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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#1
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102173/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-osteogenic-activity-promoted-by-selenium-doped-calcium-phosphate-coatings
#2
Cosme Rodriguez-Valencia, Paula Freixeiro, Julia Serra, Carlos Ferreiros, Pio Gonzalez, Miriam Lopez-Alvarez
Selenium is an essential trace element present in 25 selenoenzymes, playing critical roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as anti-oxidative defense and the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper characterizes selenium-doped calcium phosphate coatings and evaluates their effects on the osteogenic activity, the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and biofilm formation. To do so, the structure and elemental composition of the obtained coatings were analyzed, in addition to their thicknesses, and they were compared to pure calcium phosphate coatings...
January 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101849/mechanistic-study-of-the-gas-phase-in-source-hofmann-elimination-of-doubly-quaternized-cinchona-alkaloid-based-phase-transfer-catalysts-by-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Rong-Sheng Yang, Huaming Sheng, Katrina W Lexa, Edward C Sherer, Li-Kang Zhang, Bangping Xiang, Roy Helmy, Bing Mao
An unusual in-source fragmentation pattern observed for 14 doubly quaternized cinchona alkaloid-based phase-transfer catalysts (PTC) was studied using (+)-ESI high resolution mass spectrometry. Loss of the substituted benzyl cation (R1 or R2) was found to be the major product ion [M(2+) - R1(+) or R2(+)](+) in MS spectra of all PTC compounds. A Hofmann elimination product ion [M - H](+) was also observed. Only a small amount of the doubly charged M(2+) ions were observed in the MS spectra, likely due to strong Columbic repulsion between the two quaternary ammonium cations in the gas phase...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101740/improving-parameter-inference-from-frap-data-an-analysis-motivated-by-pattern-formation-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#4
Lin Lin, Hans G Othmer
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to obtain quantitative information about molecular diffusion and binding kinetics at both cell and tissue levels of organization. FRAP models have been proposed to estimate the diffusion coefficients and binding kinetic parameters of species for a variety of biological systems and experimental settings. However, it is not clear what the connection among the diverse parameter estimates from different models of the same system is, whether the assumptions made in the model are appropriate, and what the qualities of the estimates are...
January 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101679/inhibitory-effect-of-saliva-on-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro-requires-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling
#5
Heinz-Dieter Müller, Jordi Caballé-Serrano, Adrian Lussi, Reinhard Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Saliva can suppress osteoclastogenesis, but the underlying mechanism has not been discovered yet. Considering that endotoxins suppress osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures and that saliva contains endotoxins, it was reasonable to hypothesize that the impact of saliva on osteoclastogenesis requires toll-like receptor 4 signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we blocked toll-like receptor 4 signaling with TAK-242 in the presence of saliva in murine bone marrow cultures...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#6
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100407/pressure-ulcer-reconstruction-in-patients-with-heterotopic-ossification-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#7
REVIEW
Kai Yang, Alexander Graf, James Sanger
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is widely recognized as a common occurrence among patients suffering from traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI). The exact etiology of HO formation remains unknown. Published medical and surgical management strategies are often plagued with questionable effectiveness and frequent complications. There are minimal publications regarding the management strategies of HO in SCI patients as it pertains to plastic surgery. We present a case series of patients treated at our institution who underwent treatment for pressure ulcers with underlying HO to highlight the vast spectrum of clinical phenotypes present in this population...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100275/cell-in-cell-structures-are-more-potent-predictors-of-outcome-than-senescence-or-apoptosis-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#8
Hannah Schenker, Maike Büttner-Herold, Rainer Fietkau, Luitpold V Distel
BACKGROUND: This study sheds light on cell inactivating processes with focus on the phenomenon of cell-in-cell (CIC). Cell-in-cell describes a cell process where one cell is being engulfed by another non-professional phagocyte. We determined frequency and prognostic impact of CIC structures (CICs) as well as of senescent and apoptotic cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). METHODS: These different forms of cell inactivation as well as the proportion of proliferating and tumor cells were assessed in 169 pre-radiochemotherapy biopsies and 32 post-therapy tumor resections by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays...
