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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#1
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail Eugene Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges towards progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-ᴅ-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813429/the-impact-of-tree-age-on-biomass-growth-and-carbon-accumulation-capacity-a-retrospective-analysis-using-tree-ring-data-of-three-tropical-tree-species-grown-in-natural-forests-of-suriname
#2
Michael Köhl, Prem R Neupane, Neda Lotfiomran
The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812902/charge-effects-on-the-efflorescence-in-single-levitated-droplets
#3
Gunter Hermann, Yan Zhang, Bernhard Wassermann, Henry Fischer, Marcel Quennet, Eckart Ruehl
The influence of electrical excess charges on the crystallization from supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions is reported. This is accomplished by efflorescence studies on single levitated microdroplets using optical and electrodynamic levitation. Specifically, a strong increase in efflorescence humidity is observed as a function of the droplet's negative excess charge, ranging up to -2.1 pC, with a distinct threshold behavior, increasing the relative efflorescence humidity, at which spontaneous nucleation occurs, from 44% for the neutral microparticle to 60%...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812773/side-by-side-observation-of-the-interfacial-improvement-of-vertical-graphene-coated-silicon-nanocone-anodes-for-lithium-ion-batteries-by-patterning-technology
#4
Chao Wang, Fei Luo, Hao Lu, Bonan Liu, Geng Chu, Baogang Quan, Junjie Li, Changzhi Gu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen
We report that vertical graphene coating can greatly improve the electrochemical performance and the interfacial stability of silicon nanocone (SNC) anodes for lithium-ion batteries. The coating patterning technology is innovatively employed for side-by-side demonstration of the exclusive influences of graphene coating on the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the structural stability of the SNC electrode. The silicon nanocone-graphene (SNC-G) electrode achieves a longer cycle life (1715 cycles), higher Coulombic efficiency (average 98...
August 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812551/the-developmental-basis-for-the-recurrent-evolution-of-deuterostomy-and-protostomy
#5
José M Martín-Durán, Yale J Passamaneck, Mark Q Martindale, Andreas Hejnol
The mouth opening of bilaterian animals develops either separate from (deuterostomy) or connected to (protostomy) the embryonic blastopore, the site of endomesoderm internalization. Although this distinction preluded the classification of bilaterian animals in Deuterostomia and Protostomia, and has influenced major scenarios of bilaterian evolution, the developmental basis for the appearance of these different embryonic patterns remains unclear. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we compared the development of two brachiopod species that show deuterostomy (Novocrania anomala) and protostomy (Terebratalia transversa), respectively...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812091/influence-of-surface-tension-in-the-surfactant-driven-fracture-of-closely-packed-particulate-monolayers
#6
Christian Peco, Wei Chen, Yingjie Liu, M M Bandi, John E Dolbow, Eliot Fried
A phase-field model is used to capture the surfactant-driven formation of fracture patterns in particulate monolayers. The model is intended for the regime of closely-packed systems in which the mechanical response of the monolayer can be approximated as that of a linearly elastic solid. The model approximates the loss in tensile strength of the monolayer with increasing surfactant concentration through the evolution of a damage field. Initial-boundary value problems are constructed and spatially discretized with finite element approximations to the displacement and surfactant damage fields...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811880/population-genetic-structure-in-six-sympatric-and-widespread-aquatic-plants-inhabiting-diverse-lake-environments-in-china
#7
Qian-Jin Cao, Fang-Fang Mei, Ling Wang
