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Skeletal muscle-specific troponin

Jie Liu, Ruiqi Fu, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Maiqing Zheng, Huanxian Cui, Qinghe Li, Jiao Song, Jie Wang, Jie Wen
Muscle development and growth influences the efficiency of poultry meat production, and is closely related to deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF), which is crucial in meat quality. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens, protein expression profiles were examined in the breast muscle of Beijing-You chickens at ages 1, 56, 98 and 140 days, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Two hundred and four of 494 proteins were expressed differentially...
2016: PloS One
Edward P Debold, Robert H Fitts, Christopher W Sundberg, Thomas M Nosek
The repeated intense stimulation of skeletal muscle rapidly decreases its force- and motion-generating capacity. This type of fatigue can be temporally correlated with the accumulation of metabolic by-products, including phosphate (Pi) and protons (H). Experiments on skinned single muscle fibers demonstrate that elevated concentrations of these ions can reduce maximal isometric force, unloaded shortening velocity, and peak power, providing strong evidence for a causative role in the fatigue process. This seems to be due, in part, to their direct effect on muscle's molecular motor, myosin, because in assays using isolated proteins, these ions directly inhibit myosin's ability to move actin...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Charles M Stevens, Kaveh Rayani, Christine E Genge, Gurpreet Singh, Bo Liang, Janine M Roller, Cindy Li, Alison Yueh Li, D Peter Tieleman, Filip van Petegem, Glen F Tibbits
Zebrafish, as a model for teleost fish, have two paralogous troponin C (TnC) genes that are expressed in the heart differentially in response to temperature acclimation. Upon Ca(2+) binding, TnC changes conformation and exposes a hydrophobic patch that interacts with troponin I and initiates cardiac muscle contraction. Teleost-specific TnC paralogs have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study we have modeled the structures of the paralogs using molecular dynamics simulations at 18°C and 28°C and calculated the different Ca(2+)-binding properties between the teleost cardiac (cTnC or TnC1a) and slow-skeletal (ssTnC or TnC1b) paralogs through potential-of-mean-force calculations...
July 12, 2016: Biophysical Journal
C R Lamboley, V L Wyckelsma, B D Perry, M J McKenna, G D Lamb
Inactivity negatively impacts on skeletal muscle function mainly through muscle atrophy. However, recent evidence suggests that the quality of individual muscle fibers is also altered. This study examined the effects of 23 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on specific force and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content in individual skinned muscle fibers. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken from six young healthy adults prior to and following ULLS. After disuse, the endogenous SR Ca(2+) content was ∼8% lower in type I fibers and maximal SR Ca(2+) capacity was lower in both type I and type II fibers (-11 and -5%, respectively)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Takashi Kondo, Daisuke Kobayashi, Maki Mochizuki, Kouichi Asanuma, Satoshi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Recently developed reagents for the highly sensitive measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) are useful for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. However, differences in measured values between these new reagents and previously used reagents have not been well studied. In this study, we aimed to compare values between ARCHITECT High Sensitive Troponin I ST (newly developed reagents), ARCHITECT Troponin I ST, and STACIA CLEIA cTnI (two previously developed reagent kits)...
May 10, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Sarah Morar Schneider, Amanda Erickson Coleman, Lee-Jae Guo, Sandra Tou, Bruce W Keene, Joe N Kornegay
Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a model for the genetically homologous human disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike the mildly affected mdx mouse, GRMD recapitulates the severe DMD phenotype. In addition to skeletal muscle involvement, DMD boys develop cardiomyopathy. While the cardiomyopathy of DMD is typically slowly progressive, rare early episodes of acute cardiac decompensation, compatible with myocardial infarction, have been described. We report here a 7-month-old GRMD dog with an apparent analogous episode of myocardial infarction...