January 18, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100151/renin-inhibition-by-soyasaponin-i-a-potent-native-anti-hypertensive-compound
#9
Zeinab Tavassoli, Majid Taghdir, Bijan Ranjbar
One way to control hypertension is inactivation of the Renin- Angiotensin- Aldosterone System (RAAS). Inhibition of renin as a rate-limiting step of this system is an effective way to stop up RAAS. It has been proved that soyasaponin I, an herbal compound obtained from soybeans, has anti-hypertensive effect via renin inhibition, so it has the potential of being an anti-hypertensive drug. Herein, some theoretical approaches such as Docking Simulation, Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation and MMPBSA analysis have been used to study how soyasaponin I inhibits renin at the structural level...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100029/isolation-with-asymmetric-gene-flow-during-the-nonsynchronous-divergence-of-dry-forest-birds
#10
Jessica A Oswald, Isaac Overcast, William M Mauck, Michael J Andersen, Brian Tilston Smith
Dry forest bird communities in South America are often fragmented by intervening mountains and rainforests, generating high local endemism. The historical assembly of communities often results from dynamic processes linked to numerous population histories among co-distributed species. Nevertheless, species may diversify in the same way through time if landscape and environmental features, or species ecologies, similarly structure populations. Here we tested whether six co-distributed taxon pairs that occur in the dry forests of the Tumbes and Marañón Valley of northwestern South America show concordant patterns and modes of diversification...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099995/technical-note-fast-respiratory-motion-estimation-using-sorted-singles-without-unlist-processing-a-feasibility-study
#11
Jaewon Yang, Mehdi Khalighi, Thomas A Hope, Karen Ordovas, Youngho Seo
PURPOSE: The study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of fast respiratory motion estimation using singles data available as a sorted format in list-mode files acquired in an integrated PET/MRI system for a proof-of-concept. METHODS: The derivation of SDRM is enabled by singles recorded and binned by second for each detector crystal in PET list-mode data acquired in a SIGNA PET/MR. The proposed method is to derive a SDRM trace by summing up all singles from all detectors through the PET data acquisition...
January 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099933/loss-of-maternal-chromosome-11-is-a-signature-event-in-sdhaf2-sdhd-and-vhl-related-paragangliomas-but-less-significant-in-sdhb-related-paragangliomas
#12
Attje S Hoekstra, Erik F Hensen, Ekaterina S Jordanova, Esther Korpershoek, Anouk Na van der Horst-Schrivers, Cees Cornelisse, Eleonora Pm Corssmit, Frederik J Hes, Jeroen C Jansen, Henricus Pm Kunst, Henri Jlm Timmers, Adrian Bateman, Diana Eccles, Judith Vmg Bovée, Peter Devilee, Jean-Pierre Bayley
Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2) or Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes cause hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma. While SDHB (1p36) and VHL (3p25) are associated with autosomal dominant disease, SDHD (11q23) and SDHAF2 (11q13) show a remarkable parent-of-origin effect whereby tumor formation is almost completely dependent on paternal transmission of the mutant allele. Loss of the entire maternal copy of chromosome 11 occurs frequently in SDHD-linked tumors, and has been suggested to be the basis for this typical inheritance pattern...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099922/pafr-selectively-mediates-radioresistance-and-irradiation-induced-autophagy-suppression-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Bing Yao, Bingqian Liu, Lei Shi, Xiang Li, Chuanchuan Ren, Mingbo Cai, Wen Wang, Jianhua Li, Yongde Sun, Yudong Wu, Jianguo Wen
Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) promotes tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we defined the PAFR as a yielding new inhibiting target to selectively enhance the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to radiation. The selective responding to PAFR inhibiter may be caused by the differential expression pattern of PAFR in PCa cells. In this study, we also determined PAFR as a molecular basis by which the radiation induces autophagy suppression independent of activating mTOR pathway...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099800/interfacial-structures-of-trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-bis-mandelato-borate-ionic-liquid-confined-between-gold-electrodes
#14
