the thawing onset, soaked with cold fixative and processed for light microscopy. Sebaceous units of scent glands showed phasic secretory activity in the intact male and marked fibrosis in the castrated male...
2014: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Donata Kalthoff, Wulf-Iwo Bock, Franziska Hühn, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann
Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from a fatal outbreak among cotton-top tamarins. Samples from healthy common marmosets in contact were also CPXV genome positive. The CPXV isolated from the cotton-top tamarins exhibited a unique hemagglutinin sequence. Pathogenicity investigations using a Wistar rat model characterized the isolate as low pathogenic.
April 2014: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Julie J Neiworth, Katherine M Whillock, Seo Hyun Kim, Julia R Greenberg, Katherine B Jones, Anushka R Patel, David L Steefel-Moore, Allyson J Shaw, Deborah D Rupert, Jacqueline L Gauer, Aisha G Kudura
The use of Gestalt principles of proximity, similarity, and closure to recognize objects by configural superiority was examined in college students, low- and high-functioning children with autism, toddlers, and adult cotton top tamarin monkeys. At issue was whether the monkeys showed differences from humans in perceptual processing and whether they showed any similarities with clinical or developmental groups. The method required a pointing response to discriminate an odd item in a 4-item visual display. All subjects were trained to a high accuracy to point to the odd item before being tested with graphic stimuli that differentiated feature changes based on configural superiority...
May 2014: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Joshua M Ward, Alexander M Buslov, Eric J Vallender
Here we present the results of a demographic analysis of 25 y (1985 to 2010) of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) records from the New England Primate Research Center. Summaries of longevity and survivorship are analyzed by birth-type category (including singletons, twins, triplets, and quadruplets) and sex. In addition, a brief evolutionary review is presented. Surrogates of hematopoietic chimerism, twinning, and reproductive output are explored in a large number of animals to help decipher the potential effects of chimerism on life history in marmosets and tamarins...
January 2014: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
A Belcher, G Epple, I Küderling, A B Smith
The first chemical analysis of the volatile components of scent material from the cotton-top tamarin,Saguinus o. oedipus is presented. In contrast to our previous findings in saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), the chemical composition of the scent marks is quite variable. Analysis of secretion expressed manually from different areas of the scent pads of sedated animals shows individual and regional variability. Only three components (squalene, cholesterol, andp-methoxybenzaldehyde) were found in all scent mark samples analyzed...
May 1988: Journal of Chemical Ecology
G Epple, I Küderling, A Belcher
The ability of cotton-top tamarins to discriminate between scents from conspecifics and those from other tamarin species, and between scents from conspecific individuals was tested. Cotton-tops scent mark with specialized skin glands in the circumgenital area. Females possess larger glands than males and show more scent-marking behavior. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with a glass rod scented with either material collected from the surface of the scent glands of a conspecific female, with scent material from a female of a related species, or with an unscented rod...
February 1988: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
In humans, whispering has evolved as a counteractive strategy against eavesdropping. Some evidence for whisper-like behavior exists in a few other species, but has not been reported in non-human primates. We discovered the first evidence of whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), in the course of investigating their use of human-directed mobbing calls. We exposed a family of captive cotton-top tamarins to a supervisor who previously elicited a strong mobbing response...
November 2013: Zoo Biology
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