June 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Lara Pes, Young Kim, Ching-Hsuan Tung
Cardiomyocytes are the major component of the heart. Their dysfunction or damage could lead to serious cardiovascular diseases, which have claimed numerous lives around the world. A molecule able to recognize cardiomyocytes would have significant value in diagnosis and treatment. Recently a novel peptide termed myocyte targeting peptide (MTP), with three residues of a non-natural amino acid biphenylalanine (Bip), showed good affinity to cardiomyocytes. Its selectivity towards cardiac tissues was concluded to be due to the ability of Bip to bind cardiac troponin I...
April 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Gregory W King, Eduardo L Abreu, An-Lin Cheng, Keyna K Chertoff, Leticia Brotto, Patricia J Kelly, Marco Brotto
Falling is a significant health issue among elderly adults. Given the multifactorial nature of falls, effective balance and fall risk assessment must take into account factors from multiple sources. Here we investigate the relationship between fall risk and a diverse set of biochemical and biomechanical variables including: skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), maximal strength measures derived from isometric grip and leg extension tasks, and postural sway captured from a force platform during a quiet stance task...
March 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Tan Zhang, Andrea S Pereyra, Zhong-Min Wang, Alexander Birbrair, Julie A Reisz, Daniel Clark Files, Lina Purcell, Xin Feng, Maria L Messi, Hanzhong Feng, Joseph Chalovich, Jian-Ping Jin, Cristina Furdui, Osvaldo Delbono
Loss of strength in human and animal models of aging can be partially attributed to a well-recognized decrease in muscle mass; however, starting at middle-age, the normalized force (force/muscle cross-sectional area) in the knee extensors and single muscle fibers declines in a curvilinear manner. Strength is lost faster than muscle mass and is a more consistent risk factor for disability and death. Reduced expression of the voltage sensor Ca(2+) channel α1 subunit (Cav1.1) with aging leads to excitation-contraction uncoupling, which accounts for a significant fraction of the decrease in skeletal muscle function...
June 2016: Aging Cell
Peter M Burch, Oksana Pogoryelova, Richard Goldstein, Donald Bennett, Michela Guglieri, Volker Straub, Kate Bushby, Hanns Lochmüller, Carl Morris
BACKGROUND: Identifying translatable, non-invasive biomarkers of muscular dystrophy that better reflect the disease pathology than those currently available would aid the development of new therapies, the monitoring of disease progression and the response to therapy. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate a panel of serum protein biomarkers with the potential to specifically detect skeletal muscle injury. METHOD: Serum concentrations of skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) and muscle-type creatine kinase (CKM) proteins were measured in 74 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 38 Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 49 Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) patients and 32 healthy controls...
September 2, 2015: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Laurin M Hanft, Timothy D Cornell, Colin A McDonald, Michael J Rovetto, Craig A Emter, Kerry S McDonald
Increased cardiac myocyte contractility by the β-adrenergic system is an important mechanism to elevate cardiac output to meet hemodynamic demands and this process is depressed in failing hearts. While increased contractility involves augmented myoplasmic calcium transients, the myofilaments also adapt to boost the transduction of the calcium signal. Accordingly, ventricular contractility was found to be tightly correlated with PKA-mediated phosphorylation of two myofibrillar proteins, cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), implicating these two proteins as important transducers of hemodynamics to the cardiac sarcomere...
July 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jian-Ping Jin
Troponin T (TnT) is the tropomyosin-binding and thin filament-anchoring subunit of the troponin complex in skeletal and cardiac muscles. At the center of the sarcomeric thin filament regulatory system of striated muscles, TnT plays an essential role in transducing Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of contraction. Having emerged predating the history of vertebrates, TnT has gone through more than 500 million years of evolution that resulted in three muscle-type-specific isoforms and numerous alternative RNA splicing variants...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Bin Wei, J-P Jin
Troponin T (TnT) is a central player in the calcium regulation of actin thin filament function and is essential for the contraction of striated muscles. Three homologous genes have evolved in vertebrates to encode three muscle type-specific TnT isoforms: TNNT1 for slow skeletal muscle TnT, TNNT2 for cardiac muscle TnT, and TNNT3 for fast skeletal muscle TnT. Alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications confer additional structural and functional variations of TnT during development and muscle adaptation to various physiological and pathological conditions...
