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Jason Miska, Aida Rashidi, Alan L Chang, Megan E Muroski, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Maciej S Lesniak
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potently immunosuppressive cells that accumulate within the glioma microenvironment. The reduction in their function and/or trafficking has been previously shown to enhance survival in preclinical models of glioma. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a tumor necrosis factor superfamily receptor enriched on Tregs that has shown promise as a target for immunotherapy. An agonistic antibody against GITR has been demonstrated to inhibit Tregs in a number of models and has only been recently addressed in glioma...
October 12, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Lance W Peterson, Naomi H Philip, Christopher P Dillon, John Bertin, Peter J Gough, Douglas R Green, Igor E Brodsky
Innate immune responses that are crucial for control of infection are often targeted by microbial pathogens. Blockade of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ inhibits cytokine production by innate immune cells but also triggers cell death. This cell death requires RIPK1 kinase activity and caspase-8, which are engaged by TLR4 and the adaptor protein TRIF. Nevertheless, TLR4- and TRIF-deficient cells undergo significant apoptosis, implicating TLR4/TRIF-independent pathways in the death of Yersinia-infected cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Stephanie T Chan, Jiyoung Lee, Mansi Narula, J-H James Ou
: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an important adapter molecule that mediates the TNFR family and interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) signaling cascades. These pathways are important for the host to control viral infections. In this report, we demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) depleted TRAF6 from its host cells through a post-translational mechanism. This depletion was independent of proteasomes, as it was not affected by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, but it was suppressed by bafilomycin A1, which led to the association of TRAF6 with autophagosomes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Wei Hseun Yeap, Kok Loon Wong, Noriko Shimasaki, Esmeralda Chi Yuan Teo, Jeffrey Kim Siang Quek, Hao Xiang Yong, Colin Phipps Diong, Antonio Bertoletti, Yeh Ching Linn, Siew Cheng Wong
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is exerted by immune cells expressing surface Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) against cells coated with antibody, such as virus-infected or transformed cells. CD16, the FcγRIIIA, is essential for ADCC by NK cells, and is also expressed by a subset of human blood monocytes. We found that human CD16- expressing monocytes have a broad spectrum of ADCC capacities and can kill cancer cell lines, primary leukemic cells and hepatitis B virus-infected cells in the presence of specific antibodies...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xi Xie, Fen Li, Jinwei Chen, Jiesheng Gao, Fanggen Lu
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of TNFRSF1B +676 gene (rs1061622) polymorphism with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA ) in Han Chinese population of Hunan. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with RA from Han Chinese population in Hunan were recruited, along with 129 healthy controls. TNFRSF1B +676 (rs1061622) gene polymorphisms were examined by PCR-RFLP. Serum levels of soluble TNFR II were analyzed by ELISA. RESULTS: RA patients displayed a similar TNFRSF1B +676 genotype to controls (GG/TG/TT: 5/62/45 vs 9/56/64, P=0...
September 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Vanessa Popp, Katharina Gerlach, Stefanie Mott, Agnieszka Turowska, Holger Garn, Raja Atreya, Hans-Anton Lehr, I-Cheng Ho, Harald Renz, Benno Weigmann, Markus F Neurath
BACKGROUND & AIMS: GATA3 is a transcription factor that regulates T-cell production of cytokines. We investigated the role of GATA3 in development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence analyses of colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (n= 61) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n= 74), or patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (n= 22), to measure levels of GATA3. Colitis was induced by administration of oxazolone or 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to control mice, mice with T-cell specific deletion of GATA3, and mice with deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2 (TNFR double knockouts); some mice were given a GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) or a control DNAzyme via intrarectal administration, or systemic injections of an antibody to TNF prior or during sensitization and challenge phase of colitis induction...
