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Pattern formation

Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
S Sukhbir, S Yashpal, A Sandeep
Nefopam hydrochloride (NFH) is a non-opioid centrally acting analgesic drug used to treat chronic condition such as neuropathic pain. In current research, sustained release nefopam hydrochloride loaded nanospheres (NFH-NS) were auspiciously synthesized using binary mixture of eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 with sorbitan monooleate as surfactant by quasi solvent diffusion technique and optimized by 3(5) Box-Behnken designs to evaluate the effects of process and formulation variables. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirmed absence of drug-polymer incompatibility and confirmed formation of nanospheres...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Niki E Sagioglou, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Maria M Tsioka, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Zoe Kollia, Christos Consoulas, Lukas H Margaritis, Issidora S Papassideri, George Th Tsangaris, Evangelia Sarantopoulou, Alkiviadis-Constantinos Cefalas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Drosophila chorion represents a model biological system for the in vivo study of gene activity, epithelial development, extracellular-matrix assembly and morphogenetic-patterning control. It is produced during the late stages of oogenesis by epithelial follicle cells and develops into a highly organized multi-layered structure that exhibits regional specialization and radial complexity. Among the six major proteins involved in chorion's formation, the s36 and s38 ones are synthesized first and regulated in a cell type-specific and developmental stage-dependent manner...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Franziska Vielmuth, Vera Rötzer, Eva Hartlieb, Christoph Hirneiß, Jens Waschke, Volker Spindler
Purpose: The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal adhesion molecules. Patients may suffer conjunctival involvement, yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. We characterized human and murine conjunctiva with respect to the PV autoantigens, and evaluated the effects and mechanisms of PV autoantibodies applied to human conjunctiva ex vivo. Methods: We obtained human conjunctiva specimens from surgical explants and established a short-term culture model to study the alterations induced by antibody fractions of PV patients (PV-IgG)...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zhuo Liu, Hongyang Jiang, Jun Yang, Tao Wang, Yufeng Ding, Jihong Liu, Shaogang Wang, Zhangqun Ye
Calcium oxalate stones account for >80% of urinary stones, however the mechanisms underlying their formation remains to be elucidated. Hyperoxaluria serves an important role in the pathophysiological process of stone formation. In the present study, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between experimental hyperoxaluric rats and normal rats were analyzed, in order to identify target genes and signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria. Ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride was fed to male hyperoxaluric rats (EXP) and normal age‑matched male rats (CON)...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
L Guo, Y Ren, L Y Kong, W K Chim, S Y Chiam
Crack formation is typically undesirable as it represents mechanical failure that compromises strength and integrity. Recently, there have also been numerous attempts to control crack formation in materials with the aim to prevent or isolate crack propagation. In this work, we utilize fragmentation, at submicron and nanometre scales, to create ordered metal oxide film coatings. We introduce a simple method to create modified films using electroplating on a prepatterned substrate. The modified films undergo preferential fragmentation at locations defined by the initial structures on the substrate, yielding ordered structures...
October 17, 2016: Nature Communications
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Dipankar Ghosh, Malabika Chakrabarti, Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present study was carried out to understand the adaptive strategies developed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for chronic colonization of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. For this purpose, 13 temporally isolated strains from a single CF patient chronically infected over a 10-year period were systematically characterized for growth rate, biofilm formation, motility, mutation frequencies, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenicity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed over time the presence of two distinct groups, each consisting of two different pulsotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kathleen B McDermott, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Jason M Watson, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e...
September 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Erica Roitero, Federico Lasserre, Marc Anglada, Frank Mücklich, Emilio Jiménez-Piqué
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to generate micrometric linear patterns with different topography on dental grade zirconia by means of UV laser interference and to assess the quality of the produced surface, both in term of the geometry produced and of the surface damage induced in the material. METHODS: The third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (355nm, pulse duration of 10ns and repetition rate of 1Hz) was employed to pattern the surface of 3Y-TZP with micrometric-spaced lines...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jixing Liu, Fuhong Yu, Jian Liu, Lifeng Cui, Zhen Zhao, Yuechang Wei, Qianyao Sun
A series of meso-microporous Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts were successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal crystallization method, and these catalysts exhibited excellent NH3-SCR performance at low temperature. Their structure and physic chemical properties were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 sorption-desorption, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XPS), Temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD), Ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) and Temperature programmed reduction (TPR)...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Honglong Ning, Ruiqiang Tao, Zhiqiang Fang, Wei Cai, Jianqiu Chen, Yicong Zhou, Zhennan Zhu, Zeke Zheng, Rihui Yao, Miao Xu, Lei Wang, Linfeng Lan, Junbiao Peng