Yonglei Wang, Mikhail Golets, Bin Li, Sten Sarman, Aatto Laaksonen
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study microscopic interfacial ionic structures, molecular arrangements and orientational preferences of trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-bis(mandelato)borate ($[\textrm{P}_{6,6,6,14}]$[BMB]) ionic liquid confined between neutral and charged gold electrodes. It is found that both $[\textrm{P}_{6,6,6,14}]$ cations and [BMB] anions are coabsorbed onto neutral electrodes at different temperatures. The hexyl and tetradecyl chains in $[\textrm{P}_{6,6,6,14}]$ cations lie preferentially flat on neutral electrodes...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098943/a-survey-of-the-peptide-profile-in-prato-cheese-as-measured-by-maldi-ms-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#15
Débora Parra Baptista, Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Mirna Lúcia Gigante
In this study, we describe the characterization of the peptide profile in commercial Prato cheese by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Ten commercial Prato cheese brands were characterized via their physicochemical composition and subjected to fractionation according to solubility at pH 4.6. The pH 4.6 insoluble fraction was evaluated by CE, whereas MALDI-MS was applied to the fraction soluble at pH 4.6 and in 70% ethanol. CE revealed a characteristic pattern of hydrolysis, with formation of para-κ-casein, hydrolysis of αs1 -casein at the Phe23 - Phe24 bond, and hydrolysis of β-casein...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#16
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098793/osteocyte-alterations-induce-osteoclastogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-gaucher-disease
#17
Constanza Bondar, Maximiliano Ormazabal, Andrea Crivaro, Malena Ferreyra-Compagnucci, María Victoria Delpino, Paula Adriana Rozenfeld, Juan Marcos Mucci
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations in the glucosylceramidase β (GBA 1) gene that confer a deficient level of activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the accumulation of the glycolipid glucocerebroside in the lysosomes of cells, mainly in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Its mildest form is Type I GD, characterized by non-neuronopathic involvement. Bone compromise is the most disabling aspect of the Gaucher disease. However, the pathophysiological aspects of skeletal alterations are not yet fully understood...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098734/multimodal-fundus-imaging-of-outer-retinal-tubulations-in-choroidal-osteoma-patients
#18
Yi Xuan, Yongjin Zhang, Min Wang, Jinli Guo, Lei Li, Wei Liu, Xiaofeng Ye
PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological findings of outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) shown on multimodal imaging modalities in patients with choroidal osteoma. METHODS: Nineteen eyes of 17 patients with choroidal osteoma underwent full clinical and imaging assessments. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and en face OCT were used to identify and detect the characteristics of ORT structures, including the shape, configuration, location, and distribution in the fundus...
January 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098486/identification-and-characterization-of-genes-on-a-single-subgenome-in-the-hexaploid-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-genotype-chinese-spring
#19
Jian Ma, Zhi Zheng, Jiri Stiller, Xiu-Jin Lan, Yaxi Liu, Mei Deng, Penghao Wang, Zhien Pu, Guangdeng Chen, Qian-Tao Jiang, Yuming Wei, You-Liang Zheng
Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat...
November 1, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098259/wafer-scale-thermodynamically-stable-gan-nanorods-via-two-step-self-limiting-epitaxy-for-optoelectronic-applications
#20
Hyun Kum, Han-Kyu Seong, Wantae Lim, Daemyung Chun, Young-Il Kim, Youngsoo Park, Geonwook Yoo
We present a method of epitaxially growing thermodynamically stable gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by invoking a two-step self-limited growth (TSSLG) mechanism. This allows for growth of nanorods with excellent geometrical uniformity with no visible extended defects over a 100 mm sapphire (Al2O3) wafer. An ex-situ study of the growth morphology as a function of growth time for the two self-limiting steps elucidate the growth dynamics, which show that formation of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier and preferential growth in the c-plane direction governs the growth process...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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