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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820903/prominent-facilitation-at-beta-and-gamma-frequency-range-revealed-with-physiological-calcium-concentration-in-adult-mouse-piriform-cortex-in-vitro
#1
Marie Gleizes, Simon P Perrier, Caroline Fonta, Lionel G Nowak
Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820837/non-contrast-mr-lymphography-for-evaluation-of-lymph-node-transfer-for-secondary-upper-limb-lymphedema
#2
Lionel Arrivé, Sarah Derhy, Chrif Dlimi, Sanaa El Mouhadi, Laurence Monnier-Cholley, Corinne Becker
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to evaluate the results of axillary lymph node transplantation (LNT) with non-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography in 15 patients with secondary upper limb lymphedema. METHODS: Fifteen female patients with lymphedema following breast cancer treatment underwent LNT. Non-contrast MR lymphography was obtained with a free-breathing 3D fast spin-echo sequence. Images analysis criteria included: (A) before surgery: a) severity of lymphedema graded as absent, mild, moderate, and severe; b) involvement of the muscular compartment; c) distal dilated lymphatic vessels; (B) after surgery: a) visualization of site of transplantation; b) visualization of transplanted lymph nodes; c) severity of lymphedema with regard to pretransplantation severity (i...
August 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820662/the-impact-of-deep-muscle-training-on-the-quality-of-posture-and-breathing
#3
Elżbieta Szczygieł, Jędrzej Blaut, Katarzyna Zielonka-Pycka, Krzysztof Tomaszewski, Joanna Golec, Dorota Czechowska, Agata Masłoń, Edward Golec
Postural control and breathing are mechanically and neuromuscularly interdependent. Both systems- of spinal stability and respiration- involve the diaphragm, transversus abdominis, intercostal muscles, internal oblique muscles and pelvic floor muscles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercises activating deep stabilizer muscles on postural control and quality of breathing movements. Eighteen volunteers (25,7 ± 3,5) were recruited from the general population. All the subjects implemented an exercise program activating deep muscles...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820609/cardio-pulmonary-interactions-physiologic-basis-and-clinical-applications
#4
Michael R Pinsky
The hemodynamic effects of ventilation can be grouped into three concepts: 1) spontaneous ventilation is exercise; 2) changes in lung volume alter autonomic tone, pulmonary vascular resistance, and can compress the heart in the cardiac fossa; 3) spontaneous inspiratory efforts decrease intrathoracic pressure (ITP) increasing venous return and impeding left ventricular (LV) ejection; whereas positive pressure ventilation decreases venous return and unloads LV ejection. Spontaneous inspiratory efforts may induce acute LV failure and cardiogenic pulmonary edema...
August 18, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819793/the-mechanisms-underlying-the-production-of-discontinuous-gas-exchange-cycles-in-insects
#5
REVIEW
Philip G D Matthews
This review examines the control of gas exchange in insects, specifically examining what mechanisms could explain the emergence of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). DGCs are gas exchange patterns consisting of alternating breath-hold periods and bouts of gas exchange. While all insects are capable of displaying a continuous pattern of gas exchange, this episodic pattern is known to occur within only some groups of insects and then only sporadically or during certain phases of their life cycle. Investigations into DGCs have tended to emphasise the role of chemosensory thresholds in triggering spiracle opening as critical for producing these gas exchange patterns...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819762/separating-the-limbs-of-yoga-limited-effects-on-stress-and-mood
#6
Evangeline A Wheeler, Antonia N Santoro, Alicia F Bembenek
Though millions of people practice yoga to reduce stress and improve their mood, it is unclear which aspect of yoga is responsible for these effects. To investigate relevant aspects, or "limbs" of yoga, participants who were novices in the practice of yoga engaged in a single yoga manipulation (i.e., poses, breath work, meditation, or listening to a lecture about yoga) for 20 min before experiencing a mild stressor. Participants' heart rate, blood pressure, mood, and anxiety level were assessed, both immediately after the yoga manipulation and after the mild stressor...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819672/folding-sticky-elastica-dynamics-and-reversibility-of-folds-in-langmuir-monolayers
#7
L C Foucard, J M Eaton, M Dennin, Alex J Levine
Lipid monolayers at the air/water interface are often subject to large mechanical stresses when compressed laterally. For large enough compression they fold in the out-of-plane direction to relax stress. The repetitive folding and unfolding of lung surfactant monolayers during breathing plays a critical role in conserving monolayer material at the air/water interface lining the lung. Although the mechanisms behind the folding have been explored recently, relatively little information exists regarding the implications of folding dynamics on the long-term stability of the monolayer...