The control of channel length is of great significance in the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFTs) with high-speed operation. However, achieving short channel on untreated glass by traditional piezoelectric inkjet printing is problematic due to the impacting and rebounding behaviors of droplet impinging on solid surface. Here a novel method was proposed to obtain short channel length on untreated glass by taking advantage of the difference in the retraction velocities on both sides of an ink droplet...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xiaoru Zhang, Yan Yin, Zhenyi Lin, Yongxiang Han, Jian Hao, Liang Yuan, Kui Chen, Jinghua Chen, Shaofei Kong, Yunpeng Shan, Hui Xiao, Wen Tan
To quantify the physical/chemical properties, and the formation and growth processes of aerosol particles on mountainous regions in Southeast China, an intensive field campaign was conducted from April to July 2008 on the top of Mt. Huang (1840m above mean sea level). The average particle number concentration was 2.35×10(3)cm(-3), and the ultrafine particles (<0.1μm) represented 70.5% of the total particle number concentration. Excluding the accumulation mode particles, the average daytime particle number concentrations were prominently higher than those measured at nighttime, suggesting there was a diurnal pattern of changes between planetary boundary layer and free troposphere air...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yoshihiro Nakashima, Yoshizumi Kajii
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a well-known source of hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. Vehicle exhaust is considered to be one of the primary emission sources of HONO. In this study, measurements of HONO in gasoline vehicle exhaust were carried out using a chassis dynamometer combined with incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. When catalysts were warm, concentrations of HONO were higher than those prior to catalysts warming. Other species, such as CO, and total hydrocarbons (THCs), showed the opposite pattern...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Ru Zheng, Yue Li, Huiying Sun, Xiaoyin Lu, Bao-Fa Sun, Rui Wang, Lina Cui, Cheng Zhu, Hai-Yan Lin, Hongmei Wang
The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) plays a key role in maintaining the function of the placenta during human pregnancy. However, the molecular network that orchestrates STB development remains elusive. The aim of this study was to obtain broad and deep insight into human STB formation via transcriptomics. We adopted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate genes and isoforms involved in forskolin (FSK)-induced fusion of BeWo cells. BeWo cells were treated with 50 μM FSK or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control for 24 and 48 h, and the mRNAs at 0, 24 and 48 h was sequenced...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Elisabete F Dias, M Moura, H Schaefer, Luís Silva
Island plants are frequently used as model systems in evolutionary biology to understand factors that might explain genetic diversity and population differentiation levels. Theory suggests that island plants should have lower levels of genetic diversity than their continental relatives, but this hypothesis has been rejected in several recent studies. In the Azores, the population level genetic diversity is generally low. But, like in most island systems, there are high levels of genetic differentiation between different islands...
October 13, 2016: AoB Plants
Prateek Mahalwar, Ajeet Pratap Singh, Andrey Fadeev, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Uwe Irion
The conspicuous striped coloration of zebrafish is produced by cell-cell interactions among three different types of chromatophores: black melanophores, orange/yellow xanthophores and silvery/blue iridophores. During color pattern formation xanthophores undergo dramatic cell shape transitions and acquire different densities, leading to compact and orange xanthophores at high density in the light stripes, and stellate, faintly pigmented xanthophores at low density in the dark stripes. Here, we investigate the mechanistic basis of these cell behaviors in vivo, and show that local, heterotypic interactions with dense iridophores regulate xanthophore cell shape transition and density...
October 14, 2016: Biology Open
Elisa Wiedemann, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Georg Ende, Antje Augstein, Ronny Sczech, Ben Wielockx, Sönke Weinert, Ruth H Strasser, David M Poitz
Endothelial migration and proliferation are fundamental processes in angiogenesis and wound healing of injured or inflamed vessels. The present study aimed to investigate the regulation of the Eph/ephrin-system during endothelial proliferation and the impact of the ligand ephrin-A1 on proliferation and migration of human umbilical venous (HUVEC) and arterial endothelial cells (HUAEC). Endothelial cells that underwent contact inhibition showed a massive induction of ephrin-A1. In contrast, an injury to a confluent endothelial layer, associated with induction of migration and proliferation, showed reduced ephrin-A1 levels...
October 11, 2016: Cellular Signalling
Jian Liu, Linkai Jing, Ying Zhang, Ying Song, Yang Wang, Chuanhui Li, Yanmin Wang, Shiqing Mu, Nikhil Paliwal, Hui Meng, Italo Linfante, Xinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: Intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) tend to recur despite successful stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE). Hemodynamics is useful in evaluating aneurysmal formation, growth and rupture. Our aim was to evaluate the hemodynamic patterns of VADA's recurrence. METHODS: Between September 2009 and November 2013, all consecutive patients with recurrent VADAs after SACE in our institutions were enrolled. Recurrence was defined as recanalization and/or regrowth...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Tainã Rapp Py-Daniel, Anderson Kennedy Soares De-Lima, Fabiano Campos Lima, Aline Pic-Taylor, Osmindo Rodrigues Pires Junior, Antonio Sebben
The mouse, chicken, African clawed frog and zebrafish are considered "model organisms" due to their extensive embryological and genetic characterization. However they are far from representative of known diversity, impairing phylogenetic analyses of developmental patterns. Since squamates have historically received limited attention in developmental studies, we here describe the developmental sequence for Tropidurus torquatus, and provide the first post-ovipositional developmental series for the lizard family Tropiduridae...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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