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Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336786/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-optimizes-treatment-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-and-is-associated-with-reduced-mortality
#1
Marvin A H Berrevoets, Ilse J E Kouijzer, Erik H J G Aarntzen, Marcel J R Janssen, Lioe-Fee De Geus-Oei, Heiman F L Wertheim, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Jaap Ten Oever, Wim J G Oyen, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers
Metastatic infection is an important complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Early diagnosis of metastatic infection is crucial, as specific treatment is required. However, metastatic infection can be asymptomatic and difficult to detect. In this study, we investigated the role of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with SAB for detection of metastatic infection and its consequences for treatment and outcome. Methods: All patients with SAB at Radboud university medical center were included between January 2013 and April 2016...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332560/evaluating-genetic-susceptibility-to-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-african-americans-using-admixture-mapping
#2
D D Cyr, A S Allen, G-J Du, F Ruffin, C Adams, J T Thaden, S A Maskarinec, M Souli, S Guo, D M Dykxhoorn, W K Scott, V G Fowler
The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is significantly higher in African American (AA) than in European-descended populations. We used admixture mapping (AM) to test the hypothesis that genomic variations with different frequencies in European and African ancestral genomes influence susceptibility to SAB in AAs. A total of 565 adult AAs (390 cases with SAB; 175 age-matched controls) were genotyped for AM analysis. A case-only admixture score and a mixed χ(2)(1df) score (MIX) to jointly evaluate both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and admixture association (P<5...
March 23, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329242/vaccination-induces-cd4-t-cell-mediated-mortality-during-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#3
Hatice Karauzum, Christian C Haudenschild, Ian N Moore, Mahta Mahmoudieh, Daniel L Barber, Sandip K Datta
Multiple candidate vaccines against Staphylococcus aureus infections have failed in clinical trials. Analysis of a recent prematurely halted vaccine trial revealed increased mortality among vaccine recipients who developed post-surgical S. aureus infection, emphasizing the potential for induction of detrimental immune responses and the need to better understand the requirements for protective immunity against S. aureus. These failures of single antigen vaccines have prompted ongoing development of multi-component vaccines to target the multitude of S...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323886/contribution-of-urinary-tract-infection-to-the-burden-of-febrile-illnesses-in-young-children-in-rural-kenya
#4
Wechuli Geoffrey Masika, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Thomas L Holland, Janice Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of UTI in young children may not localize to the urinary tract and closely resemble other febrile illnesses. In malaria endemic areas, a child presenting with fever is often treated presumptively for malaria without investigation for UTI. Delayed or inadequate treatment of UTI increases the risk of bacteremia and renal scarring in young children and subsequently complications as hypertension and end stage renal disease in adulthood. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322887/staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-data-from-the-prospective-instinct-cohort
#5
Insa Joost, Achim Kaasch, Christine Pausch, Gabriele Peyerl-Hoffmann, Christian Schneider, Reinhard E Voll, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are considered to be at increased risk of severe infections. We here describe the clinical characteristics, course and outcome of RA patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from a German bi-centre prospective SAB cohort study (period 2006-2014). Patients were followed-up for one year. Primary and secondary outcomes were survival time and osteoarticular infection (OAI)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316631/potential-impact-of-rapid-blood-culture-testing-for-gram-positive-bacteremia-in-japan-with-the-verigene-gram-positive-blood-culture-test
#6
Ken Kikuchi, Mari Matsuda, Shigekazu Iguchi, Tomonori Mizutani, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Michiru Tega-Ishii, Kaori Sansaka, Kenta Negishi, Kimie Shimada, Jun Umemura, Shigeyuki Notake, Hideji Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Takahashi, Reiko Yabusaki, Hideki Araoka, Akiko Yoneyama
Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294090/evaluation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-academic-and-community-based-management-within-the-same-health-system
#7
Sumaya Ased, Hamza Rayes, Jaspreet Dhami, Nick Amosson, Akua Fordjour, Jeff Macaraeg, Renuga Vivekanandan, Josh Wilson, Annie Cabri, Michele Davids, Jennifer Anthone, Stephen Cavalieri, Christopher J Destache
A nonrandomized, retrospective comparison of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia between an academic hospital setting (n=53) and a community hospital setting (n=245) within a single healthcare system was performed. Despite infectious disease consultations, S. aureus bacteremia management recommendations based on Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines were not followed as closely in the community hospital setting. The community hospital setting requires management standardization for patients with S...