September 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Lisa Schlicher, Ulrich Maurer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
Tetiana Kochubei, Volodymyr Kitam, Oksana Maksymchuk, Oksana Piven, Lybov Lukash
Leukoagglutinin is one of the phytohemagglutinin isolectins isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris. In our recentl study we showed that this lectin is able to influence the growth of human cancer cells in vitro. In additon, using the acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, we found that leukoagglutinin can induce apoptosis. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of induction of apoptosis, we performed computational modeling with subsequent experimental verification of theoretical data in vitro. We developed computational models of leukoagglutinin interaction with pro-apoptotic (FasR and TNFR) and anti-apoptotic (IGF-1 and EGFR) receptors, and confirmed that leukoagglutinin may specifically interact with these receptors...
September 15, 2016: Cell Biology International
Li Xia He, Xiaoyun Tong, Jing Zeng, Yuanqing Tu, Saicun Wu, Manping Li, Huaming Deng, Miaomiao Zhu, Xiucun Li, Hong Nie, Li Yang, Feng Huang
In this work, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol (PAE) in LPS-activated N9 microglia cells, as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms. PAE had no adverse effect on the viability of murine microglia N9 cell line within a broad range (0.12∼75 μM). When N9 cell line was activated by LPS, PAE (0.6, 3, 15 μM) significantly suppressed the release of proinflammatory products, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), demonstrated by the ELISA assay...
September 13, 2016: Inflammation
Wenjun Yan, Aihao Ding, Ha-Jeong Kim, Hua Zheng, Fang Wei, Xiaojing Ma
Progranulin (PGRN) is a widely expressed, pleiotropic protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular proliferation, neuron development, and wound healing. However, the role of PGRN in the regulation of pathogen-induced systemic inflammation and the mechanisms involved have not been established. In this study, we show that PGRN-deficient mice display heightened mortality in models of polymicrobial sepsis and endotoxinemia, with increased tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and reduced IL-10 production...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xinyu Liu, Hong Zhou, Xueqin Huang, Jingjing Cui, Tianzhen Long, Yang Xu, Haipeng Liu, Ruoxuan Yu, Rongchuan Zhao, Guangping Luo, Anliang Huang, Joshua G Liang, Peng Liang
Two heterodimeric receptors consisting of either IL-20R1 or IL-22R1 in complex with a common β receptor subunit IL-20R2 are shared by three of the IL-20 family of cytokines: IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. These proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. Although mAbs against IL-19 and IL-20 have each been shown to modulate disease severity of collagen-induced arthritis in animal models, and anti-IL-20 therapeutic Ab has exhibited some efficacy in the treatment of RA in clinical trials, benefits for a complete blockade of these functionally redundant cytokines remain to be explored...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Shrikant R Mulay, Jonathan N Eberhard, Jyaysi Desai, Julian A Marschner, Santhosh V R Kumar, Marc Weidenbusch, Melissa Grigorescu, Maciej Lech, Nuru Eltrich, Lisa Müller, Wolfgang Hans, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Volker Vielhauer, Bernd Hoppe, John Asplin, Nicolai Burzlaff, Martin Herrmann, Andrew Evan, Hans-Joachim Anders
Intrarenal crystals trigger inflammation and renal cell necroptosis, processes that involve TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TNFRs also have a direct role in tubular crystal deposition and progression of hyperoxaluria-related CKD. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed upregulated tubular expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in human and murine kidneys with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrocalcinosis-related CKD compared with controls. Western blot and mRNA expression analyses in mice yielded consistent data...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Xiu Fen Liu, Laiman Xiang, Qi Zhou, Jean-Philippe Carralot, Marco Prunotto, Gerhard Niederfellner, Ira Pastan
RG7787 is a mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin designed to have low-immunogenicity, high-cytotoxic activity and fewer side effects. RG7787 kills many types of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells lines and causes tumor regressions in mice. Safety and immunogenicity of RG7787 is now being assessed in a phase I trial. To enhance the antitumor activity of RG7787, we screened for clinically used drugs that can synergize with RG7787. Actinomycin D is a potent transcription inhibitor that is used for treating several cancers...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tariq Hamid, Yuanyuan Xu, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Qianhong Li, Steven P Jones, Aruni Bhatnagar, Roberto Bolli, Sumanth D Prabhu
Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shogo Kuwagata, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Shinichi Araki, Jun Nakazawa, Takeshi Sugaya, Daisuke Koya, Masakazu Haneda, Hiroshi Maegawa, Takashi Uzu
Hypoxia causes proximal tubular cell damage in diabetes, even though proximal tubular cells have an adaptive system to combat hypoxia involving induction of hypoxia factor-1 (HIF-1) and inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Here, we examined the interference effect of altered glucose and lipid metabolism on the hypoxia responses in proximal tubular cells. In culture, hypoxia alone induced HIF-1 and inhibited mTORC1, preventing death in proximal tubular cells. However, hypoxia with high glucose and palmitate increased mTORC1 activity and promoted apoptosis in proximal tubular cells, which was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic inactivation of mTORC1...
