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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455936/engineering-a-clinically-translatable-bioartificial-pancreas-to-treat-type-i-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Gorka Orive, Dwaine Emerich, Ali Khademhosseini, Shinichi Matsumoto, R M Hernández, J L Pedraz, Tejal Desai, Riccardo Calafiore, Paul de Vos
Encapsulating, or immunoisolating, insulin-secreting cells within implantable, semipermeable membranes is an emerging treatment for type 1 diabetes. This approach can eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drug treatments to prevent transplant rejection and overcome the shortage of donor tissues by utilizing cells derived from allogeneic or xenogeneic sources. Encapsulation device designs are being optimized alongside the development of clinically viable, replenishable, insulin-producing stem cells, for the first time creating the possibility of widespread therapeutic use of this technology...
February 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452273/3d-bioprinted-functional-and-contractile-cardiac-tissue-constructs
#2
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447397/barriers-and-facilitators-of-diabetes-services-in-nepal-a-qualitative-evaluation
#3
Nicole Ide, James P LoGerfo, Biraj Karmacharya
For the past three decades, the burden of diabetes in Nepal has been steadily increasing, with an estimated 3% annual increase since the year 2000. Although the burden is increasing, the methods of addressing the challenge have remained largely unchanged. This study sought to assess the current state of diabetes services provided by health facilities and to identify the major barriers that people with diabetes commonly face in Nepal. For this qualitative study, we selected five health facilities of varying levels and locations...
February 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446459/the-challenge-of-converting-gram-positive-only-compounds-into-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#4
REVIEW
Michelle F Richter, Paul J Hergenrother
Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are on the rise, and there is a lack of new classes of drugs to treat these pathogens. This drug shortage is largely due to the challenge of finding antibiotics that can permeate and persist inside Gram-negative species. Efforts to understand the molecular properties that enable certain compounds to accumulate in Gram-negative bacteria based on retrospective studies of known antibiotics have not been generally actionable in the development of new antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446104/heparin-mimetics-with-anticoagulant-activity
#5
REVIEW
Abdullah Al Nahain, Vera Ignjatovic, Paul Monagle, John Tsanaktsidis, Vito Ferro
Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the glycosaminoglycan family, has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug for decades and remains the most commonly used parenteral anticoagulant in adults and children. However, heparin has important clinical limitations and is derived from animal sources which pose significant safety and supply problems. The ever growing shortage of the raw material for heparin manufacturing may become a very significant issue in the future. These global limitations have prompted much research, especially following the recent well-publicized contamination scandal, into the development of alternative anticoagulants derived from non-animal and/or totally synthetic sources that mimic the structural features and properties of heparin...
February 15, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441986/caspofungin-infusion-solutions-50-mg-100-ml-chemical-stability-and-antifungal-activity-against-candida-spp
#6
N Pinder, L H Pelzl, G Walther, J Backhaus, O Kurzai, T Hoppe-Tichy
BACKGROUND: Ready to use caspofungin infusion bags are centrally prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital of Heidelberg, for economic reasons and possibly occurring problems with drug shortages. The aim of this study was a quality control of the in-house preparation of caspofungin infusion bags and the preparation process. Caspofungin concentration with regard to chemical stability and antifungal activity of caspofungin preparations were defined as quality parameters. METHODS: Three caspofungin infusion bags (50 mg in 100 mL 0...