August 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819181/capnography-monitoring-the-hypoventilation-during-the-induction-of-bronchoscopic-sedation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ting-Yu Lin, Yueh-Fu Fang, Shih-Hao Huang, Tsai-Yu Wang, Chih-Hsi Kuo, Hau-Tieng Wu, Han-Pin Kuo, Yu-Lun Lo
We hypothesize that capnography could detect hypoventilation during induction of bronchoscopic sedation and starting bronchoscopy following hypoventilation, may decrease hypoxemia. Patients were randomized to: starting bronchoscopy when hypoventilation (hypopnea, two successive breaths of at least 50% reduction of the peak wave compared to baseline or apnea, no wave for 10 seconds) (Study group, n = 55), or when the Observer Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scale (OAAS) was less than 4 (Control group, n = 59)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819055/temperature-effects-on-the-cardiorespiratory-control-of-american-bullfrog-tadpoles-based-on-a-non-invasive-methodology
#9
Leonardo S Longhini, Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Temperature effects on cardiac autonomic tonus in amphibian larval stages have never been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 30°C) on the cardiorespiratory rates and cardiac autonomic tonus of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus To this end, a non-invasive method was developed to permit measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) and buccal movements (fB ; surface electromyography of the buccal floor). For evaluation of autonomic regulation, intraperitoneal injections of Ringer's solution (control), atropine (cholinergic muscarinic antagonist), and sotalol (β-adrenergic antagonist) were performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819004/acute-oxygen-sensing-by-the-carotid-body-from-mitochondria-to-plasma-membrane
#10
Andy J Chang
Maintaining oxygen homeostasis is crucial to the survival of animals. Mammals respond acutely to changes in blood oxygen levels by modulating cardiopulmonary function. The major sensor of blood oxygen that regulates breathing is the carotid body (CB), a small chemosensory organ located at the carotid bifurcation. When arterial blood oxygen levels drop in hypoxia, neuroendocrine cells in the CB called glomus cells are activated to signal to afferent nerves that project to the brainstem. The mechanism by which hypoxia stimulates CB sensory activity has been the subject of many studies over the last 90 years...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819003/skeletal-muscle-signaling-metabolism-and-performance-during-sprint-exercise-in-severe-acute-hypoxia-after-the-ingestion-of-antioxidants
#11
David Morales-Alamo, Borja Guerra, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Alfredo Santana, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Roser Cussó, Cecilia Dorado, Jose A L Calbet
The aim of this study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) could play a role in blunting Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise in hypoxia and to elucidate the potential signaling mechanisms responsible for this response. Nine volunteers performed a single 30s sprint (Wingate test) in two occasions while breathing hypoxic gas (PIO2=75 mmHg): one after the ingestion of placebo (P) and another following the intake of antioxidants (A) (α-lipoic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E), with a randomized double-blind design...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818839/do-electronic-cigarettes-increase-cigarette-smoking-in-uk-adolescents-evidence-from-a-12-month-prospective-study
#12
Mark Conner, Sarah Grogan, Ruth Simms-Ellis, Keira Flett, Bianca Sykes-Muskett, Lisa Cowap, Rebecca Lawton, Christopher J Armitage, David Meads, Carole Torgerson, Robert West, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional surveys, increasing numbers of adolescents report using both electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and cigarettes. This study assessed whether adolescent e-cigarette use was associated prospectively with initiation or escalation of cigarette use. METHODS: Data were from 2836 adolescents (aged 13-14 years at baseline) in 20 schools in England. At baseline, breath carbon monoxide levels, self-reported e-cigarette and cigarette use, sex, age, friends and family smoking, beliefs about cigarette use and percentage receiving free school meals (measure of socioeconomic status) were assessed...
August 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818510/breathing-mode-influence-on-craniofacial-development-and-head-posture
#13
Annel Chambi-Rocha, Maria Eugenia Cabrera-Domínguez, Antonia Domínguez-Reyes
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of abnormal breathing and its consequences on craniofacial development is increasing, and is not limited to children with adenoid faces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric differences in craniofacial structures and head posture between nasal breathing (NB) and oral breathing (OB) children and teenagers with a normal facial growth pattern. METHOD: Ninety-eight 7-16 year-old patients with a normal facial growth pattern were clinically and radiographically evaluated...