Many aquatic plant species are distributed over large areas and diverse environments with populations interconnected by abiotic and biotic mediators. Here, we examined differences and similarities in the population genetic structure of six sympatric and widespread aquatic plant species. We sampled the aquatic species from six Chinese lakes found on plateaus, plains, and different river systems and analyzed them using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Samples originating from each lake tended to cluster together...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811591/alteration-of-sheep-coat-color-pattern-by-disruption-of-asip-gene-via-crispr-cas9
#8
Xuemei Zhang, Wenrong Li, Chenxi Liu, Xinrong Peng, Jiapeng Lin, Sangang He, Xuejiao Li, Bing Han, Ning Zhang, Yangsheng Wu, Lei Chen, Liqin Wang, MaYila, Juncheng Huang, Mingjun Liu
Coat color is an important characteristic and economic trait in domestic sheep. Aiming at alteration of Chinese merino sheep coat color by genome manipulation, we disrupted sheep agouti signaling protein gene by CRISPR/Cas9. A total of seven indels were identified in 5 of 6 born lambs. Each targeted lamb happened at least two kinds of modifications, and targeted lambs with multiple modifications displayed variety of coat color patterns. Three lambs with 4 bp deletion showed badgerface with black body coat color in two lambs, and brown coat color with light ventral pigmentation in another one...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811303/adaptive-camouflage-what-can-be-learned-from-the-wetting-behaviour-of-the-tropical-flat-bugs-dysodius-lunatus-and-dysodiusmagnus
#9
Florian Hischen, Vladislav Reiswich, Desirée Kupsch, Ninon De Mecquenem, Michael Riedel, Markus Himmelsbach, Agnes Weth, Ernst Heiss, Oskar Armbruster, Johannes Heitz, Werner Baumgartner
The neotropical flat bug species Dysodius lunatus and Dysodius magnus show a fascinating camouflage principle, as their appearance renders the animal hardly visible on the bark of trees. However, when getting wet due to rain, bark changes its colour and gets darker. In order to keep the camouflage effect, it seems that some Dysodius species benefit from their ability to hold a water film on their cuticle and therefore change their optical properties when also wetted by water. This camouflage behaviour requires the insect to have a hydrophilic surface and passive surface structures which facilitate the liquid spreading...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810135/is-processing-of-symbols-and-words-influenced-by-writing-system-evidence-from-chinese-korean-english-and-greek
#10
Angeliki Altani, George K Georgiou, Ciping Deng, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Katerina Katopodi, Wei Wei, Athanassios Protopapas
We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809827/a-method-for-characterizing-embryogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#11
Jinlin Feng, Ligeng Ma
Given the highly predictable nature of their development, Arabidopsis embryos have been used as a model for studies of morphogenesis in plants. However, early stage plant embryos are small and contain few cells, making them difficult to observe and analyze. A method is described here for characterizing pattern formation in plant embryos under a microscope using the model organism Arabidopsis. Following the clearance of fresh ovules using Hoyer's solution, the cell number in and morphology of embryos could be observed, and their developmental stage could be determined by differential interference contrast microscopy using a 100X oil immersion lens...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809478/ruthenium-ii-and-ruthenium-iii-complexes-of-p-benziporphyrin-merging-equatorial-and-axial-organometallic-coordination
#12
Aneta Idec, Miłosz Pawlicki, Lechosław Latos-Grażyński
A diamagnetic ruthenium(II) complex of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-p-benziporphyrin [Ru(II)(p-BzP)(CO)Cl] was obtained via the insertion of ruthenium into p-benziporphyrin using triruthenium(0) dodecacarbonyl [Ru3(CO)12] as the metal source. The procedure applying dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)ruthenium(II) (polymer, [Ru(COD)Cl2]n) afforded the paramagnetic six-coordinate ruthenium(III) p-benziporphyrin [Ru(III)(p-BzP)Cl2]. As shown by X-ray crystallography, the p-phenylene ring in both complexes is sharply tilted out of the N3 plane, as reflected by the respective N3 (pyrrole)-C6 (p-phenylene) dihedral angle [Ru(II)(p-BzP)(CO)Cl, 52...