April 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434311/directed-differentiation-of-adult-liver-derived-mesenchymal-like-stem-cells-into-functional-hepatocytes
#7
Xiaobei Luo, Kapish Gupta, Abhishek Ananthanarayanan, Zenan Wang, Lei Xia, Aimin Li, Rashidah Binte Sakban, Side Liu, Hanry Yu
Shortage of functional hepatocytes hampers drug safety testing and therapeutic applications because mature hepatocytes cannot be expanded and maintain functions in vitro. Recent studies have reported that liver progenitor cells can originate from mature hepatocytes in vivo. Derivation of proliferating progenitor cells from mature hepatocytes, and re-differentiation into functional hepatocytes in vitro has not been successful. Here we report the derivation of novel mesenchymal-like stem cells (arHMSCs) from adult rat hepatocytes...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420758/moulds-associated-with-contaminated-ocular-and-injectable-drugs-fda-recalls-epidemiology-considerations-drug-shortages-and-aseptic-processing
#8
Donald G Ahearn, R Doyle Stulting
Recent (2012) grave but rare outbreaks of fungal meningitis and endophthalmitis associated with drugs contaminated with select environmental moulds (Exserohilum and Fusarium, respectively) have exacerbated mycology concerns for formulation, good laboratory practices (GLP), and use of the final drug product. Intensified investigations (2013-2015) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that included added responsibilities for specialty compounding laboratories have prompted at least nine voluntary mould-related drug recalls during 2014-2015...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415493/interplay-between-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-resistance-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stressors
#9
REVIEW
Milan Hano, Lenka Tomášová, Mário Šereš, Lucia Pavlíková, Albert Breier, Zdena Sulová
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenotype of cancer cells with reduced sensitivity to a wide range of unrelated drugs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-a drug efflux pump (ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter gene family)-is frequently observed to be a molecular cause of MDR. The drug-efflux activity of P-gp is considered as the underlying mechanism of drug resistance against P-gp substrates and results in failure of cancer chemotherapy. Several pathological impulses such as shortages of oxygen and glucose supply, alterations of calcium storage mechanisms and/or processes of protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to ER stress (ERS), characterized by elevation of unfolded protein cell content and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409456/task-shifting-in-active-management-of-the-third-stage-of-labor-a-systematic-review
#10
Tessa M Raams, Joyce L Browne, Verena J M M Festen-Schrier, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Marcus J Rijken
BACKGROUND: Active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL) describes interventions with the common goal to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In low- and middle-income countries, implementation of AMTSL is hampered by shortage of skilled birth attendants and a high percentage of home deliveries. Task shifting of specific AMTSL components to unskilled birth attendants or self-administration could be a strategy to increase access to potentially life-saving interventions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect, acceptance and safety of task shifting of specific aspects of AMTSL to unskilled birth attendants...
February 6, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377607/immunosuppressants-produced-by-streptomycetes-evolution-hygiene-hypothesis-tumor-rapalog-resistance-and-probiotics
#11
Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
Resistance to a drug and the suppression of inflammatory disorders with immunosuppressive drugs might have happened upon exposure to natural compounds during evolution. Streptomycetes are soil bacteria, but they produce therapeutic drugs. They have been reported to be the low-abundant members of mucosal microbiomes with a higher prevalence in nonhumans ingesting soil compared to humans. Their lower abundance in the human microbiome might be the representations of our current hygienic lifestyle. We suggest that the Streptomyces bacteria producing antiproliferative/immunosuppressive compounds (e...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374778/respiratory-deficiency-in-yeast-mevalonate-kinase-deficient-may-explain-mkd-associate-metabolic-disorder-in-humans
#12
Manuella Maria Silva Santos, Carolina Elsztein, Rafael Barros De Souza, Sérgio de Sá Leitão Paiva, Jaqueline Azevêdo Silva, Sergio Crovella, Marcos Antonio De Morais
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) an orphan drug rare disease affecting humans with different clinical presentations, is still lacking information about its pathogenesis; no animal or cell model mimicking the genetic defect, mutations at MVK gene, and its consequences on the mevalonate pathway is available. Trying to clarify the effects of MVK gene impairment on the mevalonate pathway we used a yeast model, the erg12-d mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (orthologous of MKV) retaining only 10% of mevalonate kinase (MK) activity, to describe the effects of reduced MK activity on the mevalonate pathway...
January 27, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373989/effectiveness-and-safety-of-bifidobacteria-and-berberine-in-people-with-hyperglycemia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Jie Ming, Shaoyong Xu, Chun Liu, Xiangyang Liu, Aihua Jia, Qiuhe Ji
BACKGROUND: Berberine is one of the most important examples of a Chinese traditional medicine that has hypoglycemic effects but there have been no randomized controlled trials of the drug in a larger sample. In addition, the use of probiotic biotherapy to maintain an appropriate intestinal flora may represent an effective early intervention for hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, there has been a shortage of relevant research on this possibility at the population level. This study was designed to determine the hypoglycemic effect and safety of both bifidobacteria and berberine administration to newly diagnosed patients with pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus...
