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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352651/catheter-injected-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-efficacious-occlusion-of-arteriovenous-nidus-in-a-swine-model
#1
Joseph Touma, Jianping Dai, Andre Gaston, Marianne Gervais, Eric Allaire
OBJECTIVES: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex vascular lesions. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but is often not achievable. Embolo-sclerotherapy alone is associated with high recurrence rates. This study tested the hypothesis that seeding hydrogel conditioned bone marrow derived mesenchymatous stem cells (BM-MSCs) in an AVM nidus model induces solid microvascular occlusion through endoluminal tissue growth. METHODS: AVMs were modelled as arteriovenous microvascular nidus, using swine rete mirabile, a plexiform intracranial structure composed of arterial microvessels that extensively anastomose...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352332/effects-of-continuous-or-intermittent-low-magnitude-high-frequency-vibration-on-fracture-healing-in-sheep
#2
Yanhui Li, Guozhao Liu, Jing Yu, Chen Li, Lei Tan, Baohui Hao, Chao Liu, Junhao Lin, Dong Zhu, Xizheng Zhang
PURPOSE: Vibration therapy has been shown to improve fracture healing. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous or different intermittent vibration regimens on fracture healing in sheep models on the basis of radiographs, mechanical, and biochemical testing. METHODS: The 63 right-hind metatarsals from 63 sheep (12-month-old) were osteotomized; followed by surgical fixation with a steel plate. Two weeks after the surgery, the sheep with right-hind metatarsal fractures were randomly divided into seven groups (n=9/group): control (no vibration treated), continuous vibration (CV), one, three, five, seven and 14-day intermittent vibration (named IV-1, -3, -5, -7, and -14, respectively) groups, which represented a cycle of the successive n-day vibration and successive n-day break...
January 19, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351373/a-facile-space-confined-solid-phase-sulfurization-strategy-for-growth-of-high-quality-ultrathin-molybdenum-disulfide-single-crystals
#3
Dawei Li, Zhiyong Xiao, Sai Mu, Fei Wang, Ying Liu, Jingfeng Song, Xi Huang, Lijia Jiang, Jun Xiao, Lei Liu, Stephen Ducharme, Bai Cui, Xia Hong, Lan Jiang, Jean-Francois Silvain, Yongfeng Lu
Single-crystal transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and TMD-based hetero-junctions have recently attracted significant research and industrial interest owing to their intriguing optical and electrical properties. However, the lack of a simple, low-cost, environmentally friendly, synthetic method and a poor understanding of the growth mechanism post a huge challenge to implementing TMDs in practical applications. In this work, we developed a novel approach for direct formation of high-quality, monolayer and few-layer MoS2 single crystal domains via a single-step rapid thermal processing of a sandwiched reactor with sulfur and molybdenum (Mo) film in a confined reaction space...
January 19, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351356/epha2-ephrin-a1-mediate-corneal-epithelial-cell-compartmentalization-via-adam10-regulation-of-egfr-signaling
#4
Nihal Kaplan, Rosa Ventrella, Han Peng, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Constadina Arvanitis, Joshua Z Rappoport, Brian J Mitchell, Mary Ann Stepp, Robert M Lavker, Spiro Getsios
Purpose: Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351080/ultrastructure-of-digenean-trematode-eggs-platyhelminthes-neoophora-a-review-emphasizing-new-comparative-data-on-four-european-microphalloidea
#5
David Bruce Conn, Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel
Despite their tremendous diversity and their medical and veterinary importance, details of egg ultrastructure among the digenean trematodes has been studied rather little. The available literature is spread over several decades and several species, but has not been adequately reviewed to reveal patterns of similarity and divergence. We present this review to synthesize and analyse what is known from the available literature reporting studies using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#6
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350724/effects-of-point-defects-on-the-magnetoelectronic-structures-of-mxenes-from-first-principles
#7
Arkamita Bandyopadhyay, Dibyajyoti Ghosh, Swapan K Pati
"MXene", a new class of two dimensional materials, has attracted considerable research interest due to its unusual chemical bonding pattern as well as promising technological applications. Like other 2D materials, very recently, these classes of materials were also found to be prone to structural defects, thus altering the electronic and transport properties of the host. Using extensive first-principles based simulations, we investigated the structural and magnetoelectronic (i.e., magnetic and electronic) behaviour of the most probable point defects in these MXene systems, such as single vacancies and Schottky type double vacancies...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350423/ephrin-a1-epha4-signaling-negatively-regulates-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Mette Harboe, Julie Torvund-Jensen, Kasper Kjaer-Sorensen, Lisbeth S Laursen