August 30, 2016: Kidney International
Wan-Wei Sun, Xin-Xu Zhang, Wei-Song Wan, Shu-Qi Wang, Xiao-Bo Wen, Huai-Ping Zheng, Yue-Ling Zhang, Sheng-Kang Li
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. The full-length 2492 bp TRAF6 (Sp-TRAF6) from Scylla paramamosain contains 1800 bp of open reading frame (ORF) encoding 598 amino acids, including an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger, two TRAF-type zinc fingers and a conserved C-terminal meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain...
August 28, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Seshiru Nakazawa, Daisuke Oikawa, Ryohei Ishii, Takashi Ayaki, Hirotaka Takahashi, Hiroyuki Takeda, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Kiyoko Kamei, Izumi Takeyoshi, Hideshi Kawakami, Kazuhiro Iwai, Izuho Hatada, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Hidefumi Ito, Osamu Nureki, Fuminori Tokunaga
Optineurin (OPTN) mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and glaucoma. Although the ALS-associated E478G mutation in the UBAN domain of OPTN reportedly abolishes its NF-κB suppressive activity, the precise molecular basis in ALS pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here we report that the OPTN-UBAN domain is crucial for NF-κB suppression. Our crystal structure analysis reveals that OPTN-UBAN binds linear ubiquitin with homology to NEMO. TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation is enhanced in OPTN-knockout cells, through increased ubiquitination and association of TNF receptor (TNFR) complex I components...
2016: Nature Communications
S D Quistad, N Traylor-Knowles
The evolution of the tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNF/TNFR) is complicated and not well understood. To date, most TNFR studies have focused on vertebrate models leaving the role of TNFRs in invertebrates largely unexplored. The evolution of important cellular processes including stress response, apoptosis, development, and inflammation will be better understood by examining the TNF/TNFR superfamily in ancient invertebrate phyla. How widespread is this gene family within the evolutionary tree of life and is there evidence for similar function in invertebrates? A first step is to identify the presence or absence of these genes within basal metazoan taxa using the signature cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the TNFR superfamily...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Mha van Attekum, S Terpstra, E Reinen, A P Kater, E Eldering
Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is mainly driven by interactions within the lymph node (LN) microenvironment with bystander cells such as T cells or cells from the monocytic lineage. Although the survival effect by T cells is largely governed by the TNFR ligand family member CD40L, the exact mechanism of monocyte-derived cell-induced survival is not known. An important role has been attributed to the TNFR ligand, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), although the exact mechanism remained unclear...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Savita Devi, Suhail A Ansari, Shivendra Tenguria, Naveen Kumar, Niyaz Ahmed
Helicobacter pylori portrays a classical paradigm of persistent bacterial infections. A well balanced homeostasis of bacterial effector functions and host responses is purported to be the key in achieving long term colonization in specific hosts. H. pylori nucleases have been shown to assist in natural transformation, but their role in virulence and colonization remains elusive. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the involvement of these nucleases in the pathogenesis of H. pylori Here, we report the multifaceted role of a TNFR-1 interacting endonuclease A (TieA) from H...
August 22, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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