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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#1
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937905/combined-orthodontic-and-surgical-treatment-in-a-8-years-old-patient-affected-by-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report
#2
Antonio Gracco, Giovanni Bruno, Alberto de Stefani, Rosario Marchese Ragona, Sergio Mazzoleni, Edoardo Stellini
An eight-years-old girl showed a restless sleep with snoring and severe apnea episodes, a mandibular retrognathia, mouth breathing, maxillary transverse discrepancy, mandibular transverse discrepancy, moderate crowding and anterior open-bite. The CBCT showed an anterior collapse of the epiglottis. The treatment consisted in a rapid palatal expansion, an epiglottoplasty and a reduction of the tongue base. Polysomnography revealed that apnea-hypopnea index improved from 21,8 episodes/hr at the baseline to 0,6 episodes/hr, average oxygen saturation from 96,5% to 98,1%, oxygen desaturation events from 23,4 episodes/hr to 1/hr...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937845/pharmacokinetics-of-beclomethasone-dipropionate-delivered-by-breath-actuated-inhaler-and-metered-dose-inhaler-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Calvin J Small, Michael Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Breath-actuated inhalers (BAIs) eliminate the need for hand-breath coordination required of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). This pharmacokinetic study compared systemic exposure following beclomethasone dipropionate delivery through BAI versus MDI. METHODS: This open-label, three-period crossover, single-dose study randomized healthy subjects aged 18-45 years (N = 72) to 1 of 6 treatment sequences containing beclomethasone dipropionate BAI 160 mcg (40 mcg/inhalation, 4 inhalations), beclomethasone dipropionate BAI 320 mcg (80 mcg/inhalation, 4 inhalations), and beclomethasone dipropionate MDI 320 mcg (80 mcg/inhalation, 4 inhalations)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937270/feasibility-of-free-breathing-lung-mri-for-radiotherapy-using-non-cartesian-k-space-acquisition-schemes
#4
Shivani Kumar, Robba Rai, Alto Stemmer, Sonal Josan, Lois Holloway, Shalini Vinod, Daniel Moses, Gary Liney
OBJECTIVES: To test a free breathing MRI protocol for anatomical and functional assessment during lung cancer radiotherapy by assessing two non-cartesian acquisition schemes based on a T1W 3D gradient recall echo sequence: (i) stack-of stars (StarVIBE) and (ii) spiral (SpiralVIBE) trajectories Methods: MR images on five healthy volunteers were acquired on a wide bore 3T scanner (Skyra, Siemens Healthcare). Anatomical image quality was assessed on: (1) free breathing (StarVIBE), (2) the standard clinical sequence (VIBE) acquired in a 20 second compliant breath-hold and (3) 20 second non-complaint breath-hold...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937266/statistical-analysis-of-adcs-and-clinical-biomarkers-in-detecting-acute-renal-transplant-rejection
#5
Elizabeth Hollis, Mohamed Shehata, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Mohammed Ghazal, Tarek Eldiasty, Michael Merchant, Andrew E Switala, Ayman El-Baz
OBJECTIVE: To determine which parameters are correlated with transplanted kidney status in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation and can be used for early assessment of acute renal rejection. METHODS: The study included 16 patients with stable renal allografts (Group 1) and 37 patients with rejected allografts (Group 2), determined by renal biopsy post transplantation. All patients' kidneys were evaluated using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), in which both clincal and MRI-derived biomarkers were integrated...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937021/optimized-high-dose-amoxicillin-proton-pump-inhibitor-dual-therapies-fail-to-achieve-high-cure-rates-in-china
#6
Jia-Li Hu, Jun Yang, Yin-Bin Zhou, Ping Li, Ran Han, Dian-Chun Fang
Background\Aim: Quadruple daily administration of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy achieves potent acid inhibition, and combined with amoxicillin, with its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, may be efficient for Helicobacter pylori eradication. We compared the efficacy of two optimized high-dose dual therapies with a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen for treating H. pylori infection. Rabeprazole dosages for H. pylori eradication were also evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Treatment-naive and H...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936952/-application-of-injection-test-in-confirming-the-ideal-position-of-esophageal-balloon-catheter
#7
Han Chen, Ming Xu, Yanlin Yang, Xuan He, Jianxin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of injection test which is used to locate esophageal balloon catheter. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. The patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to general intensive care unit (ICU) of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2015 and March 2017 were enrolled. The commercially available esophageal balloon catheter was modified to perform injection test...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936675/reconnection-to-mechanical-ventilation-for-1%C3%A2-h-after-a-successful-spontaneous-breathing-trial-reduces-reintubation-in-critically-ill-patients-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
