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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930998/in-vitro-ovule-cultivation-for-live-cell-imaging-of-zygote-polarization-and-embryo-patterning-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Daisuke Kurihara, Yusuke Kimata, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930825/acinar-cell-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-presenting-as-diffuse-pancreatic-enlargement-two-case-reports-and-literature-review
#2
Yaping Luo, Guilan Hu, Yanru Ma, Ning Guo, Fang Li
RATIONALE: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of exocrine pancreas. It is typically a well-marginated large solid mass arising in a certain aspect of the pancreas. Diffuse involvement of ACC in the pancreas is very rare, and may simulate pancreatitis in radiological findings. We report 2 cases of ACC presenting as diffuse enlargement of the pancreas due to tumor involvement without formation of a distinct mass. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patients consisted of a 41-year-old man with weight loss and a 77-year-old man who was asymptomatic...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#3
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#4
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929434/random-electromyostimulation-promotes-osteogenesis-and-the-mechanical-properties-of-rat-bones
#5
Shigeo M Tanaka, Yuma Yorozuya, Daisuke Takatsu
Exercise is often recommended as a promising non-pharmacologic countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis. However, elderly osteoporotic patients generally have physical fitness difficulties preventing them from performing effective and sustainable exercise. Electromyostimulation should be one effective modality for non-pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis without any voluntary physical movements. However, successful stimulation patterns remain controversial. As suggested by our previous in vitro studies, randomized timing of stimulation could be a candidate to maximize the osteogenic effect of electromyostimulation...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929163/acoustic-tweezing-of-particles-using-decaying-opposing-travelling-surface-acoustic-waves-dotsaw
#6
Jia Wei Ng, Citsabehsan Devendran, Adrian Neild
Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase...
September 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929003/fatal-cobalt-toxicity-after-a-non-metal-on-metal-total-hip-arthroplasty
#7
Rinne M Peters, Pax Willemse, Paul C Rijk, Mels Hoogendoorn, Wierd P Zijlstra
This case illustrates the potential for systemic cobalt toxicity in non-metal-on-metal bearings and its potentially devastating consequences. We present a 71-year-old male with grinding sensations in his right hip following ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA). After diagnosing a fractured ceramic liner, the hip prosthesis was revised into a metal-on-polyethylene bearing. At one year postoperatively, X-rays and MARS-MRI showed a fixed reversed hybrid THA, with periarticular densities, flattening of the femoral head component, and a pattern of periarticular metal wear debris and pseudotumor formation...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928827/inhibition-of-c-myc-expression-accounts-for-an-increase-in-the-number-of-multinucleated-cells-in-human-cervical-epithelial-cells
#8
Feng Mei Cui, Xiu Jin Sun, Cheng Cheng Huang, Qiu Chen, Yong Ming He, Shi Meng Zhang, Hua Guan, Man Song, Ping Kun Zhou, Jun Hou
The present study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which c-Myc is involved in mitotic catastrophe. HeLa-630 is a cell line stably silenced for c-Myc expression that was established in the laboratory of the School of Radiation Medicine and Protection. Multinucleated cells were observed in this line, and gene expression analysis was utilized to examine differences in gene expression in these cells compared with in the control cells transfected with the control plasmid. Gene ontology analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927933/azopolymer-photopatterning-for-directional-control-of-angiogenesis
#9
Chiara Fedele, Maria De Gregorio, Paolo A Netti, Silvia Cavalli, Chiara Attanasio
Understanding cellular behavior in response to microenvironmental stimuli is central to tissue engineering. An increasing number of reports emphasize the high sensitivity of cells to the physical characteristics of the surrounding milieu and in particular, topographical cues. In this work, we investigated the influence of dynamic topographic signal presentation on sprout formation and the possibility to obtain a space-time control over sprouting directionality without growth factors, in order to investigate the contribution of just topography in the angiogenic process...
September 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927808/disentangling-the-climate-driven-bimodal-growth-pattern-in-coastal-and-continental-mediterranean-pine-stands
#10
Arturo Pacheco, J Julio Camarero, Montse Ribas, Antonio Gazol, E Gutierrez, Marco Carrer
Mediterranean climate promotes two distinct growth peaks separated by summer quiescence in trees. This bimodal pattern has been associated to favourable growing conditions during spring and autumn when mild temperatures and soil-water availability enhance cambial activity. Climatic models predict progressive warming and drying for the Mediterranean Basin, which could shorten or shift the spring and autumn growing seasons. We explored this idea by comparing two sites with different Mediterranean climate types (continental/dry and coastal/wet) and studied how climate drives the bimodal growth pattern in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927342/expert-opinion-biomimetic-functionalized-surfaces-and-the-induction-of-bone-formation
#11
Ugo Ripamonti
Tissue engineering still needs to assign the molecular basis of pattern formation, tissue induction and morphogenesis: What next to morphogens and stem cells? Macroporous biomimetic matrices per se, without the addition of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, initiate the induction of bone formation. Carving geometries within different calcium phosphate-based macroporous bioreactors we show that geometric cues imprinted within the macroporous spaces initiate the spontaneous induction of bone...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927131/protein-expression-of-fragile-histidine-triad-and-cyclooxgenase-2-in-serrated-neoplasia-of-the-colorectum
#12
Akihiro Tamoto, Kazuo Yashima, Kohei Hosoda, Sohei Yamamoto, Soichiro Kawata, Yuichiro Ikebuchi, Kazuya Matsumoto, Koichiro Kawaguchi, Kenichi Harada, Yoshikazu Murawaki, Hajime Isomoto
The adenoma-carcinoma sequence (ACS) and the serrated pathway are two distinct developmental routes leading to the formation of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the mechanism triggered by the serrated pathway remains unclear. Therefore, to clarify the molecular and clinicopathological characteristics of the serrated tumorigenic pathway, immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), MutL homolog 1 (MLH1), MutS protein homolog 2 (MSH2) and P53 in endoscopically resected samples of 62 serrated polyps...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927130/stereomicroscopic-features-of-colitis-associated-tumors-in-mice-evaluation-of-pit-pattern
