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Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927770/-pyomyositis-in-children-two-cases-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#1
F Gravot, J Hébert, A Robert-Dehault, R Bouttier, F Le Gall, G Blondin, P Vic
Pyomyositis is a term used to denote primary pyogenic infection of a skeletal muscle. It is a rare disease that was first described in immunodeficient patients living in tropical climates. Lately, however, cases involving healthy children have been described in temperate climates. The origin of primary pyomyositis remains unclear, although it is thought to be caused by seeding from transient bacteremia. Onset of disease is insidious, therefore necessitating rapid diagnosis to successfully select appropriate antibiotic therapy and avoid complications...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924032/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-d2c-contains-mutations-in-major-regulatory-pathways-that-cripple-its-pathogenesis
#2
William E Sause, Richard Copin, Aidan O'malley, Rita Chan, Brian J Morrow, Peter T Buckley, Jeffrey Fernandez, A Simon Lynch, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that imposes a great burden on the healthcare system. In the development of anti-staphylococcal modalities intended to reduce the burden of staphylococcal disease, it is imperative to select appropriate models of S. aureus strains when assessing the efficacy of novel agents. Here, using whole genome sequencing, we reveal that the commonly used strain Newman D2C from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) contains mutations that render the strain essentially avirulent...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923864/age-related-trends-in-adults-with-community-onset-bacteremia
#3
Ching-Chi Lee, Jiun-Ling Wang, Chung-Hsun Lee, Yuan-Pin Hung, Ming-Yuan Hong, Chia-Ming Chang, Wen-Chien Ko
To understand the epidemiological variation in bacteremia characteristics among differently aged populations, adults with community-onset bacteremia during a 6-year period were studied in a retrospective cohort. A total of 2,349 bacteremic patients were stratified into four age categories: young adults (18-44 years old; 196 patients, 8.3%), adults (45-64; 707, 30.1%), the elderly (65-84; 1,098, 46.7%), and the oldest old (≥ 85; 348, 14.8%). Age-related trends in critical illness (a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4) at bacteremia onset, antibiotic-resistant pathogens (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Proteus mirabilis [EKP]; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]; and levofloxacin non-susceptible EKP), inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy (EAT), and 4-week mortality rate were observed...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910576/impact-of-staphylococcus-aureus-regulatory-mutations-that-modulate-biofilm-formation-in-the-usa300-strain-lac-on-virulence-in-a-murine-bacteremia-model
#4
Joseph S Rom, Danielle N Atwood, Karen E Beenken, Daniel G Meeker, Allister J Loughran, Horace J Spencer, Tamara L Lantz, Mark S Smeltzer
Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic forms of infection, the latter often associated with formation of a biofilm. It has previously been demonstrated that mutation of atl, codY, rot, sarA, and sigB limits biofilm formation in the USA300 strain LAC while mutation of agr, fur, and mgrA has the opposite effect. Here we used a murine sepsis model to assess the impact of these same loci in acute infection. Mutation of agr, atl, and fur had no impact on virulence, while mutation of mgrA and rot increased virulence...
September 14, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#5
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893374/cell-differentiation-defines-acute-and-chronic-infection-cell-types-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Juan-Carlos García-Betancur, Angel Goñi-Moreno, Thomas Horger, Melanie Schott, Malvika Sharan, Julian Eikmeier, Barbara Wohlmuth, Alma Zernecke, Knut Ohlsen, Christina Kuttler, Daniel Lopez
A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878584/healthy-adolescent-with-a-mycotic-aortic-aneurysm-from-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Durga P Naidu, Jose A Quinones, Kenneth W Lutschg, Duraisamy Balaguru
Mycotic aneurysm after bacteremia is a rare diagnosis in children and adolescents. We report the case of a previously healthy adolescent who presented with chest pain and fever and who developed a mycotic aneurysm of the aorta after contracting community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Early recognition of widening of the patient's superior mediastinum, noted during a comparison of the patient's initial and follow-up chest radiographs, prompted computed tomographic angiography of the chest and led to a timely diagnosis, rapid surgical intervention, and a good clinical outcome...