January 26, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371499/diversity-of-cell-wall-related-proteins-in-human-pathogenic-fungi
#14
Anna Muszewska, Sebastian Piłsyk, Urszula Perlińska-Lenart, Joanna S Kruszewska
The cell wall is one of the major keys to fungal identity. Fungi use their cell wall to sense the environment, and localize nutrients and competing microorganism. Pathogenic species additionally modify their cell walls to hide from a host's immune system. With the growing number of fungal infections and alarming shortage of available drugs, we are in need of new approaches to fight pathogens. The cell wall seems to be a natural target, since animal host cells are devoid of it. The current knowledge about fungal cell wall components is often limited, and there is huge diversity both in structure and composition between species...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370798/barriers-and-prospects-of-india-s-conditional-cash-transfer-program-to-promote-institutional-delivery-care-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-supply-side-perspectives
#15
Adyya Gupta, Jasmine Fledderjohann, Hanimi Reddy, V R Raman, David Stuckler, Sukumar Vellakkal
BACKGROUND: Under the National Health Mission (NHM) of India, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) offers conditional cash transfer and support services to pregnant women to use institutional delivery care facilities. This study aims to understand community health workers' (ASHAs) and program officials' perceptions regarding barriers to and prospects for the uptake of facilities offered under the JSY. METHODS: Fifty in-depth interviews of a purposively selected sample of ASHAs (n = 12), members of Village Health and Sanitation Committees (n = 11), and officials at different tiers of healthcare facilities (n = 27) were conducted in three Indian states...
January 25, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367410/impact-of-the-financial-crisis-on-copd-burden-greece-as-a-case-study
#16
Ourania S Kotsiou, Spyridon Zouridis, Marinos Kosmopoulos, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
Poverty and low socioeconomic status have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current financial crisis has forced millions back into poverty. Greece is one of the countries hit the hardest, and is in the middle of a deep ongoing collapse. There have been early reports stating the apparent effects of the Greek downturn on respiratory health. This review summarises the overall impact of the financial crisis on COPD burden throughout the period of economic downturn by analysing the case study of Greece...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367256/drug-shortages-derail-ccgs-budgets
#17
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365360/drug-shortages-effect-on-parenteral-nutrition-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Beverly Holcombe, Todd W Mattox, Steve Plogsted
Drug shortages continue to be a threat to the health and welfare of numerous patients in the United States. For patients who depend on parenteral nutrition (PN) for survival, these shortages pose an even greater threat. Almost 75% of active drug shortages are sterile injectables, which includes PN components. Providing PN therapy is particularly challenging for clinicians because this is a complex medication and may contain 40 or more individual ingredients, of which multiple components may simultaneously be in limited supply...
February 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298303/-every-day-they-keep-adding-new-tools-but-they-don-t-take-any-away-producing-indicators-for-intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-in-pregnancy-iptp-from-routine-data-in-kenya
#19
George Okello, Rene Gerrets, Scholastica Zakayo, Sassy Molyneux, Caroline Jones
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is part of a multi-pronged strategy aimed at preventing malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate to high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being formally adopted as a malaria prevention policy over a decade ago, IPTp coverage has remained low. Recent demands for action have incorporated calls to strengthen IPTp monitoring and evaluation systems, including the use of routine data, to measure coverage, track implementation and identify roadblocks to improving uptake...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297386/illness-recognition-decision-making-and-care-seeking-for-maternal-and-newborn-complications-a-qualitative-study-in-sarlahi-district-nepal
#20
Tsering P Lama, Subarna K Khatry, Joanne Katz, Steven C LeClerq, Luke C Mullany
BACKGROUND: Identification of maternal and newborn illness and the decision-making and subsequent care-seeking patterns are poorly understood in Nepal. We aimed to characterize the process and factors influencing recognition of complications, the decision-making process, and care-seeking behavior among families and communities who experienced a maternal complication, death, neonatal illness, or death in a rural setting of Nepal. METHODS: Thirty-two event narratives (six maternal/newborn deaths each and 10 maternal/newborn illnesses each) were collected using in-depth interviews and small group interviews...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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