March 15, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292662/cytomegalovirus-duodenitis-associated-with-life-threatening-duodenal-hemorrhage-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#8
Lucy Shen, David Youssef, Suzan Abu-Abed, Sangita K Malhotra, Kenneth Atkinson, Elena Vikis, George Melich, Shawn MacKenzie
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients. However, there have been emerging cases of severe CMV infections found in immunocompetent patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) CMV disease is the most common manifestation affecting immunocompetent patients, with duodenal involvement being exceedingly rare. Presented is a case of an immunocompetent patient with life-threatening bleeding caused by CMV duodenitis, requiring surgical intervention. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 60-year-old male with history of disseminated Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia and aortic valve infective endocarditis, presented with life-threatening upper GI hemorrhage...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283611/bacteremia-in-children-3-to-36-months-old-after-introduction-of-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccines
#9
Tara L Greenhow, Yun-Yi Hung, Arnd Herz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13. METHODS: We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization...
March 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276799/comparison-of-outcome-and-clinical-characteristics-of-bacteremia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-penicillin-resistant-and-penicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#10
Elina Jokinen, Janne Laine, Reetta Huttunen, Pekka Rahikka, Heini Huhtala, Risto Vuento, Jaana Vuopio, Jaana Syrjänen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the association of methicillin resistance and penicillinase production with clinical characteristics and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. METHODS: For 126 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 378 age- and gender-matched controls with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia were selected. Of controls, 126 had bacteremia caused by penicillin-susceptible strains (PSSA) and 252 by penicillinase-producing strains (PRSA)...
February 28, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265972/the-safety-and-economic-impact-of-cefazolin-versus-nafcillin-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#11
Lauren K Flynt, Rachel M Kenney, Marcus J Zervos, Susan L Davis
INTRODUCTION: Anti-staphylococcal penicillins are generally accepted as first-line therapy for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, but their use may be limited by interstitial nephritis and acute kidney injury. Alternatives include first-generation cephalosporins including cefazolin. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare adverse effects and clinical outcomes among patients with MSSA bacteremia treated with cefazolin or nafcillin...
March 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265207/clinical-risk-factors-for-infective-endocarditis-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#12
Vincent Bryan D Salvador, Bikash Chapagain, Astha Joshi, Debra J Brennessel
Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia...
