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Veterinary pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315118/the-reference-intervals-of-hair-trace-element-content-in-hereford-cows-and-heifers-bos-taurus
#1
Sergey A Miroshnikov, Oleg A Zavyalov, Alexey N Frolov, Irina P Bolodurina, Valery V Kalashnikov, Andrei R Grabeklis, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny
The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council...
March 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299636/asymptomatic-heart-valve-dysfunction-in-healthy-middle-aged-companion-dogs-and-its-implications-for-cardiac-aging
#2
Silvan R Urfer, Tammi L Kaeberlein, Susan Mailheau, Philip J Bergman, Kate E Creevy, Daniel E L Promislow, Matt Kaeberlein
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for about one in every four deaths. Age is the greatest risk factor for heart disease in both people and dogs; however, heart disease is generally not considered as a major cause of morbidity or mortality in dogs. As part of the preliminary selection process for a veterinary clinical trial, 40 companion dogs with no history of cardiac pathology that were at least 6 years old and weighed at least 18 kg underwent a cardiac screening using Doppler echocardiography...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253926/exo-erythrocytic-development-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites
#3
REVIEW
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Tatjana A Iezhova
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and related haemosporidians (Haemosporida) are responsible for diseases which can be severe and even lethal in avian hosts. These parasites cause not only blood pathology, but also damage various organs due to extensive exo-erythrocytic development all over the body, which is not the case during Plasmodium infections in mammals. However, exo-erythrocytic development (tissue merogony or schizogony) remains the most poorly investigated part of life cycle in all groups of wildlife haemosporidian parasites...
March 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240398/standardization-of-a-videofluoroscopic-swallow-study-protocol-to-investigate-dysphagia-in-dogs
#4
R A Harris, M E Grobman, M J Allen, J Schachtel, N E Rawson, B Bennett, J Ledyayev, B Hopewell, J R Coates, C R Reinero, T E Lever
BACKGROUND: Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard for diagnosis of dysphagia in veterinary medicine but lacks standardized protocols that emulate physiologic feeding practices. Age impacts swallow function in humans but has not been evaluated by VFSS in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To develop a protocol with custom kennels designed to allow free-feeding of 3 optimized formulations of contrast media and diets that address limitations of current VFSS protocols...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208707/gaitkeeper-a-system-for-measuring-canine-gait
#5
Cassim Ladha, Jack O'Sullivan, Zoe Belshaw, Lucy Asher
It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs' gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195641/clinical-pathology-of-amphibians-a-review
#6
REVIEW
María J Forzán, Jill Heatley, Karen E Russell, Barbara Horney
Amphibian declines and extinctions have worsened in the last 2 decades. Partly because one of the main causes of the declines is infectious disease, veterinary professionals have increasingly become involved in amphibian research, captive husbandry, and management. Health evaluation of amphibians, free-living or captive, can benefit from employing the tools of clinical pathology, something that is commonly used in veterinary medicine of other vertebrates. The present review compiles what is known of amphibian clinical pathology emphasizing knowledge that may assist with the interpretation of laboratory results, provides diagnostic recommendations for common amphibian diseases, and includes RIs for a few amphibian species estimated based on peer-reviewed studies...
February 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195249/building-blocks-of-the-gipu-italian-group-of-ultrastructural-pathology
#7
V Papa, R Costa, G Cenacchi
The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis...
June 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#8
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188396/how-to-obtain-good-morphology-and-antigen-detection-in-the-same-tissue-section
#9
Daša Zupančič, Marjeta Terčelj, Bojan Štrus, Peter Veranič
Most human and animal biopsy samples are routinely embedded in paraffin since this enables the pathologist or researcher to obtain excellent morphology and simplifies storage. Nevertheless, in many cases, the antigen of interest cannot be detected in paraffin section. The alternative available for good immunohistochemistry is preparation of cryosections, which usually provide decent antigen preservation and are frequently used for immunofluorescence. However, cryosections often do not provide efficient morphological details of tissues and cells for pathologic evaluation...
February 10, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178899/recognizing-and-reducing-analytical-errors-and-sources-of-variation-in-clinical-pathology-data-in-safety-assessment-studies
#10
A E Schultze, A R Irizarry
Veterinary clinical pathologists are well positioned via education and training to assist in investigations of unexpected results or increased variation in clinical pathology data. Errors in testing and unexpected variability in clinical pathology data are sometimes referred to as "laboratory errors." These alterations may occur in the preanalytical, analytical, or postanalytical phases of studies. Most of the errors or variability in clinical pathology data occur in the preanalytical or postanalytical phases...
February 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173801/cryptococcus-gattii-molecular-type-vgii-infection-associated-with-lung-disease-in-a-goat
#11
Evelin Catarine da Silva, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Luciana Neves Torres, Alessandra Maria Dias Lacerda, Raquel Gonçalves Gomes, Danilo Marin Rodrigues, Rodrigo Albergaria Réssio, Priscilla Anne Melville, Camila Cecilia Martin, Fernando José Benesi, Lílian Rose Marques de Sá, Bruno Cogliati
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals with worldwide distribution and public health importance due to its significant morbidity and mortality rate. The present study aimed to report a case of pulmonary infection by C. gattii molecular type VGII in State of São Paulo, Brazil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old goat showing intermittent dry cough, ruminal tympany, anorexia, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea was presented for necropsy at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil...