August 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873140/association-of-evidence-based-care-processes-with-mortality-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-at-veterans-health-administration-hospitals-2003-2014
#8
Michihiko Goto, Marin L Schweizer, Mary S Vaughan-Sarrazin, Eli N Perencevich, Daniel J Livorsi, Daniel J Diekema, Kelly K Richardson, Brice F Beck, Bruce Alexander, Michael E Ohl
Importance: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is common and frequently associated with poor outcomes. Evidence indicates that specific care processes are associated with improved outcomes for patients with S aureus bacteremia, including appropriate antibiotic prescribing, use of echocardiography to identify endocarditis, and consultation with infectious diseases (ID) specialists. Whether use of these care processes has increased in routine care for S aureus bacteremia or whether use of these processes has led to large-scale improvements in survival is unknown...
September 5, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862321/expression-of-hla-dra-and-cd74-mrna-in-whole-blood-during-the-course-of-complicated-and-uncomplicated-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#9
Gunlög Rasmussen, Sara Cajander, Anders Bäckman, Jan Källman, Bo Söderquist, Kristoffer Strålin
In order to improve patient management in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is needed. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus bacteria induce a dose-dependent immunosuppression, in terms of reduced expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II on antigen presenting cells. Thus, we aimed to study if the expressions of the MHC class II-related genes HLA-DRA and CD74 are more reduced in complicated SAB, with probably higher loads of S...
September 1, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859468/clinical-and-microbiological-factors-associated-with-early-patient-mortality-from-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#10
Tark Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Ki-Ho Park, Kyung Mi Bang, Su-Jin Park, Sung-Han Kim, Jin-Yong Jeong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Jun Hee Woo, Yang Soo Kim
Background/Aims: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is a major bloodstream infection with a high mortality rate. Identification of factors associated with early mortality in MRSAB patients would be useful for predicting prognosis and developing new therapeutic options. Methods: A prospective cohort of MRSAB patients was examined between August 2008 and June 2011. Early and late mortality was defined as death within 2 and 28 days of blood culture, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858628/a-novel-recombinant-vaccine-candidate-comprising-pbp2a-and-autolysin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-confers-protection-in-the-experimental-mice
#11
Setareh Haghighat, Seyed Davar Siadat, Seyed Mehdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Mehdi Mahdavi
The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is a hot topic area in microbiology research. Here a novel vaccine candidate consisting of recombinant PBP2a and autolysin proteins were used. The proteins over expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3) cells, and purified by the Ni-NTA affinity column and conjugated using EDAC and ADH as a linker and spacer, respectively. To investigate the immunogenicity and protective effects of recombinant proteins, 5 and 20μg of proteins in various formulations were subcutaneously injected in different groups...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852678/the-risk-of-cardiac-device-related-infection-in-bacteremic-patients-is-species-specific-results-of-a-12-year-prospective-cohort
#12
Stacey A Maskarinec, Joshua T Thaden, Derek D Cyr, Felicia Ruffin, Maria Souli, Vance G Fowler
BACKGROUND: The species-specific risk of cardiac device-related infection (CDRI) among bacteremic patients is incompletely understood. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients from October 2002 to December 2014 with a cardiac device (CD) and either Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) or Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB). Cardiac devices were defined as either prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), including valvular support rings, permanent pacemakers (PPMs)/automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (AICDs), or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843943/evaluation-of-contact-precautions-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus
#13
Ana Cecilia Bardossy, Muhammad Yasser Alsafadi, Patricia Starr, Eman Chami, Jennifer Pietsch, Daniela Moreno, Laura Johnson, George Alangaden, Marcus Zervos, Katherine Reyes
BACKGROUND: There are limited controlled data demonstrating contact precautions (CPs) prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infections in endemic settings. We evaluated changes in hospital-acquired MRSA and VRE infections after discontinuing CPs for these organisms. METHODS: This is a retrospective study done at an 800-bed teaching hospital in urban Detroit. CPs for MRSA and VRE were discontinued hospital-wide in 2013...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841914/the-associations-between-socioeconomic-status-and-risk-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-and-subsequent-endocarditis-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#14
Louise Bruun Oestergaard, Michelle D Schmiegelow, Niels Eske Bruun, Robert L Skov, Andreas Petersen, Paal Skytt Andersen, Christian Torp-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in several countries. Since socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence the risk of infectious diseases in general, we aimed to investigate the association between SES and SAB, and risk of subsequent endocarditis in a nationwide adult population. METHODS: All Danish residents were consecutively included at age ≥ 30 years during 1996-2010. We obtained information on SES (highest attained educational level), comorbidities, and microbiologically verified SAB by cross-linking nationwide registries...