February 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251359/staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-immunosuppressed-patients-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
G Sasson, A D Bai, A Showler, L Burry, M Steinberg, D R Ricciuto, T Fernandes, A Chiu, S Raybardhan, M Science, E Fernando, A M Morris, C M Bell
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) causes significant morbidity and mortality. We assessed the disease severity and clinical outcomes of SAB in patients with pre-existing immunosuppression, compared with immunocompetent patients. A retrospective cohort investigation studied consecutive patients with SAB hospitalized across six hospitals in Toronto, Canada from 2007 to 2010. Patients were divided into immunosuppressed (IS) and immunocompetent (IC) cohorts; the IS cohort was subdivided into presence of one and two or more immunosuppressive conditions...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242132/abducens-nerve-palsy-due-to-inferior-petrosal-sinus-thrombosis
#14
Shivam Om Mittal, Junaid Siddiqui, Bashar Katirji
Isolated unilateral abducens nerve palsy is usually due to ischemia, trauma or neoplasm. Dorello's canal is the space between the petrous apex and superolateral portion of the clivus, bound superiorly by Gruber's ligament. The abducens nerve travels with inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) though the Dorello's canal before entering the cavernous sinus. A 31-year-old man presented with neck pain, and binocular horizontal diplopia, worse looking towards left and at distance. He had a history of intravenous drug abuse but no history of hypertension or diabetes...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236156/antimalarial-myopathy-in-a-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patient-with-quadriparesis-and-seizures-a-case-based-review
#15
REVIEW
Kashif Jafri, Hengameh Zahed, Katherine D Wysham, Sarah Patterson, Amber L Nolan, Matthew D Bucknor, R Krishna Chaganti
Weakness, seizures, and encephalopathy have a broad differential diagnosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case of a 26-year-old female with a recent diagnosis of SLE who experienced a clinical deterioration with quadriparesis, seizures, and encephalopathy. Her quadriparesis was found to be secondary to biopsy-proven hydroxychloroquine-induced myopathy with concomitant inflammatory myopathy. Her seizures and encephalopathy were suspected to be multifactorial in the setting of sepsis and critical illness with possible contributions from neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE and macrophage activation syndrome...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220309/transseptal-suturing-technique-in-septoplasty-impact-on-bacteremia-and-nosocomial-colonization
#16
Onur Ismi, Cengiz Ozcan, Yusuf Vayısoğlu, Candan Öztürk, Sebahat Aslan Tek, Kemal Görür
Although effects of Merocel(®) nasal packs and silicone splints on nasal flora alterations and bacteremia formation after septoplasty were assessed before, the effect of transseptal suturing technique has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to compare nasal flora alterations and bacteremia occurrence rates between Merocel packs, silicone splints, and transseptal suturing technique in septoplasty. Ninety patients were divided into three groups randomly: Merocel packing (Group M), silicone splint (Group S), and transseptal suturing without packing (Group T)...
February 20, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205673/increased-endovascular-staphylococcus-aureus-inoculum-is-the-link-between-elevated-serum-il-10-concentrations-and-mortality-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#17
Warren E Rose, Sanjay K Shukla, Andrew D Berti, Mary S Hayney, Kelsey M Henriquez, Andrea Ranzoni, Matthew A Cooper, Richard A Proctor, Victor Nizet, George Sakoulas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196877/using-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-to-better-understand-the-influence-of-genetics-and-nutritional-perturbations-on-the-virulence-potential-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Jessica R Chapman, Divya Balasubramanian, Kayan Tam, Manor Askenazi, Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, Victor J Torres, Beatrix Ueberheide
Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is the leading cause of a variety of bacterial infections ranging from superficial skin infections to invasive and life threatening diseases such as septic bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis. The success of Sa as a human pathogen is due to its ability to adapt to the environment by changing expression, production, or secretion of virulence factors. Although Sa immune evasion is well-studied, the regulation of virulence factors under different nutrient and growth conditions is still not well understood...
February 14, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187042/can-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-silently-travel-from-the-gut-to-the-wound-and-cause-postoperative-infection-modeling-the-trojan-horse-hypothesis
#19
Monika A Krezalek, Sanjiv Hyoju, Alexander Zaborin, Emeka Okafor, Laxmi Chandrasekar, Vitas Bindokas, Kristina Guyton, Christopher P Montgomery, Robert S Daum, Olga Zaborina, Susan Boyle-Vavra, John C Alverdy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intestinal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be the source of surgical site infections (SSIs). BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that gut-derived MRSA may cause SSIs via mechanisms in which circulating immune cells scavenge MRSA from the gut, home to surgical wounds, and cause infection (Trojan Horse Hypothesis). METHODS: MRSA gut colonization was achieved by disrupting the microbiota with antibiotics, imposing a period of starvation and introducing MRSA via gavage...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179245/ceftaroline-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#20
Bryan Pinckney White, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
PURPOSE: The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. SUMMARY: Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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