#13
Ryosuke Yamauchi, Ken Kominato, Keiichi Mitsuyama, Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Shinichiro Yoshioka, Kotaro Kuwaki, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Shuhei Fukunaga, Atsushi Mori, Jun Akiba, Osamu Tsuruta, Takuji Torimura
Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mouse models for colitis-associated tumors are indispensable for the development of novel strategies for prevention and intervention, as well as an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying tumor formation. The present study examined whether stereomicroscopic observations with dye-application were able to detect and discriminate tumors in a colitis-associated tumor model in mice. Colonic tumors were induced in C57BL/6 mice by 15 cycles of treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926961/effects-of-metal-ions-temperature-and-a-denaturant-on-the-oxidative-folding-pathways-of-bovine-%C3%AE-lactalbumin
#14
Reina Shinozaki, Michio Iwaoka
Bovine α-lactalbumin (αLA) has four disulfide (SS) bonds in the native form (N). On the oxidative folding pathways of this protein, two specific SS folding intermediates, i.e., (61-77, 73-91) and des[6-120], which have two and three native SS bonds, respectively, accumulate predominantly in the presence of Ca(2+). In this study, we reinvestigated the pathways using a water-soluble cyclic selenoxide reagent, trans-3,4-dihydroxyselenolane oxide (DHS(ox)), as a strong and quantitative oxidant to oxidize the fully reduced form (R)...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926609/developmental-expression-of-membrane-type-4-matrix-metalloproteinase-mt4-mmp-mmp17-in-the-mouse-embryo
#15
María José Blanco, Iván Rodríguez-Martín, Ana I R Learte, Cristina Clemente, María Gregoria Montalvo, Motoharu Seiki, Alicia G Arroyo, Cristina Sánchez-Camacho
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large group of endoproteases that play important functions during embryonic development, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Within this family, we focused our study on Mt4-mmp (also called Mmp17) that belongs to a distinct subset that is anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety and with the catalytic site exposed to the extracellular space. Information about its function and substrates is very limited to date, and little has been reported on its role in the developing embryo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925692/occurrence-of-natural-mixed-halogenated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-specific-distribution-and-profiles-in-mussels-from-seto-inland-sea-japan
#16
Akitoshi Goto, Nguyen Minh Tue, Masayuki Someya, Tomohiko Isobe, Shin Takahashi, Shinsuke Tanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue
In addition to unintentional formation of polychlorinated (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed halogenated (PXDD/Fs) dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans during industrial activities, recent studies have shown that several PBDD and PXDD congeners can be produced by marine algal species from the coastal environment. However, multiple exposure status of anthropogenic and naturally-derived dioxins in marine organisms remains unclear. The present study examined the occurrence, geographical distribution and potential sources of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs using mussels and brown algae collected in 2012 from Seto Inland Sea, Japan...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925370/controlled-preparation-of-m-ag-au-tio-sub-2-sub-through-sulfydryl-assisted-method-for-enhanced-photocatalysis
#17
Hongbo Xia, Suli Wu, Jiajie Bi, Shufen Zhang
Here a simple and effective method was explored to fabricate M/TiO<sub>2</sub> (M=Ag, Au) composites, which required neither pre-treatment of TiO<sub>2</sub> nor any additives as reducing agent. Using amorphous TiO<sub>2</sub> spheres functionalized with SH groups as starting materials, the noble metallic ions (Ag, Au) can be adsorbed by TiO<sub>2</sub> due to their special affinity with SH groups, which is beneficial to the uniform dispersion of metallic ions on the surface of TiO<sub>2</sub>...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923977/prepatterning-by-rhogefs-governs-rho-gtpase-spatiotemporal-dynamics-during-wound-repair
#18
Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Jeffrey M Verboon, Susan M Parkhurst
Like tissues, single cells are subjected to continual stresses and damage. As such, cells have a robust wound repair mechanism comprised of dynamic membrane resealing and cortical cytoskeletal remodeling. One group of proteins, the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is critical for this actin and myosin cytoskeletal response in which they form distinct dynamic spatial and temporal patterns/arrays surrounding the wound. A key mechanistic question, then, is how these GTPase arrays are formed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923350/ascorbate-starvation-alters-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-enzymes-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-priming-them-for-increased-procollagen-secretion
#19
Randy T Cowling, Joong Il Park, Ayodeji E Sotimehin, Barry H Greenberg
Since ascorbate is unnecessary for cell growth and survival, cardiac fibroblasts are routinely cultured without it. However, ascorbate is necessary for optimal collagen synthesis, so we hypothesized that its presence would influence cell phenotype. Cardiac fibroblasts cultured without ascorbate had increased intracellular levels of procollagens, with procollagen α1(III) showing the largest accumulation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins that are known to bind single-stranded procollagens were also elevated...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923269/dpp-4-inhibition-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-from-hypoxia-induced-vascular-barrier-impairment
#20
Naoko Hashimoto, Kento Ikuma, Yui Konno, Masanori Hirose, Hiroyuki Tadokoro, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshio Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Takano
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs. Some protective effects of DPP-4 on cardiovascular disease have been described independently from glucose-lowering effect. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DPP-4 inhibitors exert on endothelial cells remain elusive. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor on endothelial barrier function. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and exposed to hypoxia in the presence or absence of Diprotin A, a DPP-4 inhibitor...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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