August 14, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818415/modifiable-lifestyle-risk-factors-and-incident-diabetes-in-african-americans
#14
Joshua J Joseph, Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Sameera A Talegawkar, Valery S Effoe, Victoria Okhomina, Mercedes R Carnethon, Willa A Hsueh, Sherita H Golden
INTRODUCTION: The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs. METHODS: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points)...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818179/multiple-trauma-and-emergency-room-management
#15
Michael Frink, Philipp Lechler, Florian Debus, Steffen Ruchholtz
BACKGROUND: The care of severely injured patients remains a challenge. Their initial treatment in the emergency room is the essential link between first aid in the field and definitive in-hospital treatment. METHODS: We present important elements of the initial in-hospital care of severely injured patients on the basis of pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the current German S3 guideline on the care of severely and multiply traumatized patients, which was last updated in 2016...
July 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818154/physiology-based-modeling-may-predict-surgical-treatment-outcome-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Yanru Li, Jingying Ye, Demin Han, Xin Cao, Xiu Ding, Yuhuan Zhang, Wen Xu, Jeremy Orr, Rachel Jen, Scott Sands, Atul Malhotra, Robert Owens
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To test whether the integration of both anatomical and nonanatomical parameters (ventilatory control, arousal threshold, muscle responsiveness) in a physiology-based model will improve the ability to predict outcomes after upper airway surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: In 31 patients who underwent upper airway surgery for OSA, loop gain and arousal threshold were calculated from preoperative polysomnography (PSG). Three models were compared: (1) a multiple regression based on an extensive list of PSG parameters alone; (2) a multivariate regression using PSG parameters plus PSG-derived estimates of loop gain, arousal threshold, and other trait surrogates; (3) a physiological model incorporating selected variables as surrogates of anatomical and nonanatomical traits important for OSA pathogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817480/revised-national-estimates-of-emergency-department-visits-for-sepsis-in-the-united-states
#17
Henry E Wang, Allison R Jones, John P Donnelly
OBJECTIVES: The emergency department is an important venue for initial sepsis recognition and care. We sought to determine contemporary estimates of the epidemiology of U.S. emergency department visits for sepsis. DESIGN: Analysis of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. SETTING: U.S. emergency department visits, 2009-2011. PATIENTS: Adult (age, ≥ 18 yr) emergency department sepsis patients...
September 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817381/advanced-radiation-dosimetry-phantom-ardos-a-versatile-breathing-phantom-for-4d-radiation-therapy-and-medical-imaging
#18
Natalia Kostiukhina, Dietmar Georg, Sofia Rollet, Peter Kuess, Andrej Sipaj, Piotr Andrzejewski, Hugo Furtado, Ivo Rausch, Wolfgang Lechner, Elisabeth Steiner, Hunor Kertesz, Barbara Knaeusl
A novel breathing phantom was designed for being used in conventional and ion-beam radiotherapy as well as for medical imaging. Accurate dose delivery and patient safety are aimed to be verified for four-dimensional (4D) treatment techniques compensating for breathing-induced tumor motion. The phantom includes anthropomorphic components representing an average human thorax. It consists of real tissue equivalent materials to fulfill the requirements for dosimetric experiments and imaging purposes. The different parts of the torso (lungs, chest wall, and ribs) and the tumor can move independently...
August 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817366/trajectory-of-dyspnea-and-respiratory-distress-among-patients-in-the-last-month-of-life
#19
Margaret L Campbell, Jason M Kiernan, John Strandmark, Hossein N Yarandi
BACKGROUND: The trajectory of dyspnea has been reported among patients approaching the end of life. However, patients near death have been dropped from longitudinal studies or excluded altogether because of an inability to self-report; proxy estimates have been reported. It is not known whether dyspnea or respiratory distress remains stable, escalates, or abates as patients reach last days. OBJECTIVE: Determine trajectory of dyspnea (self-reported) and respiratory distress (observed) among patients who were approaching death...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816307/quantum-cascade-lasers-qcls-in-biomedical-spectroscopy
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Schwaighofer, Markus Brandstetter, Bernhard Lendl
Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are the first room temperature semiconductor laser source for the mid-IR spectral region, triggering substantial development for the advancement of mid-IR spectroscopy. Mid-IR spectroscopy in general provides rapid, label-free and objective analysis, particularly important in the field of biomedical analysis. Due to their unique properties, QCLs offer new possibilities for development of analytical methods to enable quantification of clinically relevant concentration levels and to support medical diagnostics...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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