February 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156189/feline-glioma-a-retrospective-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Daniel R Rissi, Andrew D Miller
Case series summary This study aimed to evaluate the pathologic and diagnostic features of 13 cases of feline glioma diagnosed at two veterinary diagnostic institutions over 16 years. A retrospective search was conducted using the laboratory information system. Selected cases were reviewed, tumors were classified according to the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, and tissue sections were submitted to an immunohistochemistry panel for further characterization...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155296/paraquat-intoxication-and-associated-pathological-findings-in-three-dogs-in-south-africa
#13
June H Williams, Zandri Whitehead, Erna Van Wilpe
Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133788/50th-annual-conference-of-physiology-and-pathology-of-reproduction-and-42nd-mutual-conference-on-veterinary-and-human-reproductive-medicine-munich-germany-15th-17th-february-2017-50-jahrestagung-physiologie-und-pathologie-der-fortpflanzung-und-42-veterin%C3%A3-r
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130584/molecular-detection-of-kobuviruses-in-livestock-in-northern-ireland-and-the-republic-of-ireland
#15
P J Collins, Michael J McMenamy, Julie McClintock, Paula Lagan-Tregaskis, Lorna McCabe, Simon Doherty, Helen O'Shea, Michael Welsh, John McKillen
Kobuviruses have been detected in a wide range of mammals including cats, dogs, pigs, cattle, goats, sheep and bats. Kobuviruses have been detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic animals; however, the clinical significance of infection in animals is still unclear. To date, there is no information regarding kobuvirus prevalence in livestock in Ireland. This study reports the first detection of kobuviruses in pigs, bovines and ovines using quantitative PCR. In this study, mesenteric lymph node was collected from cattle (n = 57), pigs (n = 53) and sheep (n = 50) from farms in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, from animals which had been submitted by private veterinary practitioners from 2009 to 2011 for routine post mortem and clinico-pathological examination...
January 27, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127363/anti-inflammatory-potentials-of-excretory-secretory-es-and-somatic-products-of-marshallagia-marshalli-on-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Sima Parande Shirvan, Hassan Borji, Ahmadreza Movassaghi, Mohammadreza Khakzad, Hamidreza Farzin, Mohsen Maleki, Alireza Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Inverse relationship between helminths infection and immune-mediated diseases has inspired researchers to investigate therapeutic potential of helminths in allergic asthma. Helminth unique ability to induce immunoregulatory responses has already been documented in several experimental studies. This study was designed to investigate whether excretory/secretory (ES) and somatic products of Marshallagia marshalli modulate the development of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119162/forensic-aspects-of-incised-wounds-and-bruises-in-pigs-established-post-mortem
#17
Kristiane Barington, Henrik Elvang Jensen
Recognizing post-mortem (PM) changes is of crucial importance in veterinary forensic pathology. In porcine wounds established PM contradicting observations regarding infiltration of leukocytes have been described. In the present study, skin, subcutis and muscle tissue sampled from experimental pigs with PM incised wounds (n=8), PM bruises (n=8) and no lesions, i.e. controls (n=4), were examined for signs of vitality over time. All tissue samples were subjected to gross and histopathological evaluation. Hemorrhages were present along the edges of PM incised wounds but deposits of fibrin were never observed...
January 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113035/aerosol-generation-during-bone-sawing-procedures-in-veterinary-autopsies
#18
L Wenner, U Pauli, K Summermatter, H Gantenbein, B Vidondo, H Posthaus
Bone-sawing procedures are routinely performed during veterinary and human autopsies and represent an important source for infectious aerosols. Here we investigate the generation of aerosols during bone-sawing procedures using 5 different saws regularly used in veterinary and human pathology. In particular, the electrical bone band saw produced vast amounts of aerosolized particles less than 5 µm in diameter, which spread rapidly throughout the entire autopsy hall, leading to an exposure of all personnel. Other sawing devices tested were a diamond-coated cut grinder, an oscillating saw, a reciprocating saw, and a hand bone saw...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110374/morphological-description-of-limbal-epithelium-searching-for-stem-cells-crypts-in-the-dog-cat-pig-cow-sheep-and-horse
#19
M Patruno, A Perazzi, T Martinello, A Blaseotto, E Di Iorio, I Iacopetti
The cornea provides protection and transparency to the eye, allowing an optimal sharpness view. In some pathological conditions the cornea is able to regenerate thanks to the presence of a stem cells reservoir present at the level of the transition area between cornea and sclera (limbus). Corneal cell therapies in Veterinary Medicine are really limited due to the lacking of knowledge about the anatomy of the limbal area, the putative presence of stem cells and their identification in domestic species. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the main distinctive structural features of the sclero-corneal junction and conjunctival-corneal junction areas in some species of veterinary importance, using optic microscope observations of histological sections...
January 21, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#20
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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