During development of the central nervous system not all axons are myelinated, and axons may have distinct myelination patterns. Furthermore, the number of myelin sheaths formed by each oligodendrocyte is highly variable. However, our current knowledge about the axo-glia communication that regulates the formation of myelin sheaths spatially and temporally is limited. By using axon-mimicking microfibers and a zebrafish model system, we show that axonal ephrin-A1 inhibits myelination. Ephrin-A1 interacts with EphA4 to activate the ephexin1-RhoA-Rock-myosin 2 signaling cascade and causes inhibition of oligodendrocyte process extension...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350283/epigenetic-regulation-of-neuroblastoma-development
#9
REVIEW
Durinck Kaat, Speleman Frank
In recent years, technological advances have enabled a detailed landscaping of the epigenome and the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation that drive normal cell function, development and cancer. Rather than merely a structural entity to support genome compaction, we now look at chromatin as a very dynamic and essential constellation that is actively participating in the tight orchestration of transcriptional regulation as well as DNA replication and repair. The unique feature of chromatin flexibility enabling fast switches towards more or less restricted epigenetic cellular states is, not surprisingly, intimately connected to cancer development and treatment resistance, and the central role of epigenetic alterations in cancer is illustrated by the finding that up to 50% of all mutations across cancer entities affect proteins controlling the chromatin status...
January 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#10
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350066/differential-expression-of-cytokeratin-14-and-18-in-bladder-cancer-tumorigenesis
#11
Yun-Peng Li, Xiao-Peng Jia, Yu-Qing Jiang, Wei Wang, Yun-Liang Wang, Xiu-Li Wang, Yue-Xian Guo
It has been previously suggested that cytokeratins (CKs) are important diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for urothelial lesions. Hence it is imperative to understand the expression pattern of cytokeratins during formation of papillary bladder cancer, which was the objective of the current study. Expression pattern of CK14 and CK18 were examined using immunohistochemical staining in a mice model of papillary bladder cancer. Twenty female mice were divided into two groups-group 1 (NT) and group 2, which received N-butyl- N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) for 20 weeks plus one week without treatment...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349884/report-of-a-human-autopsy-case-in-maxillary-sinuses-augmented-using-a-synthetic-bone-substitute-micro-computed-tomographic-and-histologic-observations
#12
Jung-Seok Lee, Jae-Kook Cha, Daniel S Thoma, Ui-Won Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study of a human autopsy case aimed to characterize the histologic and micro-computed tomographic results of maxillary sinus augmentation using a synthetic bone substitute and simultaneous implant placement at 6 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This report is based on the whole-body donation of a 62-year-old male patient who died due to bladder cancer. Implants had been placed in conjunction with sinus augmentation using a mixture of biphasic calcium phosphate and autogenous bone into both maxillary sinuses 6 years prior to the body donation...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349451/on-the-turn-inducing-properties-of-asparagine-the-structuring-role-of-the-amide-side-chain-from-isolated-model-peptides-to-crystallized-proteins
#13
S Habka, W Y Sohn, V Vaquero-Vara, M Géléoc, B Tardivel, V Brenner, E Gloaguen, M Mons
Asparagine (Asn) is a powerful turn-inducer residue, with a large propensity to occupy the second position in the central region of β-turns of proteins. The present work aims at investigating the role of a local anchoring between the Asn side chain and the main chain in this remarkable property. For this purpose, the H-bonding patterns of an asparagine residue in an isolated protein chain fragment forming a γ- or a β-turn have been determined using IR/UV double resonance gas phase spectroscopy on laser-desorbed, jet-cooled short models in conjunction with relevant quantum chemistry calculations...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348621/dynamic-cellular-maps-of-molecular-species-application-to-drug-target-interactions
#14
Carolina García, Alejandro Losada, Miguel A Sacristán, Juan Fernando Martínez-Leal, Carlos M Galmarini, M Pilar Lillo