August 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808257/stochastic-model-of-contact-inhibition-and-the-proliferation-of-melanoma-in-situ
#13
Mauro César Cafundó Morais, Izabella Stuhl, Alan U Sabino, Willian W Lautenschlager, Alexandre S Queiroga, Tharcisio Citrangulo Tortelli, Roger Chammas, Yuri Suhov, Alexandre F Ramos
Contact inhibition is a central feature orchestrating cell proliferation in culture experiments; its loss is associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. We performed a co-culture experiment with human metastatic melanoma cell line (SKMEL- 147) and immortalized keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). After 8 days a spatial pattern was detected, characterized by the formation of clusters of melanoma cells surrounded by keratinocytes constraining their proliferation. In addition, we observed that the proportion of melanoma cells within the total population has increased...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808217/electromyography-and-fos-immunostaining-study-establish-a-possible-functional-link-between-trigeminal-proprioception-and-the-oculomotor-system-in-rats
#14
Houcheng Liang, Jingdong Zhang, Pifu Luo, Hongna Zhu, Ying Qiao, Anle Su, Ting Zhang
The objective of this study was to explore whether there was a functional link between trigeminal proprioception and the oculomotor system mediated through jaw muscle afferents. Electromyography (EMG) was undertaken of the levator palpebrae (LP) and superior rectus (SR), and Fos expression was detected in the brainstem following consecutive down-stretching of the lower jaw at 2-4 Hz in rats. Retrograde tracing was undertaken of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN) pre-oculomotor neurons...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807901/differing-contributions-of-the-first-and-second-pharyngeal-arches-to-tympanic-membrane-formation-in-the-mouse-and-chick
#15
Toshiko Furutera, Masaki Takechi, Taro Kitazawa, Junko Takei, Takahiko Yamada, Tri Vu Hoang, Filippo M Rijli, Hiroki Kurihara, Shigeru Kuratani, Sachiko Iseki
We have proposed that independent origins of the tympanic membrane (TM), consisting of the external auditory meatus (EAM) and first pharyngeal pouch, are linked with distinctive middle ear structures in terms of dorsal-ventral patterning of the pharyngeal arches during amniote evolution. However, previous studies have suggested that the first pharyngeal arch (PA1) is crucial for TM formation in both the mouse and chick. In this study, we compare TM formation along the anterior-posterior axis in these animals using Hoxa2 expression as a marker of the second pharyngeal arch (PA2)...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#16
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807829/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-alt-a-1-like-protein-mohrip1-binds-to-the-plant-plasma-membrane
#17
Yi Zhang, Yingbo Liang, Yijie Dong, Yuhan Gao, Xiufen Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Dewen Qiu
MoHrip1, a protein isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae, belongs to the Alt A 1 (AA1) family. mohrip1 mRNA levels showed inducible expression throughout the infection process in rice. To determine the location of MoHrip1 in M. oryzae, a mohrip1-gfp mutant was generated. Fluorescence microscopy observations and western blotting analysis showed that MoHrip1 was both present in the secretome and abundant in the fungal cell wall. To obtain MoHrip1 protein, we carried out high-yield expression of MoHrip1 in Pichia pastoris...
August 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807725/the-rnf146-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-is-required-for-the-control-of-wnt-signaling-and-body-pattern-formation-in-xenopus
#18
Xuechen Zhu, Rui Xing, Renbo Tan, Rongyang Dai, Qinghua Tao
The RING finger protein Rnf146 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase capable of targeting poly-ADP-ribosylated substrates for proteasomal degradation. Rnf146 has been identified as a critical regulator of Axin1 and thus of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However its physiological significance in vertebrate embryonic development remains to be demonstrated. In this study, we take advantages of early Xenopus embryos to demonstrate that Rnf146 is essential for embryonic pattern formation. Depletion of zygotic Rnf146 using a translation blocking morpholino oligo (MO) results in anteriorized development and increased expression the anterior marker gene Otx2, consistent the notion that Rnf146 is a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through negatively regulating Axin1 expression...
August 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807504/bone-up-craniomandibular-development-and-hard-tissue-biomineralization-in-neonate-mice
#19
Khari D Thompson, Holly E Weiss-Bilka, Elizabeth B McGough, Matthew J Ravosa
The presence of regional variation in the osteogenic abilities of cranial bones underscores the fact that the mechanobiology of the mammalian skull is more complex than previously recognized. However, the relationship between patterns of cranial bone formation and biomineralization remains incompletely understood. In four strains of mice, micro-computed tomography was used to measure tissue mineral density during perinatal development in three skull regions (calvarium, basicranium, mandible) noted for variation in loading environment, embryological origin, and ossification mode...
January 29, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806748/temperature-effects-on-gene-expression-and-morphological-development-of-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-larvae
#20
Sebastian N Politis, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Sune R Sørensen, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp), growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factors (igf)] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla...
2017: PloS One
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