May 10, 2016: Gene
Chunyan Zhao, Henrik Andersen, Barbaros Ozyilmaz, Sundara Ramaprabhu, Giorgia Pastorin, Han Kiat Ho
This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC)...
November 21, 2015: Nanoscale
Edward P Debold
Intense contractile activity causes a dramatic decline in the force and velocity generating capacity of skeletal muscle within a few minutes, a phenomenon that characterizes fatigue. Much of the research effort has focused on how elevated levels of the metabolites of ATP hydrolysis might inhibit the function of the contractile proteins. However, there is now growing evidence that elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), which also accumulate in the myoplasm during fatigue, also play a causative role in this type of fatigue...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Elena Esra Foditsch, Alexandra Maria Saenger, Fabio Carlo Monticelli
PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle tissue is proposed as a forensic model tissue with strong potential, as it is easily accessible and its true-to-life state structure and function is well known. Despite this strong potential, skeletal muscle degradation studies are rare. The aim of this study was to test if a skeletal muscle-based protein analysis is applicable to delimitate the time since death. METHODS: Under standard conditions, two pigs were stored either at 22 °C for 5 days or 4 °C for 21 days...
March 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Chinthaka Amarasinghe, J-P Jin
The troponin complex plays a central role in the contraction and relaxation of striated muscle by enacting Ca²⁺-regulated allosteric changes in the sarcomeric thin filaments. The troponin T subunit (TnT) contains two binding sites for tropomyosin (Tm) and is responsible for anchoring the troponin complex to the thin filament. While the amino acid sequences of the regions containing the Tm-binding sites are highly conserved among the three muscle type isoforms of TnT, previous studies have observed significant discrepancies in the affinity of Tm-binding site 1 in the chymotryptic fragment T1 of different TnT isoforms...
June 23, 2015: Biochemistry
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function, dramatically affects the life quality of elder people. In view of increasing life expectancy, sarcopenia renders a heavy burden on the health care system. However, although there is a consensus that sarcopenia is a multifactorial syndrome, its etiology, underlying mechanisms, and even definition remain poorly delineated, thus, preventing development of a precise treatment strategy. The main aim of our review is to critically analyze potential sarcopenia biomarkers in light of the molecular mechanisms of their involvement in sarcopenia pathogenesis...
July 2015: Ageing Research Reviews
Daniel Franco, Ariadna Mato, Francisco J Salgado, María López-Pedrouso, Mónica Carrera, Susana Bravo, María Parrado, José M Gallardo, Carlos Zapata
UNLABELLED: Pre-slaughter stress has adverse effects on meat quality that can lead to the occurrence of Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat in cattle. This study explores the previously uncharacterized proteome changes linked to pre-slaughter stress in the longissimus thoracis (LT) bovine muscle. Differential proteome profiles of DFD and normal (non-DFD) LT meat samples from male calves of the Rubia Gallega breed were assessed by 2-DE coupled to MS analysis (LC-MS/MS and MALDI TOF/TOF MS). A total of seven structural-contractile proteins (three different myosin light chain isoforms, two fast skeletal myosin light chain 2 isoforms, troponin C type 2 and cofilin-2) and three metabolism enzymes (triosephosphate isomerase, ATP synthase and beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) were found to have statistically significant differential abundance in sample groups...
June 3, 2015: Journal of Proteomics
C R Lamboley, V L Wyckelsma, T L Dutka, M J McKenna, R M Murphy, G D Lamb
KEY POINTS: Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) adults. The maximum level of force production (per unit cross-sectional area) in fast twitch fibres in Old subjects was lower than in Young subjects, and the fibres were also less sensitive to activation by calcium...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
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