August 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831593/impact-of-rapid-diagnosis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-from-positive-blood-cultures-on-patient-management
#15
M P Romero-Gómez, E Cendejas-Bueno, J García Rodriguez, J Mingorance
We have performed a retrospective, before-after comparison of turnaround time and therapy adjustment parameters before and after the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) plus mecA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in positive blood cultures. There were 227 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia during the study periods. The pre-MALDI-TOF and post-MALDI-TOF groups included 133 and 94 patients, respectively...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818549/integration-of-dpc-and-clinical-microbiological-data-in-japan-reveals-importance-of-confirming-a-negative-follow-up-blood-culture-in-patients-with-mrsa-bacteremia
#16
Naoki Miyamoto, Koji Yahara, Rie Horita, Tomomi Yano, Naotaka Tashiro, Daiichi Morii, Atsuko Tsutsui, Kenichiro Yaita, Keigo Shibayama, Hiroshi Watanabe
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is one of the commonest and most life-threatening of all infectious diseases. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with MRSA bacteremia are higher than those associated with bacteremia caused by other pathogens. A common guideline in MRSA bacteremia treatment is to confirm bacteremia clearance through additional blood cultures 2-4 days after initial positive cultures and as needed thereafter. However, no study has presented statistical evidence of how and to what extent confirming a negative follow-up blood culture impacts clinical outcome...
October 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814278/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-endophthalmitis-in-chronic-dialysis-patients-a-13-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-taiwan
#17
George Kuo, Yueh-An Lu, Wei-Chiao Sun, Chao-Yu Chen, Huang-Kai Kao, YuJr Lin, Chia-Hui Lee, Cheng-Chieh Hung, Ya-Chung Tian, Hsiang-Hao Hsu
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection leading to disabling outcome. Because there were only a few case report illustrating endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient, we would like to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We searched the health information system in the study hospital with ICD9 encoding endophthalmitis during Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2015...
August 16, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807042/incidence-prevalence-and-management-of-mrsa-bacteremia-across-patient-populations-a-review-of-recent-developments-in-mrsa-management-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Ali Hassoun, Peter K Linden, Bruce Friedman
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is still a major global healthcare problem. Of concern is S. aureus bacteremia, which exhibits high rates of morbidity and mortality and can cause metastatic or complicated infections such as infective endocarditis or sepsis. MRSA is responsible for most global S. aureus bacteremia cases, and compared with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, MRSA infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. S. aureus virulence is affected by the unique combination of toxin and immune-modulatory gene products, which may differ by geographic location and healthcare- or community-associated acquisition...
August 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806902/monitoring-documenting-and-reporting-the-quality-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-netherlands-a-pilot-study-to-establish-a-national-antimicrobial-stewardship-registry
#19
Marvin Ah Berrevoets, Jaap Ten Oever, Tom Sprong, Reinier M van Hest, Ingeborg Groothuis, Inger van Heijl, Jeroen A Schouten, Marlies E Hulscher, Bart-Jan Kullberg
BACKGROUND: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the quality of antibiotic use are monitored by antimicrobial stewardship teams (A-teams) and can be used as indicators for the stewardship registry. In this pilot study we aimed to determine which stewardship objectives are eligible for the envisioned registry...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797646/spinal-epidural-abscess-a-series-of-101-cases
#20
Martin Vakili, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
BACKGROUND: Spinal epidural abscesses are uncommon but potentially devastating infections that often elude early diagnosis. An increasing incidence has been suggested; however, few contemporary data are available regarding risk factors and epidemiologic trends over time. METHODS: A retrospective study of spinal epidural abscesses from 2004 to 2014 at a large academic hospital was conducted. Cases were identified using ICD-9 code 324.1, and a review of medical and radiographic records was performed to confirm each case...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
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