The design of living cell studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism of action of drugs targeting proteins with multiple functions, expressed in a wide range of concentrations and cellular locations, is a real challenge. We recently showed that the antitumor drug plitidepsin (APL) localizes sufficiently close to the elongation factor eEF1A2 so as to suggest the formation of drug-protein complexes in living cells. Here we present an extension of our previous micro-spectroscopy study, that combines Generalized Polarization (GP) images, with the phasor approach and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), using a 7-aminocoumarin drug analog (APL*) as fluorescence tracer...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348599/in-situ-formation-of-artificial-moth-eye-structure-by-spontaneous-nano-phase-separation
#15
Tong Li, Junhui He, Yue Zhang, Lin Yao, Tingting Ren, Binbin Jin
Unprecedented in situ formation of artificial moth-eye structure is demonstrated by spontaneous nano-phase separation of a silica-based system on substrate. The moth-eye thin film with a homogenously distributed nipples array shows broadband antireflection functionalities. The mechanism of nano-phase separation is unveiled as spinodal decomposition by chemical freezing method and thermodynamic analysis. The current method may provide a new avenue to ready fabrication of patterned nanostructures toward a variety of applications...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348581/identifying-metabolic-pathways-for-production-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-by-the-diatom-fragilariopsis-cylindrus-inhabiting-sea-ice
#16
Shazia N Aslam, Jan Strauss, David N Thomas, Thomas Mock, Graham J C Underwood
Diatoms are significant primary producers in sea ice, an ephemeral habitat with steep vertical gradients of temperature and salinity characterizing the ice matrix environment. To cope with the variable and challenging conditions, sea ice diatoms produce polysaccharide-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that play important roles in adhesion, cell protection, ligand binding and as organic carbon sources. Significant differences in EPS concentrations and chemical composition corresponding to temperature and salinity gradients were present in sea ice from the Weddell Sea and Eastern Antarctic regions of the Southern Ocean...
January 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348324/plexind1-signaling-controls-morphological-changes-and-migration-termination-in-newborn-neurons
#17
Masato Sawada, Nobuhiko Ohno, Mitsuyasu Kawaguchi, Shih-Hui Huang, Takao Hikita, Youmei Sakurai, Huy Bang Nguyen, Truc Quynh Thai, Yuri Ishido, Yutaka Yoshida, Hidehiko Nakagawa, Akiyoshi Uemura, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Newborn neurons maintain a very simple, bipolar shape, while they migrate from their birthplace toward their destinations in the brain, where they differentiate into mature neurons with complex dendritic morphologies. Here, we report a mechanism by which the termination of neuronal migration is maintained in the postnatal olfactory bulb (OB). During neuronal deceleration in the OB, newborn neurons transiently extend a protrusion from the proximal part of their leading process in the resting phase, which we refer to as a filopodium-like lateral protrusion (FLP)...
January 18, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#18
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347737/influence-of-topographically-patterned-angled-guidelines-on-directed-self-assembly-of-block-copolymers
#19
Nathan Rebello, Vaidyanathan Sethuraman, Gregory Blachut, Christopher J Ellison, C Grant Willson, Venkat Ganesan
Single chain in mean-field Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the self-assembly of block copolymers (BCP) in thin films that use trapezoidal guidelines to direct the orientation and alignment of lamellar patterns. The present study explored the influence of sidewall interactions and geometry of the trapezoidal guidelines on the self-assembly of perpendicularly oriented lamellar morphologies. When both the sidewall and the top surface exhibit preferential interactions to the same block of the BCP, trapezoidal guidelines with intermediate taper angles were found to result in less defective perpendicularly orientated morphologies...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347693/flow-instabilities-due-to-the-interfacial-formation-of-surfactant-fatty-acid-material-in-a-hele-shaw-cell
#20
Zahra Niroobakhsh, Matthew Litman, Andrew Belmonte
We present an experimental study of pattern formation during the penetration of an aqueous surfactant solution into a liquid fatty acid in a Hele-Shaw cell. When a solution of the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride is injected into oleic acid, a wide variety of fingering patterns are observed as a function of surfactant concentration and flow rate, which are strikingly different than the classic Saffman-Taylor (ST) instability. We observe evidence of interfacial material forming between the two liquids, causing these instabilities...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
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