M Mar Fernandez, Alejandro González-Castro, Monica Magret, M Teresa Bouza, Marcos Ibañez, Carolina García, Begoña Balerdi, Arantxa Mas, Vanesa Arauzo, José M Añón, Francisco Ruiz, José Ferreres, Roser Tomás, Marta Alabert, Ana Isabel Tizón, Susana Altaba, Noemi Llamas, Rafael Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous breathing trials (SBT) can be exhausting, but the preventive role of rest has never been studied. This study aimed to evaluate whether reconnection to mechanical ventilation (MV) for 1 h after the effort of a successful SBT could reduce the need for reintubation in critically ill patients. METHODS: Randomized multicenter trial conducted in 17 Spanish medical-surgical intensive care units (Oct 2013-Jan 2015). Patients under MV for longer than 12 h who fulfilled criteria for planned extubation were randomly allocated after a successful SBT to direct extubation (control group) or reconnection to the ventilator for a 1-h rest before extubation (rest group)...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935698/polysomnographic-phenotypes-and-their-cardiovascular-implications-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#9
Andrey V Zinchuk, Sangchoon Jeon, Brian B Koo, Xiting Yan, Dawn M Bravata, Li Qin, Bernardo J Selim, Kingman P Strohl, Nancy S Redeker, John Concato, Henry K Yaggi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a heterogeneous disorder, and improved understanding of physiologic phenotypes and their clinical implications is needed. We aimed to determine whether routine polysomnographic data can be used to identify OSA phenotypes (clusters) and to assess the associations between the phenotypes and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of a multisite, observational US Veteran (n=1247) cohort were performed...
September 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935227/physiotherapy-education-and-training-prior-to-upper-abdominal-surgery-is-memorable-and-has-high-treatment-fidelity-a-nested-mixed-methods-randomised-controlled-study
#10
Ianthe Boden, Doa El-Ansary, Nadia Zalucki, Iain K Robertson, Laura Browning, Elizabeth H Skinner, Linda Denehy
OBJECTIVES: To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. DESIGN: Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. SETTING: Tertiary Australian hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935225/heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-and-other-psychophysiological-procedures-as-important-elements-in-psychotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Paul Lehrer
Lang's distinction of psychophysiological, behavioral, and cognitive domains in psychological problems and therapies provides a useful heuristic for guiding psychotherapy. Much psychotherapy practice emphasizes the cognitive domain, but behavioral and psychophysiological interventions show at least equivalent effectiveness for some kinds of problems. Most descriptions of cognitive behavior therapy emphasize cognitive procedures, although most CBT approaches also incorporate behavioral interventions such as social skills training, exposure, and behavior activation...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935140/d-allulose-enhances-postprandial-fat-oxidation-in-healthy-humans
#12
Tomonori Kimura, Akane Kanasaki, Noriko Hayashi, Takako Yamada, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Kazuhiro Okuma
OBJECTIVE: d-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of d-fructose, has been reported to decrease body weight and adipose tissue weight in animal studies and is expected to be a potent antiobese sweetener. Our animal study suggested that one of the mechanisms of d-allulose's antiobesity function is an increase in energy expenditure. However, a few studies have thus far explored the underlying mechanism in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single ingestion of d-allulose on postprandial energy metabolism in healthy participants...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934545/antimicrobial-3d-porous-scaffolds-prepared-by-additive-manufacturing-and-breath-figures
#13
Nelson Vargas Alfredo, Ane Dorronsoro, Aitziber L Cortajarena, Juan Rodriguez-Hernandez
We describe herein a novel strategy for the fabrication of efficient 3D printed antibacterial scaffolds. For this purpose, both the surface topography as well as the chemical composition of 3D scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing were modified. The scaffolds were fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using high impact polystyrene (HIPS) filaments. The surface of the objects was then topographically modified providing materials with porous surfaces by means of the Breath Figures approach. The strategy involves the immersion of the scaffold in a polymer solution during a precise period of time...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934528/the-impact-of-altitude-on-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-dwelling-at-high-altitude-a-crossover-study
#14
Benjamin H Hughes, John T Brinton, David G Ingram, Ann C Halbower
Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among children and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Worldwide, approximately 250 million individuals reside at altitudes higher than 2000 meters above sea level (masl). The effect of chronic high-altitude exposure on children with SDB is unknown. This study aims to determine the impact of altitude on sleep study outcomes in children with SDB dwelling at high altitude. Methods: A single-center crossover study was performed to compare results of high-altitude home polysomnography (H-PSG) with lower altitude laboratory polysomnography (L-PSG) in school-age children dwelling at high altitude with symptoms consistent with SDB...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934522/effects-of-cannabinoid-agonists-and-antagonists-on-sleep-and-breathing-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Michael W Calik, David W Carley
Study Objectives: There are no pharmacological treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but dronabinol showed promise in a small pilot study. In anesthetized rats, dronabinol attenuates reflex apnea via activation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors located on vagal afferents; an effect blocked by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and/or type 2 (CB2) receptor antagonists. Here, using a natural model of central sleep apnea, we examine the effects of dronabinol, alone and in combination with selective antagonists in conscious rats chronically instrumented to stage sleep and measure cessation of breathing...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934187/respiratory-and-ocular-symptoms-among-employees-of-an-indoor-waterpark-resort-ohio-2016
#16
Sophia K Chiu, Nancy C Burton, Kevin H Dunn, Marie A de Perio
In July 2015, a municipal health department in Ohio received complaints of respiratory and ocular symptoms from patrons of an indoor waterpark resort. In response, the health department conducted an online survey in August 2015 through which 19 (68%) patron and employee respondents reported eye burning, nose irritation, difficulty breathing, and vomiting. On August 11, 2015, the health department requested a health hazard evaluation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to characterize the prevalence of symptoms among employees and determine the etiology of work-related symptoms...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933997/the-comfort-app-prototype-introducing-a-web-based-application-for-monitoring-comfort-in-palliative-care
#17
Sara Pinto, Filipe Almeida, Sílvia Caldeira, José Carlos Martins
AIM: To introduce a web-based application for monitoring comfort in patients receiving palliative care. METHODS: Multi-phase electronic application development process that concluded with a pilot design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed app (n=7 patients). RESULTS: The app is compatible with Android, iOS and Windows. The results from phases I and II provided the knowledge about monitoring comfort. In phase III, five experts analysed the content of the app...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933581/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-implications-for-dry-powder-inhalers
#18
Sohini Ghosh, Jill A Ohar, M Bradley Drummond
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with a significant economic burden related to hospital admissions for exacerbations. One of the primary treatment modalities for COPD is medications delivered through breath-actuated dry powdered inhalers (DPIs). For users to successfully receive inhaled medication, they must inhale with enough flow to overcome the internal resistance of the device, leading to deaggregation of the medication powder. Peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) is the maximal flow rate obtained during an inspiratory maneuver...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933338/impact-of-lubiprostone-on-gastric-emptying-profile-and-the-possible-effect-of-concomitant-domperidone-in-healthy-adults%C3%A2
#19
Takayuki Okamura, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Satoshi Kimura, Atsushi Miki, Koichiro Abe, Hiroto Kita
BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is effective for patients with chronic constipation. This agent sometimes causes upper gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, which is one of the chief reasons for discontinuation. However, the etiology of and strategy against bothersome gastrointestinal symptoms of lubiprostone remain unclear. AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of lubiprostone on the gastric-emptying profile of healthy adults. The effect of domperidone on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal symptoms after lubiprostone administration were also assessed...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932873/-interventional-catheter-treatment-of-tricuspid-valve-regurgitation
#20
REVIEW
T Wißt, F Kreidel, M Schlüter, K-H Kuck, C Frerker
BACKGROUND: The tricuspid valve can be considered the "forgotten" valve because in the past hardly any research has been conducted in this field and as a result only few therapeutic options existed. The prognosis of untreated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is poor and mortality is high for patients with severe TR. Patients frequently return to medical practices and hospitals because of cardiac decompensation, with shortness of breath and leg edema. OBJECTIVE: Recent years have seen more development in catheter-based treatment options...
September 20, 2017: Der Internist
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